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Specializing ^^^the Professions. 






FOR 1866^ 

"HEALTH ISA D U T Y'\— Anon^ 



"I labor for the good time coming, whenjsickness and disease, except 
congenital, or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or 
animalism, and will degrade the individual in the estimation of the good, 
as much as drunkenness now does."— Ibid. 

W. W. HALL, M. D. 






VOL. XIII, 1866. 


Animal Food 159 

Accidents 244 

Alexander, James W 263 

Air, Pure 273 

Airing Chambers 276 

Burns 88 

Breathing, 133 

Biliousness 139 

Bronchitis 169 

Beautiful Sayings 186 

Bed, Going to 196 

Boils 212 

Butter, Rancid 239, 235 

Boarding House Life 

Burning Feet 288 

Cholera, Cause of. 1 

" Symptoms 2 

Cure 5 

" Prevented ..123 

" Laws 129 

" Fear of. 130 

" Certainties 204, 209 

" Treatment 225 

Cellars 123 

Chimneys ,63, 135 

Chambers 80, 276 

Coughing 113 

Cleanliness., 19, 136 

Cheerfulness 146 

Consumption 182 

Comfort , 191 

Cigars Fatal 213 

Clergymen warned 236, 274 

California 251 

Courting 272 

Chilled, Getting 274 

Cold Feet 287 

Cleaning Shoes 288 

Disease and Sight 142 

" Its causes 184 

Disinfectants 195 

Diarrhoea 3^96 

Dysentery 229 

Emergencies 131 

Eight Hours a Day 161 


Epilepsy 173 

Eating by Rule 192 

Eye Sight 194 

Early Rising 237 

Farmers' Houses 53 

" Where to Build 53 

Their Plan 53 

Foul Odor 117 

Filth 136 

Fruits, Preserved 164 

Food, Items 185 

Fever and Ague 200 

Fire Places Open 219 

Family Relation 247 

Fireside 255 

Feet in Travelling 287 

Care of. 288 

Games of Skill 187 

Gunpowder marks 207 

Grunting 277 

Great mistake 277 

House Walls 77 

Horses 93 

Hydrophobia, • 235, 108 

Hygiene Moral... 145 

Hair Specifics 179 

Hair Wash 243 

Ice Houses 85 

Imaginations 210 

Ice Preservers 241 

Immortalities Dawn 274 

Inflammation of Lungs 273 

In-door-Dangers 275 

Jesting 147 

Jacob's Dream 253 

Kitchen 80 

Lard Purified 235, 239 

Lung Fever 273 

Miasm 239, 55 

Measures 137 

Medicinal Terms 138 

Moral Hygene 145 

Mental Developement 176 

Mouth, Cleaned 207 

Madstone - 235 




Mosquitoes 235 

Morality 256 

Marriage 272 

New York Health Ill 

'Night and Disease 142 

Newspaper Receipts 160 

Potatoes 109 

Preaching Easily ...118 

Pork Disease 140 

Politeness 146 

Pianos ...221 

Pulse 240 

Paine, Thomas 259 

Pickles : 271 

Pneumonia 273 

Quarantine 127 

Repentance 209 

Restless, The 254 

Room, Temperature 276 

Shade Trees 88 

Stables 89 

Surprise Parties 103 

Shams 106 

Servants Wanted 115 

•^ PAGE. 

Surgery Extempore 132 

Symptoms 134 

Suicide 180 

Sabbath Days 188 

Stupidities 190 

Summer Health 208 

Sun Stroke 211 

Shut the Mouth 276 

Shoes, Waterproof. 284 

Shoes, Varnish 286 

Shoes, Cleaned. 288 

Thichiniasis 140 

Tomatoes 240 

Teeth... . 264 

Utilities 158 

Water-closets 75 

Water Conveniences 73 

" Purified ..243 

Wells 79 

Water Pipes 91 

Weights 243, 137 

Winter Diseases 273 

Women Overworked 275 

Water-proof Shoes 286 


Vol. 13. JANUARY, 1866. , No. I. 


Cholera is the exaggeration of intestinal vermicular motion 

This definition, explained in language less professional, would 
do more good than all the popular recipes for the cure of Cho- 
lera ever published, because it expresses the inherent nature of 
Cholera and suggests the principles of cure, in its early stage, 
to the most unreflecting mind. 

The public is none the better, or wiser, or safer, for one of 
all the ten thousand " cures " for Cholera proclaimed in the 
public prints, with a confidence which itself is a sufficient guar- 
antee that however well-informed the authors may be in other 
matters, as regards Cholera itself they are criminally ignorant ; 
for no man has a right to address the public on any subject 
connected with its general health unless he understands that 
subject in its broadest sense, practically as well as theoretically. 

As Cholera has become a general and perhaps, at least for 
the present* a permanent disease of the country, and at this 
time is more or less prevalent in every State of the Union — 
and one, too, which may at any hour sweep any one of us into 
the grave — it belongs to our safety to understand its nature for 
ourselves, and do what we may to spread the knowledge among 
those around us. 

A " live " cheese or a cup of fishing worms may give an 
idea of the motion of the intestines in ordinary health. The 
human gut is a hollow, flexible tube, between thirty and forty 
feet long ; but, in order to be contained within the body, it is, 
to save space, arranged as a sailor would a coil of rope, forever 
moving in health — moving too much in some diseases — too 
little in others. To regulate this motion is the first object of 
the physician in every disease. In head-aches, bilious affec* 
tions, costiveness and the like, this great coiled-up intestine; 

I * 1854. 

2 HalVs Journal of Health. 

usually called "the bowels," is "torpid," and medicines are 
given to wake it up, and what does that cures the man. Cos- 
tiveness is the foundation — that is, one of the first beginnings — 
or it is the attendant of every disease known to man, in some 
stage or other of its progress. But the human body is made 
in such a manner, that a single step cannot be taken without 
tending to move the intestines ; thus it is, in the main, that 
those who move about on their feet a great deal have the least 
sickness, — and, on the other hand, those who sit a great deal, 
and hence move about but little, never have sound health; it 
is an impossibility — it is a rule to which I have never known 
an exception. 

Cholera being a disease in which the bowels move too much, 
the object should be to lessen that motion ; and, as every step 
a man takes, increases intestinal motion, the very first thing to 
be done in a case of cholera is to secure quietude. It requires 
but a small amount of intelligence to put these ideas together, 
and if they could only be burnt in on every heart, this fearful 
scourge would be robbed of myriads of its victims. 

There can be no cure of Cholera without quietude— the 
quietude of lying on the back. 

The physician who understands his calling is always on the 
look-out for the instincts of nature ; and he who follows them 
most, and interferes with them least, is the one who is oftenest 
successful. They are worth more to him than all the rigma- 
role stories which real or imaginary invalids pour in upon the 
physician's ear with such facile volubility. If, for example, a 
physician is called to a speechless patient — a stranger, about 
whom no one can give any information — he knows, if the 
breathing is long, heavy and measured, that the* brain is in 
danger ; if he breathes quick from the upper part of the chest, 
the abdomen needs attention ; or if the abdomen itself mainly 
moves in respiration, the lungs are suffering. In violent cases 
of inflammation of the bowels, the patient shrinks involuntarily 
from any approach to that part of his person. These are the 
instincts of nature, and are invaluable guides in the treatment 
of disease. 

Apply this principle to cholera, or even common diarrhoea, 
when the bowels do not act more than three or four times a 
day ; the patient feels such an unwillingness to motion that he 

What is Cholera? 3 

even rises from his seat with the most unconquerable reluct- 
ance; and when he has, from any cause, been moving about 
considerably, the first moment of taking a comfortable seat is 
perfectly delicious, and he feels as if he could almost stay there 
always. The whole animal creation is subject to disease, and 
the fewest number, comparatively speaking, die of sickness ; 
instinct is their only physician. 

Perfect quietude, then, on the back, is the first, the impera- 
tive, the essential step towards the cure of any case of cholera. 
To this art may lend her aid towards making that quietude 
more perfect, by binding a cloth around the belly pretty firmly. 
This acts beneficially in diminishing the room within the abdo- 
men for motion ; a man may be so pressed in a crowd, as not 
to be able to stir. This bandage should be about a foot broad, 
and long enough to be doubled over the belly ; pieces of tape 
should be sewn to one end of the flannel, and a corresponding 
number to another part, being safer and more effective fasten- 
ings than pins. If this cloth is of stout woollen flannel, it has 
two additional advantages — its roughness irritates the skin and 
draws the blood to the surface from the interior, and by its 
warmth retains that blood there ; thus preventing that cold, 
clammy condition of the skin which takes place in the last 
stages of cholera. Facts confirm this. When the Asiatic 
scourge first broke out among the German soldiery, immense 
numbers perished ; but an imperative order was issued, in the 
hottest weather, that each soldier wear a stout woollen flannel 
abdominal compress, and immediately the fatality diminished 
more than fifty per cent. If the reader will try it, even in cases 
of common looseness of bowels, he will generally find the most 
grateful and instantaneous relief. 

The second indication of instinct is to quench the thirst. 
When the disease now called Cholera first made its appear- 
ance in the United States, in 1832, it was generally believed 
that the drinking of cold water, soon after calomel was taken, 
would certainly cause salivation ; and, as calomel was usually 
given, cold water was strictly interdicted. Some of the most 
heart-rending appeals I have ever noticed were for water, wa- 
ter ! I have seen the patient with deathly eagerness mouthe 
the finger-ends of the nurse, for the sake of the drop or two of 
cold water there while washing the face. There are two ways 

4 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of quenching this thirst, cold water and ice. Cold water often 
causes a sense of fulness or oppression, and not always satisfy- 
ing ; at other times the stomach is so very irritable, that it is 
ejected in a moment. Ice does not give that unpleasant ful- 
ness, nor does it increase the thirst, as cold water sometimes 
does, while the quantity required is very much reduced. 


About a year ago, I was violently attacked with cholera 
symptoms in a rail-car. The prominent symptoms were a con- 
tinuous looseness of the most exhausting character, a deathly 
faintness and sickness, a drenching perspiration, an overpower- 
ing debility, a feeling as if the whole intestines were wrung 
together with strong hands, as washerwomen wring out cloth- 
ing. Not being willing to take medicine, at least for a while, 
and no ice being presently obtainable, at the first stopping- 
place I ate ice-cream, or rather endeavored to swallow it before 
it could melt. I ate large quantities of it continually, until 
the thirst was entirely abated. The bowels acted but once or 
twice after I began to use it, I fell asleep, and next morning was 
at my office, as usual, although I was feeble for some clays. 
This may not have been an actnal case of Asiatic Cholera, 
although it was prevalent in the city at that time ; but it was 
sufficiently near it to require some attention, and this is, the 
main object of this article, to wit: attention to the first symp- 
toms of Cholera when it prevails. 

According to my experience, there is only one objection to 
the ice-cream treatment, and that is, you must swallow it with- 
out tasting how good it is ; it must be conveyed into the stomach 
as near an icy state as possible. 

The second step, then, in the treatment of an attack of Cho- 
lera, is to quench the thirst by keeping a plate of ice beside 
you, broken up in small pieces, so that they may be swallowed 
whole, as far as practicable ; keep on chewing and swallowing 
the ice until the thirst is most perfectly satisfied. 


The first step, then, to be taken where Cholera prevails and 
..ts symptoms are present, is : 
To lie down on a bed. 

What is Cholera f 5 

2d. Bind the abdomen tightly with woollen flannel. 

3d. Swallow pellets of ice to the fullest extent practicable. 

4th. Send for an established, resident, regular physician. 
Touch not an atom of the thousand things proposed by brains 
as " simple " as the remedies are represented to be, but wait 
quietly and patiently until the arrival of your medical at- 

But many of my readers may be in a condition, by distance 
or otherwise, where it is not possible to obtain a physician 
for several hours, and where such a delay might prove fatal. 
Under such circumstances, obtain ten grains of calomel and 
make it into a pill with a few drops of gum water ; dry it a 
little by the fire or in the sun and swallow it down. If the pas- 
sages do not cease within two hours, then swallow two more of 
such pills, and continue to swallow two more at the end of 
each two hours until the bowels cease to give their light-colored 
passages, or until the physician arrives. 


In many bad cases of Cholera, the stomach will retain noth- 
ing fluid or solid, cold water itself being instantly returned. A 
calomel pill is almost as heavy as a bullet ; it sinks instantly 
to the bottom of the stomach, and no power of vomiting can 
return it. It would answer just as well to swallow it in pow- 
der ; but the same medium which would hold it in suspension 
while going down, would do the same while coming up. 


Of a calomel pill in Cholera, is to stop the passages from the 
bowels. This is usually done within two hours ; but if not, 
give two next time, on the principle if a certain force does not 
knock a man down the first time, the same force will not do 
it the second. Hence, to make the thing sure, and to lose no 
time — for time is not money here, but life — give a double por- 
tion. Not one time in twenty will it be necessary to give the 
second dose — not one time in a thousand the third. But as 
soon as your physician comes, tell him precisely what you 
have done, what its apparent effects, and then submit yourself 
implicitly to his direction. 

When the calomel treatment is effectual, it arrests the pas- 

6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sages within two hours ; and in any time from four to twelve 
hours after being taken, it affects the bowels actively, and 
the passages are changed from a watery thinness to a mushy 
thickness or consistency, and instead of being the color of rice- 
water, or of a milk and water mixture, they are brown or yel- 
low, or green or dark, or black as ink, according to the violence 
of the attack. Never take anything to " work off" calomel, if 
there is any passage within ten hours after it is taken ; but if 
there is no passage from the bowels within ten, or at most 
twelve hours after taking calomel, then take an injection of 
common water, cool or tepid. Eating ice or drinking cold 
water after a dose of calomel, facilitates its operation, and 
never can have any effect whatever towards causing salivation ; 
that is caused by there being no action from the bowels, as a 
consequence of the calomel, sooner than ten or twelve hours 
after it has been swallowed. 


I have been between two and three years in the midst of 
prevalent Cholera, continuously, winter and summer, the deaths 
being from two to two hundred a day. In all that time I had 
no attack, never missed a meal for the want of appetite to eat, 
ate in moderation whatever I liked and could get, and lived in 
a plain, regular, quiet way. During this time I had repeated 
occasions to travel one or two thousand miles, or more, in 
steamboats on the Mississippi, with the thermometer among 
the eighties in the shade and over a hundred on the deck, with 
from one to three hundred passengers on board, many of whom 
were German emigrants, huddled up around the boilers of a 
Western steamer — boatmen, Dutchmen and negroes, men, wo- 
men and children, pigs and puppies, hogs and horses, living in 
illustrated equality. These persons came aboard from a 
hot and dusty levee, crammed with decayed apples, rotting 
oranges, bad oysters, and worse whisky ; and almost invariably 
the report of the first morning out would be Cholera among the 
deck passengers, and the next thing, Is there a physician on 
board ? Sometimes I was the only one ; at others there were 
several, and we would divide. Practice of this kind is always 
gratuitous, and is attended with much personal labor, discom- 
fort and exposure. On the last occasion of this kind I treated 

What is Cholera? 7 

eighteen cases, all of whom were getting well, apparently, 
when landed along the river at their various homes, my destin- 
ation being usually as far as the boat would go. There were 
only two deaths — one during the first night, before it was 
known that the cholera was aboard, the other occurred just as 
the boat was landing at the young man's home ; how anxious 
he was to reach that home alive, no pen can ever portray. I 
did nothing for him. Before I knew he was sick, he was in the 
hands of a stranger who came aboard, and who had a remedy 
which was never known to fail. During the voyage, my 
patients slept around the steamboilers in midsummer, or on 
the outer guards, exposed to the rain which several times beat 
in upon them and their bedding ; being every night just at the 
water's edge, and no protection against its dampness, noi 
against the sun in the heat of the day. And yet with these 
unfavorable attendants, not one of the eighteen died on board 
the " Belle Key," in her six days' journey. In all these cases 
the treatment was uniform : quiet, ice, and calomel pills, 
which last I was accustomed to carry with me. Some of them 
had been made five years, but lost none of their efficacy. 
Whether it was the ice, or the quiet, or the pills, or faithful 
nature which kept these persons from dying, I do not pretend 
to say ; I merely state the doings and the result. 

My own views as to the cure of Cholera, as far as I have 
see?i, are, that when calomel fails to cure it, every thing else 
will fail, and that it will cure every curable case. 


The cure of this scourge depends upon the earliness with 
which the means are used. It can be said with less limitation 
than of all other diseases together, that Cholera more certainly 
kills, if let alone, and is certainly cured, if early attended to. 
What, then, is the earliest and almost universal symptom of 
approaching Cholera ? I have never seen it named in print 
as such. During the two years above referred to, I could tell 
in my own office, without reading a paper, or seeing or speak- 
ing to a single person, the comparative prevalence of tiie dis- 
ease from day to day, by the sensation which I will name, and 
I hope to the benefit of thousands, and perhaps not a single 
reader will fail to respond to the statement from his own ex- 

8 HalVs Journal of Health. 

perience. The bowels may be acting but once, or less than 
once, in twenty-four hours, the appetite may be good, and the 
sleep may be sound ; but there is an unpleasant sensation in 
the belly — I do not, for the sake of delicacy, say " stomach? 
for it is a perversion of terms — it is not in the stomach, nor do 
I call it the abdomen. Many persons don't know what abdo- 
men means. Thousands have such good health that they have 
no "realizing sense" of being the owners of such " apparati," 
or " usses" as the reader may fancy, and it is a great pleasure to 
me to write in such a manner that I know my reader will 
understand me perfectly, without having the head-ache. Who 
wants to hunt up dictionary words when the thermometer is a 
hundred at the coolest spot in his office ? It is bad enough to 
have to write what you know, at such a Fahrenheitical eleva- 
tion as I. do now, but it is not endurable to be compelled to 
find the meaning of another by hunting over old lexicons, and, 
after all, running the risk of discovering that the word or 
phrase was, in its application, as innocent of sense as the nog- 
gin was of brains which used the expression. 

.Speaking then of that sensation of uneasiness, without acute 
pain, in the region named, it comes on more decidedly after an 
evacuation of the bowels. In health, this act is followed by 
a sense of relief or comfortableness, but when the cholera 
influence is in the atmosphere, even a regular passage is fol- 
lowed by something of this sort, but more and more decided 
after each action over one in twenty-four hours. The feeling 
is not all ; there is a sense of tiredness or weariness which 
inclines you to take a seat ; to sit down and maybe, to bend over 
a little, or to curl up, if on a bed. This sensation is coming 
cholera, and" if heeded when first noticed, would save annually 
thousands. The patient should remain on the bed until he felt 
as if he wanted to get up, and as if it would be pleasurable 
,-to walk about. While observing this quiet and while swallow- 
ing lumps of ice, nothing should be eaten until there is a 
decided appetite, and whatis eaten should be farina, or arrow- 
root, or tapioca, or corn-starch, or what is better than all, a 
mush made of rice-Hour, or if preferred, common rice parched 
as. coffee, and then boiled, as rice is usually for the table, about 
twelve minutes, then strain the liquid from the rice ; return 
the rice to the stew pan and let-it steam about a quarter of an 

What is Cholera f 9 

hour, a short distance from the fire ; it will then be done, the 
grains will be separate ; it may then be eaten with a little 
butter, at intervals of live hours. 

There can be no doubt that thousands upon thousands have 
died of cholera who might now be living had they done nothing 
but observed strict bodily quietness under the promptings of 
nature, the greatest and the best physician. 


An indefinite description or direction in reference to health 
is worse than none at all. Physicians very generally, and 
very greatly err in this respect, and much of their " want of 
success" is attributable to this very omission. A patient is 
told he " mustn't allow himself to become costive," mustn't 
eat too much, must take light suppers, mustn't over exercise. 
These things do much mischief. The proper way to give a 
medical direction is to use the most common words in their 
ordinary sense, and in a manner not only to make them easily 
understood, but impossible to be misunderstood, and to take 
it for granted that the person prescribed for knows nothing. 
How many readers of mine have an easy and complete idea of 
the word " expectorate" in medicine, or regeneration in religion 
and yet the terms expectoration and regeneration are used as 
glibly by preacher and physician as if their meaning were 
self-evident. Why shoot above people's heads and talk about 
justification and sanctification and glorification, and a great 
many other kinds of " ations," when the terms do not convey 
to one ear in a dozen any clear, well-defined, precise idea ? 
And so emphatically with the words looseness and costiveness 
when applied to the bowels. They are relative terms, and a 
practical idea of what they are is only to be conveyed by 
telling what they are, and what they are not. One man will 
say he is very costive, that he has not had an action from the 
bowels in three or four days or more ; but a failure of the 
bowels to act in 24 or 48 or 72 hours is not of itself costive- 
ness, for the person may have had four or five passages in a 
single day ; then nature requires time to make up, so as to 
average one a day. Costiveness applies to the hardness and 
dryness of the alvine evacuations, and not to relative frequency. 

A more indefinite idea prevails in reference to the more 

10 HalVs Journal of Health. 

important (in cholera times at least) terms looseness, loose 
bowels, and the like. The expression must be measured by- 
color and consistency of the discharges in reference to cholera. 
We have heard and read a great deal about rice water dis- 
charges. Reader of mine, physicians, nurses, and cooks ex- 
cepted, lay this down a moment, and say if you ever saw rice 
water in your life. Then again how is the reader to know 
whether the cholera rice water is applied to rice water as to 
color, or consistence, or taste, or smell. The term " looseness" 
as applied to Asiatic cholera as a premonitory symptom, is 
simply this : if in cholera times a man passes from his bowels 
even but a single time, a dirty, lightish-colored fluid, of con- 
sistence and appearance, a few feet distant, of a mixture of half 
and half milk and water, that is a premonition of cholera 
begun, and he will be dead in perhaps twenty-four hours at 
farthest, and as the passages become less frequent and of a 
darker or greener or thicker nature, there is hope of life. It 
does not require two such passages to make a looseness ; one 
such is a looseness, and a very dangerous one. JSTor doe3 it 
require a gallon in quantity ; a single tablespoonful, if it 
weakens, is the alarm-bell of death in cholera times. 

But do not suppose that if looseness of bowels is a premoni- 
tory symptom of cholera, costiveness, that is, an action of the 
bowels once in every two or three days, is a preventive, or an 
evidence that you are in no danger ; for constipation is often 
the forerunner of looseness. Some of the most fatal cholera 
cases I have seen were characterized by constipation previous 
to the looseness — the patient having concluded that as there 
was nothing like looseness, but the very reverse, he was in no 
danger, and consequently had no need of caiefulness in eating 
or drinking, or anything else. Unusual constipation, that is, 
if the bowels during the prevalence of cholera act less fre- 
quently than usual, or if they even act with the same fre- 
quency, but the discharges are very hard or bally, then a 
physician should be at once consulted. That is the time when 
safe and simple remedies will accomplish more than the most 
heroic means, a few days or even a few hours later. 


It is in its nature common diarrhoea intensified, just as yellow 
fever is an intensification of common bilious fever — a concen- 

What is Cholera? 11 

trated form of it. But what causes this loose condition of the 
bowels, which is not indeed a premonitory symptom of cholera 
but which is cholera itself? 

That which precedes the loose bowels of diarrhoea and 
cholera is liver inaction ; the liver is torpid, that is, it does not 
abstract the bile from the blood, or if it does, this bile instead 
of being discharged drop by drop from the gall bladder into 
the top or beginning of the intestines, where the food passes 
out of the stomach into the bowels proper, is retained and more 
or less reabsorbed and thrown into the general circulation, ren- 
dering it every hour thicker and thicker, and more and more 
impure and black, until at length it almost ceases to flow 
through the veins, just as w 7 ater will very easily pass along a 
hose pipe or hollow tube, while mush or stirabout would do so 
with great difficulty ; and not passing out of the veins, but still 
coming in, the veins are at length so much distended that the 
thinner portions ooze through the blood vessels. That which 
oozes through the bloodvessels on the inner side of the stomach 
and bowels, is but little more than water, and constitutes the 
rice water discharges, so much spoken of in this connection ; 
that which oozes through the blood vessels on the surface con- 
stitutes the sweat which bedews the whole body shortly before 
death, and it is this clogging up of the thick black blood in the 
small veins which gives the dark blue appearance of the skin 
in the collapse stage. 

What is the reason that the liver is torpid — does not work- 
does not withdraw the bile from the blood ? 

It is because the blood has become impure, and being thus 
when it enters the liver it fails to produce the natural stimulus^ 
and thus does not wake it up to its healthful action, just as the 
habitual drinker of the best brandy fails to be put " in usua) 
trim" by a " villainous article." 

But how does the blood become impure ? It becomes impure 
by there being absorbed into the circulation what some call 
malaria, and others call miasm. But by whatever name it may 
be called, this death-dealing substance is a gas arising from the 
combination of three substances, heat, moisture, and vegeta- 
tion. Without these three things in combination there can be 
no " cholera atmosphere," there can be no epidemic cholera in 
these ages of the world. Yegetable matter decomposes at a 

12 HalVs Journal of Health. 

heat of between seventy and eighty degrees, and that amount 
of heat in combination with moisture and some vegetable sub- 
stance must always precede epidemic cholera. 

The decomposition in burial grounds, in potters' fields, or of 
animal matter in any stage or form, does not excite or cause 
cholera ; if anything, it prevents it. I have no disposition to 
argue upon these points. I merely give them as my views, 
which, I think, time and just observation will steadily cor- 
roborate. There are many interesting questions which might 
be discussed in this connection, but the article is already longer 
than was designed. The reader may think that he could state 
some strong facts in contravention of those given, but I think 
it quite likely that on investigation these facts of his will be 
corroborants. For example : how is it that cholera has raged 
in latitudes where snow is on the ground five or ten feet deep ? 
The people in such countries are generally poor ; myriads of 
them live in snow houses, which are large spaces dug in the 
snow, with no outlet but one for the smoke, and in this house 
they live with their domestic animals, and all the family offal 
for months together, so that in the spring of the year there is 
a crust of many inches of made flooring, while the interior 
heat from their own bodies and from the fire for cooking pur- 
poses is often eighty or ninety degrees. 


I have said that a torpid liver is an immediate cause of 
cholera, that it does not work actively enough to separate the 
bile, the impure particles, from the blood. Whatever then 
wakes up the liver, removes this torpidity, or in plainer lan- 
guage, whatever stimulates the liver to greater activity, that is 
curative of cholera. Calomel is a medicine which acts upon, 
which stimulates the liver to action with a promptness and cer- 
tainty infinitely beyond all the other remedies yet known to 
men, and the use of any other medicine as a substitute in any 
plain case of cholera, is in my opinion a trifling with human 
life ; not that other remedies are not successful, but that this 
is more certain to act upon the liver than all others ; and what 
sensible man wants to try a lesser certainty in so imminent a 

My whole view as to cholera and calomel is simply this, that 

What is Cholei®? 13 

while cholera is arrested and cured by a variety of other 
agents, calomel will cure in all these and thousands of others 
where other remedies have no more effect than a thimbleful 
of ashes ; that calomel will cure any case of cholera which any 
other remedy cures, and that it will cure millions of other 
cases which no other remedy can reach ; that when calomel 
fails to cure all other things will inevitably fail. 


The natural color of healthy and properly secreted bile is 
yellowish, hence that is the color of an ordinarily healthful 
discharge from the bowels ; but as the liver becomes torpid, 
the bile becomes greenish, and still farther on, black. If you 
give calomel under such circumstances, black, green, or yellow 
discharges result, according to the degree of torpidity. . When 
the liver gives out no bile at all, the passages are watery and 
light colored. The action of a calomel pill in cholera is to 
arrest the discharges from the bowels, and this it does usually 
within two hours, and in five, eight, or ten, or twelve hours 
more it starts the bowels to act again, but the substance dis- 
charged is no longer colorless and thin, but darker and thicker 
and less debilitating, and the patient is safe in proportion as 
these passages are green or dark-colored. I have seen them 
sometimes like clots of tar. 


There are none, there never can be, except so far as it may 
be done by quietude of body and mind, by personal cleanli- 
ness, by regular and temperate habits of life, and the use of 
plain accustomed nourishing food. 

Anything taken medicinally as a preventive of cholera will 
inevitably, and under all circumstances, increase the liability 
to an attack. 


Nothing can prevent cholera in a cholera atmosphere, beyond 
the natural agents of nutrition, except in proportion to its 
stimulating properties. The liver takes its share of the general 
stimulus and works with more vigor. Where the system is 
under the effect of the stimulus, it is safer, but it is a first 
truth that the stimulant sooner or later expends its force, as a 

14 HalVs Journal of Health. 

drink of brandy, for example. That moment the system be- 
gins to fail, and falls as far below its natural condition as it 
was just before above it, and while in that condition is just as 
much more susceptible of cholera as it was less liable under 
the action of the stimulant, until by degrees it rises up to its 
natural equilibrium, its natural condition. You can, it is true, 
repeat the stimulus, but it must be done with the utmost regu- 
larity, and just at the time the effects of the previous one 
begins to subside. This it will at once be seen, requires a 
nicety of observation, and correctness of judgment which not 
one in a multitude can bestow, saying nothing of another 
nicety of judgment, that of gradually increasing the amount 
of the stimulant, so that the effect shall be kept up to the regular 
notch ; for a given amount of one stimulant will inevitably 
fail, after a few repetitions, to produce the same amount of 
stimulation, and the moment that amount fails to be raised, 
that moment the person is more susceptible of cholera than if 
he had taken nothing at all. 

He who takes any medicinal agent, internal or external, for 
the prevention of Cholera, commits an act of the most consum- 
mate folly ; and I should consider myself an ignoramus or a 
knave were I to concoct a professed anti-cholera mixture. 


When Cholera is present in any community, each person 
should consider himself as attacked with Cholera, 

1st. If the bowels act less frequently than usual. 

2d. If the bowels act oftener than twice in twenty-four 

3d. If the discharge from the bowels is of a dirty white in 
color, and watery in its consistence. 

4th. If he have any indefinable sensation about the belly, 
which not only unpleasantly reminds him that he has such an 
article, but also inclines him to sit down, and makes sitting 
down a much more pleasant operation than usual. 

Some persons may think that this fourth item is putting " too 
fine a point " on the matter, and that it is being over careful ; 
but I know that these very feelings do, in a vast majority ot 
fatal cases of Cholera, precede the actual "looseness" so uni- 
versally and so wrongfully regarded as the premonitory symp- 

What is Cholera? 15 

torn of cholera ; " looseness," is not a premonitory symptom of 



Whenever Cholera is prevalent in any community, it is as 
much actual Cholera, under such circumstances, as the first 
little flame on the roof of a house constitutes " a house on 

When Cholera is present as an epidemic — as a " falling upon 
the people," which is the literal meaning of the word epidemic, 
in a liberal translation — a person may have one regular action 
every twenty -four hours ; it may not be ^ard and dry, it may 
not be in lumps or balls, and it may \t* consistent enough to 
maintain its shape and form, and this 3 neither too costive noi 
too loose, and is just what it ought th be in health ; but, at the 
same time, if a person in a cholera atmosphere has such a pas- 
sage from the bowels, and it is followed not merely by an 
absence of that comfortableness and sense of relief with which 
all are familiar in health, but by a positive sensation, not 
agreeable, not painful, but unpleasant, inclining to stilness, and 
there is a feeling as if a slight stooping or bending forward of 
the body would be agreeable, — these are the premonitories of 
Asiatic Cholera ; and it is wonderful that they have never, as 
far as I know, been published in book or newspaper for popu- 
lar information. At such a stage no physician is needed, no 
physic is required, only quietude on the back, ice to be eaten 
if there is any thirst, and no food but toasted bread, and tea of 
some kind, green, "black, sage, sassafras, or any other of the 
common herbs. Keep up attention to these things until you 
can walk without any uncomfortableness whatever, and even 
feel as if it were doing you good, ana until you are not sensi- 
ble of anything unpleasant about the belly. 

If you get tired of tea and toast, or if it is not agreeable 
to you, use in their place boiled rice, or sago, or tapioca, or 
arrow-root, or corn starch, or mush made of rice flour. With 
all these articles a little boiled milk may be used, or they may 
be eaten with a little butter, or syrup of some kind, for a 

If, under the four circumstances named on page 4, there 
is not an improvement in the symptoms within a very few 
hours, by the three things there named, to wit : 

16 Hall's Journal of Health. 

1st. Quietude on your back, on a bed. 

2d. Eating ice, if thirsty.. 

3d. A diet of tea and toast, or boiled rice, or some of the 
starches : 

Then do not trifle with a holy, human life by taking any 
medicine on your own responsibility, nor by the advice of any 
unprofessional man ; but, by all means, send for a physician. 
But if you have violent vomiting, or have a single lightish- 
colored, watery passage, or even a thinnish passage every hour 
or two, and no physician can be had in several hours, do not 
wait for him, but swallow a ten-grain calomel pill, and repeat 
it every second hour until the symptoms abate or the physician 
arrives ; or, if at the end of two hours after the first pill has 
been taken, the symptoms have become aggravated, take two 
calomel pills of ten grains each and then patiently wait. If 
the passages stop, if the vomiting ceases, you are safe ; and if, 
in addition to the cessation of vomiting, or looseness, or both, 
the passages become green or dark, and more consistent within 
eight, or ten, or twelve hours after the first pill, and, in addi- 
tion, urination returns, you will get well without anything else 
in addition beyond judicious nursing. 

The most certain indication of recovery from an attack of 
Asiatic Cholera is the return of free urination ; for during the 
attack it ceases altogether, — a most important fact, but not 
known, perhaps, to one person in ten thousand, and is worth 
more than all other symptoms together. 


A very great deal has been uselessly written for public 
perusal about the causes of Cholera. One person will tell you 
that a glass of soda gave him cholera, or a mess of huckleber- 
ries, or cucumbers, or green corn, or cabbages, which is just 
about as true as the almost universal error, that a bad cold 
causes consumption. A bad cold never did nor ever can 
originate consumption, any more than the things above named 
originate cholera. A bad cold excites consumption in a per- 
son whose lungs are already tuberculated, not otherwise, cer- 
tainly; and so green corn, or cucumbers, or cabbages, or any 
other food, whatever it may be, which is not well digested when 
it passes into the stomach, will excite cholera, when a person 

What is Cholera f 17 

is living in a cholera atmosphere, and the atmosphere is made 
" choleric V by its holding in suspension some emanation which 
is the product of vegetable decomposition. 


Much has been written about this agent as a cause of Cho- 
lera. Those who know least are most positive. It may be 
true to some extent, and, under some circumstances, it may be 
an excitant of Cholera ; but I cannot think it is " per se" — 
that it is remarkably or necessarily so. It is known that the 
whole South-west has suffered from Cholera, New Orleans 
especially ; yet there is scarcely a decent dwelling there which 
has not a cistern attached to it, above ground, and wholly sup- 
plied by rain water ; and this is the usual drink, and it is the 
same case with multitudes of the better class of dwellings in 
the Southern country. 

As to escaping prevalent Cholera, the great general rules are : 

1st. Make no violent changes in your mode of life, whether 
in eating, or drinking, or sleeping, or exercise. 

2d, Endeavor to attain composure of mind, quietude of 
body, regularity of all bodily habits, temperance in the use of 
plain, substantial, nourishing food ; and let your drinks be a 
moderate amount of tea, and coffee, and cold water. If accus- 
tomed to use wine or brandy, or any other beverage or alco- 
holic stimulant, make no change, for change is death. If any 
change at all, it should be a regular, steady, systematic in- 
crease. But as soon as the Cholera has disappeared, drink 
no more. 


Are beneficial, if properly used. They should be ripe, raw, 
fresh, perfect, — should be eaten alone without cream or sugar, 
and without fluids of any kind for an hour after , and they 
should not be eaten later in the day than the usual dinner hour 
of two P. M. 

In Cholera times, nothing should be taken after dinner, 
except a piece of cold bread and butter, and a cup of tea of 
some kind. This, indeed, ought to be the rule for all who wish 
to live long and healthfully. 

The indefinite unpleasantness in the bowels, which I have 
bo much insisted upon as the real premonitory symptom of 

18 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Asiatic Cholera begun, whether there be looseness or constipa- 
tion, most probably precedes every acknowledged attack of 
Cholera, from hours up to days. There are no means for 
proving this, certainly ; for the mass of people are too unob- 
serving. But it most certainly is a safe rule in cholera times, 
to regard it as a premonitory, and to act accordingly. 

Whatever I have said of Cholera in the preceding pages, 1 
wish to be understood as applicable to what has come under 
my own observation during the general prevalence of Cholera 
in a community. 

In different States and countries there are circumstances 
which modify the disease, its symptoms, and everything con- 
nected with it, such as locality, variety of exciting causes, 
their different degrees of virulence or concentratedness, the 
different habits and modes of life. These things constitute the 
reason of the various modes of treatment, and the great error 
has been the publishing of a successful remedy in one locality, 
and relying upon it in another. But the treatment by quietude, 
ice, and calomel, is equally applicable on every spot of the 
earth's surface, wherever a case of Epidemic Cholera occurs, 
since the essential cause of Cholera is everywhere the same, 
to wit, the miasm of vegetable decomposition, the effects of 
that cause are the same, to wit, a failure on the part of the 
liver to work with sufficient vigor to withdraw the bile from 
the blood and pass it out of the system ; and the mode of re- 
moving that effect is the same, to wit, the stimulation of the 
liver to increased action. And although, in milder forms, a 
variety of agencies may stimulate the liver to work, and thus 
restore health, yet inasmuch as calomel is infinitely more relia- 
ble than all other liver stimulants yet known, it is recommended 
as having precedence of all others, on the ground previously 
named, that when danger is imminent and a few hours makes 
the difference between life and death, it is unwise to trust to a 
less certain agent when the more certain one is equally at 
hand and is the easiest medicine known to be taken, as it has 
no appreciable taste, its bulk is exceedingly small, and by 
reason of its weight it sinks to the bottom of the stomach and 
cannot be rejected except in rare instances. 

Some of my views are peculiar, perhaps. They were formed 
from observations made in 1832, '3 and '4, my first experiences 

What is Cholera? 19 

being on board a crowded steamboat which left Louisville, 
Kentucky, in October, 1832. In twenty-four hours the cholera 
broke out. It had just reached the west from Canada. "No 
one knew anything about its nature, symptoms, or treatment, 
practically* and the panic was terrible. I had retired early 
A Virginia gentleman was lying on the floor suffering from a 
attack. At midnight I awoke and found the cabin deserted, 
not a living creature in it, nor on the boat either, as well as I 
now remember, and every berth but mine was entirely divested 
of its bedding. The man had died, and they were airing the 
boat, while a few were engaged in depositing him at the foot 
of a tree in a coarse wooden box, on the banks of the Ohio. 
The boat was bound for St. Louis, but few of her passengers 
to that port, or officers, lived to reach their destination. I was 
young then, had perfect health, and knew no fear. Ever since 
that terrible " trip," and the experiences of the following years, 
everything that I have seen or read on the subject of cholera 
has seemed to me to confirm the views advanced in the pre- 
ceding pages, and I trust that general readers, as well as pro- 
fessional men, who may chance to see this article, will hereafter 
direct their attention to all facts bearing upon cholera, and 
notice how far such observed facts will bear them out in con- 
cluding, 1st, that epidemic Asiatic cholera cannot exist aside 
from moisture, heat, and vegetable matter ; 2d, that quietude, 
ice, and calomel will cure where anything else will, and will 
succeed in multitudes of cases where all things else have sig 
nally failed. 


If, then, calomel is such an admirable agent in cholera, why 
is 11 not universally used ? I might as well ask, if honesty is 
the best policy, why are not the majority of men honest from 
principle? It is because men are ignorant or misinformed. 
Many persons do not know the power of calomel in curing 
cholera, while others are afraid of it because it sometimes sali- 
vates. Suppose it does — better to run the risk of salivation 
than to die. And even if salivated, a man is not necessarily 
permanently injured by salivation. I have been badly sali- 
vated several times very many years ago, but I believe I have 
as good health as most men. I do not recollect to have lost 

20 HdWs Journal of Health. 

three meals from sickness in fifteen years past, except from sea 
sickness, and no doubt there are tens of thousands of persons 
who have been salivated can speak similarly. But the objec- 
tion is perfectly childish when it is remembered that perhaps 
a thousand persons in succession may take calomel and not two 
in the thousand be salivated. I might say not two in ten 
thousand, and that in a vast majority of those who are not 
designedly salivated, this salivation is the result of injudicious 
administration ; thus, 

Salivation is caused by keeping the system too long under 
the influence of calomel, in two ways : 

1st, By giving small doses at short intervals. 

2d, By giving an amount so small that it fails to work itself 
off in ten or twelve hours. 

3d, By giving a larger amount, but mixing opium in some 
form or other with it ; for in all cases the more opium or other 
anodyne you give with a dose of calomel, the longer it will be 
in producing its legitimate action. 

The best method of administering calomel is to give enough 
at one time to make it act of itself within twelve hours, and 
if it does not act within that time, take an injection of half a 
pint of tepid water, or of a tablespoonful of salts in a half 
pint of warm water every hour until the bowels do act. Any 
action of the bowels at all after six hours since taking the cal- 
omel may be set down as an action from calomel, and nothing 
need be done to " work it off." 

If salivation is not designed, it is not best to give a dose of 
calomel oftener than once a week. 

By observing the two rules just stated, I do not believe that 
any general practitioner will have one case of undesired sali- 
vation in ten years practice. 

It is important for the reader to remember that there are 
sporadic cases, that is., scattering cases of cholera which may 
not be preceded by a constipation, or looseness of bowels, or 
uneasiness sufficiently decided to have attracted the observation 
of the patient ; for in many cases the patient declares that 
he "felt" as well as he ever did in his life, or acquaintances 
remark that he " appeared " to be in perfect health, and yet 
to-day he is dead of cholera. Yet, I very much doubt if a 
case of cholera ever occurred without the premonitions above 

What is Cholera? 21 

named in a greater or less degree. Still, for all practical pur- 
poses, and to be on the safe side, let no one who has looseness 
to-day in cholera times, conclude that it cannot be cholera, 
because he " felt" so and so the day before, or because no pre- 
monitions were observed ; rather let him conclude they were 
slight or unobserved, and act as he should do if he were per- 
fectly assured that he had at that moment in his own person, 
undisputed epidemic Asiatic cholera. The truth is, it is as im- 
possible for a man in perfect health to be stricken down in a 
moment with this dangerous disease, as it is for a man who has 
been honest from principle for a lifetime, to become in a day 
a forger or a swindler. 

As far as my observation has extended, I believe that the 
most frequent of all exciting causes of cholera is going to bed 
too soon after a hearty meal, whether it be a late dinner or 
merely a supper of fruits and cream or milk, with sugar. I 
think that eating freely of fruits or berries, ripe, raw, and 
perfect, with any fluid after them, and then going to bed in an 
hour or two, will excite cholera in cholera times. I am inclined 
to think that huckleberries with cream or milk, except in very 
small quantity, make a dangerous dish in cholera times. 

It may subserve a good purpose to remark that I have writ- 
ten on this subject not to support a theory, but to draw atten- 
tion to the suggestions, and least of all to obtain a cholera 
practice. I never treated a cholera case except gratuitously. 
I do not visit persons out of my office, except in rare cases. I 
prescribe only for those who come to see me and who write to 
me, and my practice is closely confined to ailments of the 
throat and lungs, and has been for ten or fifteen years. 

I will close the subject with answering an inquiry which no 
doubt has occurred to the reader as a conclusive refutation of 
all that I have said as to the fundamental cause of cholera, to 

If cholera is the result of heat, moisture, and vegetable 
matter in combination, why has it not prevailed from time 
immemorial ? Because the climates of the world, and of the 
various countries of the earth, the constitutions, and habits of 
life, and modes of living are constantly changing ; hence new 
diseases are making their appearance from time to time, while 
others have vanished from the world. And when a single ele- 

22 HaWs Journal of Health. 

ment of many is changed, an entire new combination may be the 
result. But whatever may be that new or changed element, 
it can no more, as far as our present knowledge extends, excite 
epidemic cholera without the aid of vegetable decomposition, 
than powder can be ignited without the aid of fire. 


While Cholera prevails, no marked change should be made as to the general habits 
of a regular temperate life — as long as the person feels entirely well — but the mo- 
ment the great premonitory symptom is observed even in a slight degree, to wit, an 
indefinable uncomfortableness in the belly, inclining to rest, then an instantaneous 
change should be made from physical activity to bodily rest — from mental activity 
to mental relaxation — from the habitual use of wines, or malt, or other alcoholic 
drinks to total abstinence — from everything of the kind ; using ice or ice-warer as a 
substitute, or cold spring water, a few swallows only in any twenty minutes; but if 
ice is to be had, and there is thirst, it may be eaten continuously from morning untr 

Whatever may have been the diet before, it should be changed at once to tea 
and toast, or cold bread and butter, with plain meat, salted or fresh, whichever is 
relished most — 1 mean that these changes should be made on the first appearance 
of belly-uncomfortableness, and if in sis or eight hours you are not decidedly better, 
send for a physician. If you are better, continue your own treatment until the feeling 
in the belly has entirely disappeared and you have a desire to walk about, and ex- 
perience a decided relief in doing so. 

If you have over two (or three at most) passages within twenty-four hours, do 
not make an experiment on your life by taking even a calomel pill, simple as it is, 
unless it be wholly impracticable to obtain a physician within three or four hours. 

If you have no special liking for one thing more than another, and have not even 
the premonitory symptom, to wit, the belly-uneasiness, then the following diet will 
render you more secure : 

Breakfast.— A single cup of weak coffee or tea, with toasted bread, or cold bread 
and butter, and a small piece of salt meat, ham, beef, fish, or the like, and nothing 
else. Dinner— Cold bread, roasted or broiled fresh meat of some kind, potatoes, 
rice, hominy, samp, or thickened gruel. For Dessert — Rice, or bread pudding, or 
sago, arrow root, tapioca, farina, corn starch, prepared in the usual manner, and no- 
thing else fluid or solid. Tea, or Supper— A single cup of weak tea of some kind, 
or coffee, with cold bread and butter— nothing else. 

Eat nothing between meals; go to bed at a regular early hour, not later than ten 
o'clock ; attend to your business with great moderation, avoiding hurry, bustle, wor- 
rtment of mind ; wear thin woollen flannel next the body during the day, air it well 
at night, sleeping in a common cotton night garment ; remain in bed of mornings, 
after you have waked up, until you feel rested in all your limbs; but do not by any 
means take a second nap. Do not sleep a moment in the day time, and let all your 
enjoyments and recreations be in great moderation. 

Fruits have not been named, because it is so difficult to get them fresh, ripe, per- 
fect many looking so, are wormy. Except potatoes, no vegetables are named, 

because they more readily sour on the stomach, require more power of digestion, 
While they do not afford as much nutriment and strength to the body in proportion 

hall's journal of health. 23 

The preceding article on Cholera was first published in the 
Journal for August, 1854, soon after which, letters came from 
different and distant parts of the country, expressing the belief 
of the writers that its suggestions were instrumental in saving 
their lives ; it seemed to commend itself to the common-sense 
of almost every reader, and hence was copied by the press more 
extensively than was any article we had ever written on any 
subject. Some papers copied it entire. The Scalpel, whose 
talented editor is not over-given to the praise of any body 
or any thing, said in his August number, page 519, that it was 
" a most excellent article on Cholera ; but we don't understand 
the calomel ; all the rest is admirable." Our views were sim- 
ply these : that no medicine should be taken in any case, unless 
it was impracticable to obtain a physician ; in that event, rather 
than do nothing and die, it was the simplest, safest, easiest, and 
best plan to swallow ten grains of calomel, made into a pill with 
any kind of gum-water or mucilage, for the several reasons : 

1. It could be almost always found close at hand ; 

2. It would stay on the stomach when nothing else would ; 

3. It would sooner, more certainly, and with greater safety 
arrest the looseness (and thus keep the disease at bay until a 
physician could be had) than any other known remedy, and 
would be more likely to cure the disease without any thing else 
being done beyond quiet, ice, and a woolen flannel com- 
press around the abdomen. The Scalpel mistook us to mean 
that a person should wholly rely on the calomel, while we 
wished it to be regarded simply as the safest, surest, and most ac- 
cessible arrester of the progress of cholera until a physician could be 
had. In most cases under our own observation, in Southern 
and Western practice, no other medicine was needed ; but the 
watchful care of a good physician was imperative, every two 
hours, until the patient was out of danger. Dr. Eeese, of the 
New- York Medical Gazette, said of the same article: "It is 
timely, and, in the main, judicious. Dr. Hall brings to the 
subject professional and practical knowledge, and writes with 
much ability. "We recommend this number as one which will 
amply repay perusal, there being so much of truth and good 
sense on the subject. In very many cases, there could be no 
better practice ; but other and more potent means are often re- 

24 hall's journal of health. 

quired. Dr. Hall's mode of treatment is greatly to be preferred 
to any other we have seen in the newspapers, where we have 
observed numerous ' cures,' so called, which, if used, will be 
disastrous and fatal." As Dixon and Eeese were among the 
very best medical scholars and writers of the time, it may be 
rationally concluded that the article was truthful, practical, and 
safe ; and as no new facts as to the nature, symptoms, and treat- 
ment of cholera have been established in the last twelve years, 
and as the disease in 1865 has presented no new phases, it may 
perhaps be safe to infer that what we wrote in 1854 would, a 
dozen years later, be applicable to the disease, should it reap- 
pear during the coming spring and summer. If it is a very 
cold summer, it can not appear ; if it be a very hot and dry 
summer, it will not appear in the North, but will ravage the 
whole South ; if it be an alternation of rains and hot suns, it 
will devastate the whole country, sweeping off its hundreds of 
thousands where filth, feebleness, and fear prevail, leaving in- 
tact those who, having good health and brave hearts, live tem- 
perately and regularly. This is our theory ; we will not stop to 
explain or defend. 

During 1865, the cholera, in its march westward toward our 
shores, has exhibited an unusually malignant type. Two thou- 
sand died daily in Constantinople, and this may be the measure 
of its malignity with us ; and it certainly behooves all to look 
at it understandingly and with a high moral courage. This, 
with regularity, temperance, and cheerfulness, will be a shield 
against its ravages everywhere, not only as to individuals, but 
as to whole communities ; but it must be a cleanliness in per- 
son and in habitation, so as to secure the breathing of a pure 
atmosphere day and night. 

But as there are some who will not be willing to take calo- 
mel in case of an attack, and as it may not be obtainable, it is 
well to know of some other means less objectionable to the pre- 
judice, or one which has been used and tried by intelligent 
persons in thousands of instances, and always with reported 
success when its use has been commenced when an unusual 
looseness of the bowels first manifested itself. It was the fa- 
vorite remedy of the missionaries during the recent ravages of 
the disease in Asia, and as it seemed to be adapted to the type 
of the disease on its present march, we may infer that it will be 

hall's journal of health. 25 

as available in this country as it has been in the East. But 
even this remedy should not be used if a physician can be had, 
and neither this nor any other remedy should be employed ten 
minutes longer than the securement of a physician. 

The reason for this injunction, which is intended to be spe 
cial and personal to each reader, is, that we can not calculate 
certainly that the disease will put on precisely the same phase 
in any two localities, or during any two consecutive months or 
even weeks ; and as the physicians are in the midst of it all the 
time, and are necessarily close observers, their own experience 
will quickly detect differences, and their skill and judgment 
will make an application adapted to the ever-varying circum- 
stances. It is therefore advised that every family have pre- 
pared for themselves, by their own family physician, or by the 
druggist or apothecary with whom they are best acquainted, 
four ounces, that is, eight table-spoons, of the following : Equal 
parts of Laudanum, Spirits of Camphor, and Tincture of Khu- 
barb. A grown person should take from thirty to sixty drops 
as soon as the diarrhea begins, and repeat the dose at each suc- 
ceeding action of the bowels until they cease to move. Sixty 
drops make a tea-spoonful, so that to save time in counting the 
drops, measure it by a tea-spoon, as ten or fifteen drops, more 
or less, is not of much consequence. It would be a good pre- 
caution, and be safer, as it saves time, to increase each succeed- 
ing dose by ten drops until the discharges cease, and then take 
the mixture at intervals of four hours, after the passages have 
ceased, diminishing each dose by twenty drops. If the stomach 
will not retain it, put a mustard plaster about ten inches square 
over the region of the stomach, and keep repeating the dose 
until it is retained. This mustard plaster should be made by 
mixing good kitchen mustard with strong vinegar, making it 
of a pasty consistence, so that it can be taken up and spread 
with a knife. Let the plaster remain as long as it can be well 
borne ; but in order to prevent its taking off the skin and mak- 
ing an ugly or troublesome sore, let a very thin piece of muslin 
or paper wetted interpose between the mustard and the skin. 

If the disease has been allowed to run on so long that the 
above remedy does not have a decided effect within two or 
three hours, and if a physician can not be had, take from half 
to a whole tea-spoon of a mixture of equal parts of Tincture of 


Opium, Tincture of Capsicum, Tincture of Cardamom Seed, and 
Tincture of Gingerberry. If still no physician can be bad, and 
the person has passed into the cold stage, or stage of collapse, 
when the skin is cold and blue and bedewed with a clammy 
sweat, then do what the missionaries testify has saved many : 

1. Let two or three persons dip flannels in hot rum and rub 
the limbs. 

2. Apply bottles Of hot water to the armpits and feet. 

3. Give half a table-spoon of brandy every fifteen minutes, 
and continue all this as long as there is any hope of life. 

Let it be understood that we have no experience of the value 
of these remedies in the different stages of cholera in this coun- 
try ; but as the missionaries report it very successful in Turkey 
during the ravages of 1865, it is advised here, in all cases where 
physicians or experienced nurses can not be had. 

We here close this article with a piece of advice not hitherto 
published, but which will save many a life if the cholera does 
appear next summer : " If the bowels have been accustomed to 
act soon after breakfast, and you are called to the privy before 
breakfast, or you wake up very thirsty, not being a liquor- 
drinker, you will have the cholera before night unless you 
adopt the following precautions : 

1. Send for a physician. 

2. Eemain warm in bed. 

3. Bandage the abdomen tightly with stout woolen flannel, 
at least a foot broad. 

4. Eat nothing, unless hungry, but boiled rice with boiled 

5. Drink nothing ; but if thirsty, chew and swallow bits of 
ice. abundantly. 

6. Kemain in bed with a calm and fearless mind, (for you 
can't die under the circumstances,) until you feel as if it would 
do you good to get up and take a walk ; and if the walking 
gives no feeling of weariness or desire to sit down, you are a 
well man. 



Bn>jchitis & Kin- 
dred Diseases. 

Asthma, Common 
44 Perpetual 
« Causes 4 Nature 
" Symptoms 4 Treat. 

Br each it is, what is 
" Nature 4 Cause 
" Symp. & Treat. 

Brandy 4 Throat disease 

Clerical Health 



44 Cause of 


" How diseased 
" Many cases of 

Dangerous Delays 

" Exposures 

Disease Prevented 
Debilitating Indulgences 


Frail and Feeble 
Food, Tables of 

Heart, Contents 
" Disease of 
How remain Cured 
High Livers 

Inhalation, Medicated 
Inflammation described 

Lawyers, Cases of 
Lungs described 
" Contents 
Lake Shore, situation 
Life, average duration 

Mistaken Patienw 
Merchants' Cases 

Nitrate of Silver 

Over Feeding 
Oxygen Breathing 
Overtasking Brain 


Prairie Situation 


Patent Medicines 




Smoking, Bainful e Tacts 
Shortness of Breath 
Sea Shore 
Sea Voyages 
Spitting Blood 

Tfcroat Ail 

" What Is It 
■ Synap^— » 
' Causes 
u PhilosopV^ 
« History 

Tobacco, effects of 

tWsil Cutting 

« Unwell » 

Voice Organs described 



■Apfc. \e, Nature*i 
Arkansas Hunter 
Air and Exercise 
Alcoholic Effects 

Bad Colds 
Brandy Drinking 

Consumption Described 
" Delusive 
«* Not painless 
" Causes of 
'* Symptom! 
«« Localities 
" Liabilities 
" Nature of 
" Curable 
« Commencing 
" Seeds deposited 
44 Is it catching ? 

Cough, Nature of 
" Causes of 
" Effects of 

Cluster Doctrine 

Cheesy Particles 


Earliest Symptoms 

Exercise essential 

44 Various forms of 

44 Sinking in water 

Great Mistake 



Horseback Exercise 

Impure Air 

44 Effects of 
Lacing Tight 

Night Sweats 
Nitrate of Silver 

Occupation in 
Out Door Activities 
Over Exercise 


Porter Drinking 

Respirator, Best 

Spitting Blood 
Short Breath 
Sea Voyages 
Sea Shore 
Safe Treatment 
Southern Climate 

Throat Ail, distinguished 
from Consump. 
14 From Bronchitis 
Tickling Cough 

Health & Disease 



Anal Itching 



Apples Curative 

Bowels Regulated 

Bad Breath 

Baths and Bathing 




Binding Food 

Constitutions Restored 



Children, Health of 


Chills at Meals 


Clothing Changes 




Cooling off Slowly 

Chest Developed 

Clerical Rules 

Choosing Physicians 

Cracked Wheat 

Corn Bread 

Drinking at 








Feet Cold 

First Things 



Horseback Exercise 

Inverted Toe Nails 

Late Dinners 

Morbid Appetite 



Pleurisy and Pneumonia 

Public Speakers 



Summer Complaint 
Spring Diseases 

*c., 4& 

" Sleep,* 


Air, Deadly 

44 Breathing Btd 

" State of 

« Of Crowded 

41 Taints 

14 Noxious 

" Bath 

44 Country 

»• Hills 

44 Sea Shore 

44 Close Rooms 

44 01 Chambers 

44 And Thought 

Black Hole of Calcutta 
Bodily Emanations 
Bad Habits 
Breath of Life 

Crowding, effects of 
Convulsions, Children's 
Capacity of Lungs 
Charcoal Fumes 
Chambers, Vitiated 
Chemical Affinities 

Deadly Emanations 


Electrical Influences 
Excessive Child-bearing 
as depriving of sleep,&8 

Griscom's Ventilation 
Gas Burning 

Human Effluvia 
Houses and Cottages 
House Plans 
44 Warming 
44 4 ' by steam 

** « by open fire plan. 

Indulgence, over 

44 Measure of 

Invisible Impurities 
Marriage a safeguard 
Nocturnal Ems 
Nursing at Night 

Pure Chambers 
Physiology Books 

44 44 Their bad effect 
Papered Rooms 
Pernicious Instruments 
Population Control 
Ruined Youth 

Second Naps 
Sleep of Children 
Sleeping with others 
44 Old with young 
44 Strong with feeble 
" with Consumptive* 
" with Children 
44 Well 
" How learned 

Youth's Habits 
" " How remedied 
4c. 4c 

The above books are sold at the prices annexed, If 

ordered by mail, send 10 cts. for postage. Address simply, " Dr. W. W. Hall, New- York." 
Hall's Journal of Health, $1.50 a year ■ bound vols. $1.50 each ; 



To Southern Subscribers in the good old times of light taxes, cheap 
living and universal and uninterrupted prosperity we give notice, that mail 
facilities ceased just after the July number of 1861 was distributed ; we 
kept the subsequent numbers from August to December, both included, 
bound in one cover ; they will be sent to each subscriber who will send us 
their present address. 

The contents of the Journal of Health from January 1866 to July inclusive 
are : 

What is Cholera ? Surprise Parties. 

Its very first Symptoms. Shams. 

What to do. Potatoes as Food. 

Signs of Keeovery. To stop Coughing. 

Danger of Stimulants. Foul Odors. 

Danger of Self medications. Preaching Easily. 

Homoeopathic Treatment. Domestic Cleanliness. 

Farmer's Houses. Ventilation. 

Where to Build. Laws of Cholera. 

Miasma and its Laws. Quarantine. 

Cellars in Dwellings. Cholera Prevented. 

Smoky Chimneys. Ft ar of Cholera. 

Water conveniences. Emergencies. 

Water Closets. Extemporaneous Surgery. 

Ice Houses. Curiosities of Breathing. 

Stables. Symptoms. 

Kitchens. Cellars. 

Chambers. Filth and Purity. 

Shade Trees. Weights and Measures. 

Barrs. Medical Terms. 

Water Pipes. Biliousness. 

Crazy Farmers, Why. Trichiniasa. 

Wives Overworked. Night Work. 

Daughters ill Health. Night and Disease. 

A.11 r|ew subscribers must begin with the January number. The January 
and February numbers are taken up with the subject of the Cholera, and 
will be sent post paid for 30 cents ; the object of the article is to teach 
the reader to know what are always the first far off symptoms of Cholera ; 
when he will be in reality cured, without any medicine whatever if these 
symptoms are first attended to ; what are the more advanced symptoms ; 
and what is considered the most infallible remedy at this state, applicable 
to all cases, as a means of arresting the disease until a physician can be 
called ; the folly of taking anything as a preventive of Cholera ; the reason 
why a so-called preventive will certainly increase the chances of an 
attack; the certain sign of commencing recovery ; the absolute importance 
of securing the services of a physician in all cases, where attention was 
not given to the first symptoms ; how easy it is to know these first symp- 
toms j the importance of remembering that, as the Cholera, if it comes this 
year, may assume a different phase, from that of former times, it is not safe 
to rely on any old remedy, nor to rely on any one's advice but that ot a 




In the last number, I have insisted mainly on 

1st. An uncomfortdbleness about the telly as the very earliest 
premonition of approaching Cholera, in cholera times, 

2d. That at this stage, an almost infallible and immediate 
cure is effected by prompt and perfect quietude on the back, 
on a bed, satisfying the thirst, if any, by swallowing pellets of 
ice, and eating, only if decidedly hungry, farinaceous food, tea 
and toast, or thickened gruel ; and that this course should be 
continued until the feeling in the abdomen has entirely disaj> 
peared, and until there is a desire to walk about, and a sensa- 
tion of pleasure or relief in doing so. 

3d. That if in cholera times, there has been no passage from 
the bowels in two or three days, or if there be three passages 
from the bowels in any twenty-four hours, or a single passage 
of a watery and light-colored substance, or an unaccountable 
feeling of weakness, amo anting almost to prostration, without 
any noticed looseness, or constipation, or nausea, or abdominal 
uncomfortableness, in either of these four conditions, most 
especially the last, a resident physician, in whom high confi- 
dence is reposed, should be at once consulted. 

4th. That if the symptoms are urgent, such as two or three 
lightish-colored, painless, watery passages, in the course of five 
or six hours, or vomiting or cramps, and a physician cannot be 
had in the course of three or four hours, then, in addition to the 
quietude on the back, a flannel bandage firmly fastened around 
the abdomen, and eating ice, if there is thirst, as a precau- 
tion, and to be on the safe side, and to save time which may 
be infinitely valuable to the patient, a calomel pill of ten 
grains should at once be swallowed ; and if the vomiting or 

28 HdWs Journal of Health. 

purging do not cease within two hours, and a physician does 
not arrive, then swallow two of the calomel pills. 

If the patient is afraid of being salivated, then let him take 
twice as much super carbonate of Soda as he has taken calomel, 
in pills, or dissolved in a tablespoon or two of cold or warm 
water. It is not necessary that the calomel should be in the 
form of a pill ; s if there is no vomiting or decided nausea, the 
next best method of taking it is to put it on the end of a spoon- 
handle or case-knife, put it in the mouth, and, suddenly turn- 
ing it over, spread or plaster the calomel on the back part of 
the tongue, and wash it down with ice-water. Then chew af- 
terwards any tough substance, such as a piece of dried beef, or 
tough bread crust, so as to clean the teeth and mouth from 
any particles of calomel which may have obtained a lodgment 
— and, even after that, rinse the mouth out well, otherwise the 
teeth may be injured. The prejudices against calomel have 
arisen from its indiscriminate and careless use. In precisely 
the same manner have prejudices quite as strong arisen against 
the use of tea and coffee, and roast beef, and fruits, until our 
whole dietetic table is reduced to grapes and cold water. 

Intelligent men have written against the use of calomel in 
gholera ; but in every case I have lately seen reported, as proof 
of the inefficacy of calomel, one of two things invariably at- 
tended that case — either other things were done or given with 
the calomel, such as opium, or salts, or ipecac, or jalap, or 
rhubarb, — or the patient died in spite of all subsequent treat- 
ment, bringing us back to the admitted point, that where calo- 
mel fails all other things will fail. All that I have said in 
reference to the good effects of calomel in cholera, is to be 
considered as applicable to cases where nothing else has been 
given but pure calomel — where nothing else has been done but 
lying on the back on a bed, and eating ice, if thirsty. "When 
calomel does not arrest the watery passages, it is because 
enough is not given ; or it is a fatal case. Since writing the 
Cholera article, an intelligent gentleman connected with one 
of our oldest and most respectable publishing houses in Broad- 
way, has informed me that a medical gentleman in the eastern 
part of the city made a large amount of money at five dol- 
lars a case, and that, from his success, his whole time was fully 
occupied. His main treatment is from twenty to forty grains 

Observations on Cholera. 29 

of calomel at the first dose, and bathing the feet in hot water 
saturated with the salt of a fish barrel. 

I have said nothing about the subsequent or convalescing 
treatment of cholera, diet, &c, as it is a disease so critically 
dangerous that it is madness not to secure the services of a re- 
gular practising physician, even when the treatment advised 
has been followed with the happiest results. 

I wish it to be distinctly understood, that in the calomel 
treatment, everything else taken or done beside the ice and 
quiet, is a positive injury, unless under the direction of a phy- 
sician ; for any prescription however familiar — and these are 
the things which we denominate "simple, andean do no harm, 
even if they do no good'" — even a mustard plaster over the sto- 
mach or abdomen may excite an irritation in the system diffi- 
cult to control ; and sometimes, as I have seen, it produces un- 
utterable torture : a patient once begged with dying earnestness 
to have it removed, if it were " but for five minutes." 

Another "simple" is paregoric, a household medicine, the 
common destroyer of the health and lives of young children in 
the hands of ignorant mothers and lazy, unprincipled nurses. 
Ten, twenty, fifty drops of paregoric have been so often given 
under various circumstances, that it, too, is so familiar as to 
have become one of the simples, and it does faithfully act to- 
wards arresting the passages, and life too, by convulsions, apo- 
plexies or fatal congestions. A grain of opium, twenty drops 
of laudanum, or a teaspoon of paregoric, — either one is capable 
of causing convulsions immediately, when they act so as to 
arrest the looseness, suddenly. 

It is the use of opiates in loose bowels which explains the 
fact that among the eleven hundred and thirty-nine deaths in 
New York city, for the last reported week in July of 1854, 
five hundred and thirty-three were from bowel affections, and 
one hundred and seventy-nine, besides, from congestions of 
various kinds, — opiates acting uniformly in one of two ways, 
soothing the disease for the moment, to break out with greater 
aggravation in a short time ; or, on the other hand, to act in a 
more summary manner, causing congestions and more sudden 

The startling fact forces itself on our attention, that now, in 
August, 1854, every other death in New York was from disorder 

30 HdWs Journal of Health. 

of the bowels, bringing us back to the point, that the very 
slightest bowel affection in cholera times, demands instanta- 
neous attention. One week later : total deaths, 1148 ; con- 
gestions, 133 ; disease of the bowels, 645 — more than one-half. 

In the week ending July 22d, there were nine hundred and 
fifteen deaths, four hundred and twelve of which were from 
diseases of the bowels, and ninety-seven more of convulsions 
and congestions. One of our most estimable citizens recently 
died with a short sickness, reported of cholera, but his three 
attending physicians certified through the papers that " he died 
of congestive fever." If this distinguished gentleman had loose 
bowels at first, as the papers stated, and took anodynes in any 
form to arrest the looseness, then it was death from cholera, 
badly treated ; and the statement that he died of " congestive 
fever" is^not full, and misleads. Let my readers remember 
whenever they see a death recorded from convulsions, apoplexy, 
or congestion in any form, in cholera times, that such a death, 
in nine cases out of ten, has followed some anodyne or high sti- 
mulant taken into the stomach. I have no objection to the use 
of an injection of two or three teaspoonfuls of laudanum in 
as many tablespoons of water, or introducing into the rectum a 
plug of opium half the size of a common hazlenut or filbert, 
to quiet the straining or constant desire to stool, or to compose 
the bowels, at the time the calomel pills are taken, or any time 
before the physician arrives ; it saves time, gives repose, and 
has none of the ill effects of such things introduced into the 

It is a great mistake that calomel is slow to operate, and 
that mistake consists in not knowing what its first operation is, 
which is to arrest the action of the bowels within two hours, 
and if enough is given it will do so, in any curable case, with the 
certainty almost of a specific. Some physicians hesitate, be- 
cause they fear it will excite irritation — that is, aggravate the 
condition of things already present ; they thus think, because 
they have seen calomel given and the symptoms soon after be- 
come worse. So have I : — first, because it is the nature of 
Cholera to get worse constantly — get worse every hour ; and 
second, because so little was given, that it was simply power- 
less — all the injury it could effect was negative. While 
writing this, the former health officer of the port of New York 

Observations on Cholera. 31 

during the first cholera, stated that they tried every thing, and 
his conclusions were, that " calomel cured as often as anything 
else, and if any thing was to be done it was by calomel." 

While the more immediate effect of calomel in cholera, is to 
arrest the looseness more or less within two hours, then its 
stimulating energies begin, and at the end of six, eight, or ten 
hours, colored, consistent dejections appear, and then, simply 
with good nursing, the patient is safe, with ordinary attention. 

As it is malaria, from the combination of heat, moisture and 
vegetable ma.tter uniting with some unusual constituent of the 
atmosphere, which generates cholera ; and, as this malaria is 
heaviest nearest the earth, persons are safer from cholera who 
live, or at least sleep in the upper stories of houses, as explained 
in my publication on Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, tenth 
edition, page 317, strongly corroborated by the fact recently 
published, that in London, in 1848-9, epidemic cholera was 
fatal in the inverse proportion to the elevation of the houses 
above the general level — that is, from houses erected on a 
piece of ground forty feet higher than the general level, 
sixteen died of cholera out of every hundred thousand ; from 
forty to sixty feet, eleven in every hundred thousand ; from 
sixty to eighty, four in every hundred thousand ; from eighty 
to one hundred, only three deaths in a hundred thousand ; 
while in houses not over twenty feet above the general eleva- 
tion, thirty-one persons died of cholera in every hundred 
thousand ; and, without giving a special reason for it here, I 
only remark that temperate persons may have almost an entire 
immunity from cholera during an epidemic, by sleeping thirty 
feet or more above the ground, by eating breakfast before 
going out of doors in the morning ; and, thirdly, by having a 
good fire kindled at sundown, and not going out of doors after- 
wards, as explained at page above quoted. 

Although the whole Jan'y number was taken up with the 
subject of Cholera, and a great part of this number, yet I feel 
it important to say something towards counteracting a general 
and most dangerous error, disseminated and constantly repeated 
by newspaper editors, — very particularly so by some of the 
£Tew York Daily press, and that, too, in face of the fact, that 
some of these papers have medical editors in their department. 
This fatal error is, that Cholera is a very mysterious disease, 

32 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and, in the main, falls upon its victim with the suddenness and 
fatality of a thunderbolt. The inevitable and practical result 
is, that a species of terror attends an attack of Cholera, in a 
vast number of instances, having a more injurious effect than 
the disease itself. A case in hand is given in the Buffalo Ke- 
public of the 27th July : 

" A strong, healthy laboring man was seized with Cholera. 
The moment he became aware that the disease was upon him, 
he grew excited, calling for all the medical aid that could be 
got around him. They came, administered remedies, and con- 
sulted together, and were earnest in their endeavors to do every 
thing in their power to save him. The man was still frantic 
with fear, and called upon them individually to save him. 
' Save my life,' said he, ' and I will give you one thousand dol- 
lars.' His physicians tried to calm his feelings and subdue his 
fears, assuring him that it was absolutely necessary that he 
should be calm and tranquil in order to give effect to the me- 
dicine and check the disease. Fear, however, had taken such 
firm hold of him that he could not refrain from continued cries 
for help until prostrated and unable to speak, when death put 
an end to his sufferings and fears." 

Let it be remembered by all, that there is no positive evi- 
dence that any man ever dies within twenty-four hours after 
the first onset of the disease. I make the statement with great 
deliberation, and certainly not without many searching inqui- 
ries and close observations. I have never yet, in a single in- 
stance, failed to find, that even days before, something was 
amiss, but so slight as not to fix attention, and almost to be un- 
remembered in a dozen hours afterwards. I earnestly trust 
that educated physicians — men of age and character in the 
community — will make observations in this direction, and come 
out openly, under their own proper signatures, and let the peo- 
ple know something tangible, something practical on this 
death-dealing subject. How is it that in twenty years medical 
men have not arrived at some few general principles, practical 
in their nature — some few principles so intuitively truthful as 
to command the unanimous assent of the commonest observers. 
Such principles do exist, and they ought to be searched out 
and published by authority. For example, in the first stages 
of cholera in actual existence, there is a wanting to rest; nature. 

Observations on Cholera. 33 

reason, common sense, instinct — all teach that rest of the most 
perfect kind should be observed ; and yet what physician does 
not know how fruitlessly men fight against this inclination and 
perish in the contest. All classes or sects of physicians claim 
the successful treatment of cholera, and no doubt all are mdre 
or less successful — those who bleed and those who do not ; 
those who give calomel and those who deprecate its employ- 
ment as useless, if not fatal ; those who give nothing but inter- 
nal remedies ; those who d<s nothing but make external appli- 
cations ; those who starve and those who feed ; those who 
drown with water and those who deny a drop. It seems to me 
quite apparent that the reason all modes of treatment are 
more or less effectual, does not lie in the fact that cholera is 
not a dangerous or a critical disease, but that there must be 
some , general principles of treatment which run through all 
the modes practised. If these general principles could be 
culled out, and, in addition, some really first symptom of cho- 
lera were fixed on, far earlier than the painless looseness, then 
not a creature need die where millions now do ! 

Eeader of mine, in the shades of the forties, you have found 
more than once or twice, that in times of real difficulty, if you 
could not help yourself, you had to go unhelped. This is as it 
should be — it makes men self-reliant ; he who is always helped 
remains a baby always, and his name and memory rot in 
" ninety days after" his body. This being so, let us help our- 
selves, in the present dearth of help amid such myriads of doc- 
tors and certain infallible cures for cholera, and endeavor to find 
some two or three or more things which all " pathies " attend 
to in the treatment of the fearful scourge. 

1st. It is becoming a matter of universal assent, that in cho- 
lera times, a painless, weakening, inodorous, watery, light- 
colored looseness of the bowels is actual cholera. Few die 
who instantly call in competent medical aid. 

2d. All admit the imperative, the absolute necessity of per- 
fect quietude from the instant the first symptom is noticed. . 

3d. So few deny, over their own proper names, that swal- 
lowing ice is beneficial, or, if not attainable, ice-cold water, in 
one or two swallows only at a time, repeated every few minutes 
when there is thirst, we may safely take this as a third general 

84 HdWs Journal of Health. 

4th. ~No one denies that the looseness should be arrested 
without delay. 

5th. That it is madness not to secure the services of a regu- 
lar practising physician at the earliest moment. 

6th. If at all possible, make a positive arrangement that the 
medical attendant shall see you once an hour, until the crisis 
is past. 

Now, if instead of the first general principle above named, 
mine is substituted — that, in cholera times, the first symp- 
tom of the onset of cholera is simply a weakening uncomfort- 
ableness about the belly — then cholera will become one of the 
least fatal of all known diseases. 

If newspaper editors were to cause these items to be univer- 
sally known and believed — as the press only can do — then 
would I be willing that every cholera prescription ever pub- 
lished, except in standard medical works, should be blotted 
from the memory of man ; and certain I am that human life 
thereby would be an infinite gainer. 

I have now occupied some thirty pages of my Journal in 
giving my views on Cholera ; but no subscriber will think I 
have given too much importance to the subject, should he be 
attacked himself, or have a dear child just on the verge of col- 
lapse, as the Editor had, while penning the August article on 
the subject, waiting until the last safe moment, in his unwil- 
lingness to give medicine, yet having an unfaltering confidence 
in the value of pure calomel, judiciously given, and well 

To sum up, then, all I have said, in a few words, 

If you have, in cholera times, any reason to believe that it 
is attacking you, the first prescription is — and it is of immea 
surable importance — send for your physician; or, rather, if 
you happen to be from home, at your office or counting-house, 
get a carriage, and call on him on your way home. 

2d. As soon as you enter your house, do not wait to undress, 
but lie down on the first bed you come to, undressing at your 
leisure, and let nothing pass your mouth but ice, or, if not 
attainable, cold w T ater, — one or two swallows at a time, and 
not oftener than as many minutes apart ; but if you have ice, 
you can eat it as voraciously as you desire, — but take neither 
ice nor water unless you are thirsty. 

Observations on Cholera. 85 

3d. This third item is conditional. If the symptoms are 
urgent, or you find yourself becoming nervous, and a physician 
cannot possibly be had within two hours, — then swallow ten or 
twenty grains of calomel, in pill, if there is sickness at stomach ; 
if not, it will do you more good to take it on the end of a 
spoon-handle or case-knife, and plaster it over the back part 
of the tongue, washing it down with cold or iced water, taking 
at the same time, if so disposed, at least as much super-carbon- 
ate of Soda, as an apparent preventive, in some instances, of 
salivation, and wait until your physician comes. 

It requires a philosopher to march up to the cannon's mouth 
while the match is just descending on the touch-hole, in spite 
of the gunner's assurance that he will not fire it off ; and not 
less a quantum of firmness does it require to resist the inces- 
sant importunities of those we love, to be doing something; if 
you have any disposition to gratify them, without injuring 
yourself, and yet do some additional good, introduce into 
the rectum a long piece of opium, which, in the shape of a 
ball, was half as large as a common-sized filbert, or, as called 
by others, hazlenut. 

" Do let me alone," is the very frequent petition of a cholera 
patient, unless he is a stranger and has no money ; in that case, 
there is no kind of necessity for a repetition of the prayer. 

Since the first four pages of this February article on Cho- 
lera were put in type, I have purchased the August number 
of the New York Medical Gazette, the regular exchange not 
having come to hand ; and having read it since its first publi- 
cation, I did not wish to be without it — and such, I hope, will 
be the feeling of the subscribers to the Journal of Health for 
years to come — for somehow or other, any man who takes and 
pays regularly for a periodical, gets to like it and the editor 
too ; or, at the very least, to feel 6ut of sorts if he does not get 
it at the appointed time. The Gazette says of our August No., 
as an offset to its commendation, that it regards, 

1st, The definition of Cholera as defective. 

2d, The theory radically inadequate. 

3d, The treatment imperfect. 

This criticism is correct in the main ; for as to the definition, 
designing it for popular use, we wanted to present one main, 
easily understood, and easily remembered idea. I did pre- 

36 HaWs Journal of Health. 

cisely as I have a thousand times wished our ministers would 
do, that is, to give in each sermon one clear and grand idea, im- 
pressed in such a manner, that on his way home, the hearer is 
not inclined to talk or think of anything else. Time nor the 
daily battle with the world will ever burn that idea out. If 
clergymen would do this, they would not run out of ideas in 
every fLye or six years, and resign on account of ill health. I 
name this as an incidental preventive of Cholera ; for it is 
enough to cause more than cholera to be in the chase of new 
ideas in mid-summer, for weeks at a time, and yet not a single 
one be caught — not in a whole year. Whose health wouldn't 
give out under such circumstances ? The one-idea sermon has 
two great advantages — it would be necessarily short, and being 
to the point, too, there would not be a sleepy or " forgetful 
hearer of the word " in all the congregation. So in my defini- 
tion of Cholera, I wanted the unprofessional reader to see, and 
feel, and remember the one main, practical idea, that Cholera 
was excessive motion of the bowels, and that its cure, except 
in advanced stages, was perfect quietude. 

2d. " Theory inadequate." I often think myself that theory 
is a fool, and theorizers foolees. But whatever may be the 
respective merits of my theory, and that of the Gazette, both 
lead to the same practice ; for in answer to the question, 
"What shall we do in Cholera?" proposed by many city 
friends, subscribers, and former pupils, the Gazette advises four 
things: 1st, a physician ; 2d, laudanum ; 3d, ice; 4th, "all 
previous treatment being palliative" calomel in quantity pro- 
portioned to the violence of the attack, taken by being plas- 
tered on the tongue and washed down with ice-water. Now, 
if the Editor of the Medical Gazette had not have been old 
enough to be our greaty-great-grandfather, and forgotten, per- 
haps, more than we ever knew about general medicine, we 
might have concluded that the advice he gave in his August 
number, issued August 1st, was taken from the August num- 
ber of the Journal mailed to exchanges, 20th July. 

3d. " Treatment imperfect." And so it was purposely de- 
signed. I wished the 'patient to know no more than what it 
was necessary to do while his physician was coming ; and al- 
though, as the Gazette admits, "in very many cases there 
could be no better practice," and nothing more would be 

Observations on Cholera. 37 

needed, there are some cases which require more ener- 
getic means than ten or fifteen grains of calomel. My ob- 
ject was not to cause the patient to feel that he was fully 
armed at all points ; for then he would not send for a physi 
cian at all ; and one of the main objects of the article would 
have been wholly frustrated, that is, the early call of the family 
physician, which the editor himself insists upon, is the very 
first and most important thing to be done in every instance. I 
think one of the best points in the Jan'y number is the scan- 
tiness of the advice in reference to the actual medical treat- 
ment. It is not my intention that this Journal shall ever con- 
tain an article that, by any torture, can be made to take the 
administration of medicine out of the hands of the regularly 
educated and honorable allopathic practitioner, except in cases 
where the delay of an hour or two would be death. I do not 
say that I will even do this, except in very rare cases, which, 
indeed, I might do in justice to those of my subscribers who 
reside in the country, and may not be, as many are, within ten 
miles of a physician. 

I should have been glad, and the public would have been 
instructed, if the Editor of the New York Medical Gazette had 
given his opinion as to the truth of the main idea of my Cho- 
lera article, to wit : that, in cholera times, any " weakening, 
abdominal uncomfortableness " should be regarded as the fore- 
runner of actual cholera, and that, at that point, quietude is a 
prompt, perfect, and permanent cure. Dr. Pees is a veteran 
in the Medical Profession, an author of celebrity, and of large 
and long opportunities of observation, — and these, combined 
with a classical education, entitle his opinions (as they really 
receive) to the respectful consideration of educated practition- 
ers, and he, and Dr. Mott, and Horace Green, and Mussy, and 
Warren, and Jackson of Philadelphia, are the very men who 
ought to have come forward long ago and popularized the 
nature, first symptoms, and the un-medical treatment, while 
waiting for the physician's arrival. The public has honored 
and enriched these men, and had a right to look to them when 
the scourge came ; but, as far as I know, they have kept in the 
shade, while younger men have been afraid ; and thus, with- 
out a light or a guide, the people have died grasping at straws, 
which anonymous scribblers and ignorant or unprincipled 

38 Hall's Journal of Health. 

vendors of cholera preventives and cholera specifics have 
thrown in their way. 

Another last word as to the value of calomel, alone, in cho- 
lera. Taking allopathic practice as our guide, may we not cull 
out a seventh first principle in the management of Cholera, as 
follows: Very few, indeed, of regular practitioners ever 
attempt the treatment of a single case of cholera without the 
use of calomel, or of mercury in some other form ; some com- 
bine opium, others use calomel alone — both are unquestion- 
ably successful. Cannot the unprejudiced general reader see, 
then, that after all, calomel is the efficient agent, — and, inas- 
much as opium undeniably produces fatal effects, sometimes 
in the form of convulsions, congestions and water on the brain, 
while by detaining the calomel in the system too long, it causes 
salivation, mercurial fever, loosening the teeth, eating away 
the gums, and sometimes large holes in the cheeks of children, 
which nothing but death can arrest, — I ask the simple ques- 
tion, is it not imprudent, to say the least of it, to advise any 
one not a physician to take opium in any form, or opium in 
combination with calomel, for cholera, or anything else, unless 
the physician is by to superintend its administration ? What I 
glory/in, as a medical practitioner, is to be on the safe side — 
my motto, from earliest practice, has been, rather let a patient 
die without medicine, than with too much. 

I know of no paper published on the subject of Cholera, 
which has been so largely and so generally copied from, as 
that of our Jan'y Number. Physicians from different parts 
of the country have applied for it. The secular newspapers 
have, as far as I have seen, given it a unanimous and friendly 
commendation ; while the Medical press has also regarded it 
with favor, one of them declaring, that as a general rule, 
" there could be no better practice," and that " it is greatly to 
be preferred to any newspaper article" that has come under its 
notice. To my medical brethren I desire to say, that they will 
be disappointed in it. It was not designed to instruct them, 
but to present to the people for practical observance, some 
general, main principles, intuitively seen, readily understood, 
and easy to be remembered. Medical men entertain different 
views as to the theory of the disease, — but that is pretty much 
like the " how " of the origin of a fire ; the fire is there, and 

Observations on Cholera. 39 

all agree that water must be applied to put it oat. So all 
classes of physicians admit that the " looseness " must be 
speedily arrested ; and the main reliance of legitimate medi- 
cine is calomel and its combinations. Where I stand out from 
them, is in the manner of using the calomel. Now, there is 
something so curious in this, that I wish to draw editorial at- 
tention to the subject ; for it must be admitted, that a new 
profession has arisen among men, and that the Press vies with 
the Pulpit in the regulation of the world ; reforms cannot pro- 
gress without its aid — prejudices cannot be annihilated, and 
newer and more truthful views substituted, without its co- 
operation. Christian men, especially, ought to understand 
that a united tripod will sweep before it the Faculty, the Pul- 
pit, and the Bar, as the whirlwind sweeps the chaff of the 
threshing-floor ; and the time has already come when young 
men should be educated for the sanctum with as much direct- 
ness as they are educated for law, physic, or divinity. It used 
to be said, with resistless truth, " like people, like priest ;" and 
not less so is it to-day, as the papers, so are the people. For 
example, look at German newspapers — look at German prin- 
ciples in the United States, — infidel in sentiment, they openly 
propose in practice the abolition of the Sabbath, the marriage 
tie, and, in effect, all commercial municipal law. But what 
has this to do with Cholera ? Much, every way. I want the 
Press to understand its position, its power, and its duty, — and., 
feeling its high responsibility, lend me a hand in ameliorating 
human suffering, by widely diffusing correct and consistent 
views as to the nature of a disease, which, since its malignant 
appearance at Jeddore, in eighteen hundred and seventeen, is 
estimated to have destroyed about eighteen millions of the 
human family. Let the press, then, join in diffusing knowledge 
among men, as to four great points : The Nature, The Causes, 
The Prevention, The Early Treatment of Epidemic Cholera. 

Its Nature, a weakening condition of the bowels. 

Its Causes, dirt and intemperance, in eating, quite as much 
as in drinking. 

Its Prevention, cleanli/ness, temperance, and a quiet mind. 

Its Early Treatment, quietude, and the prompt call of a 

I believe that on these four points there is a perfect unani- 

40 Hall's Journal of Health. 

mity among all classes of physicians, everywhere; but the 
people, the masses, somehow or other, do not feel its truth, 
and that is because they have not been informed with a pre- 
cision and consistency sufficient to arrest the attention and 
secure the assent of the understanding. 

Another reason for the digression made awhile ago, is, I 
wished the attention of editors drawn to the fact, that while a 
proper self-respect and common policy should prompt them to 
leave purely medical questions to be discussed by medical 
men, yet there are some points, of a practical character, upon 
which they may very properly exercise a dignified and judi- 
cious observation, and one of these points is the administration 
of calomel in cholera. 

If I were attacked with undisputed cholera, I would do four 
things : 

1st, Lie down ; 2d, eat ice, if thirsty ; 3d, bind a piece of 
woollen flannel tightly around the abdomen ; 4th, take calomel. 

This fourth item requires a more extended mention. I would 
take an amount supposed to be sufficient. If it did not arrest 
the passages within two hours, I would double that amount, 
and continue to double each last dose at the end of each second 
hour, until the disease was arrested. 

Now it is the reason for this, to which I wish to direct edi- 
torial attention, as entirely competent to decide whether the 
practice is wise or not. 

Since calomel, or calomel with opium are given as a stand- 
ard prescription in allopathic practice, and both with success, 
it seems plain that calomel is the efficient agent. 

Dr. Jackson, who, for a long period, was in the service of 
the Hon. East India Company, says, that pure calomel was " a 
leading, indispensable remedy in the treatment of malignant 
cholera, none other being thought of in India" where the cho- 
lera has raged with all its terrible malignity for more than 
thirty-five years. 

"Why, then, do some physicians in this country combine with 
the calomel some form of opium 1 To " anchor it," they ex- 
press themselves ; to hold it in the system ; to keep it from 
passing off without accomplishing anything. The argument is 
this : a small force held on, against a larger force at once ap- 
plied. Fire makes water boil — a greater fire makes it boiler. ' 

Observations on Cholera. 41 

The East India practice, where cholera is seen in a more furi- 
ously malignant form than can be witnessed here, is to increase 
the force of the agent — that is, give larger doses ; and if near 
forty years' experience, in the most violent forms of the dis- 
ease, has led to the general adoption of the practice, in the 
most enlightend part of India, — that is, under the more imme- 
diate eye of the East India Company, — the fair presumption 
is, that being " the " practice in severer forms, it is the better 
practice in milder cases. 

But why do not physicians here increase the force — that is, 
the quantity of calomel ? They are afraid. I do not mean to 
say of my brethren, that they are afraid of popular prejudice, 
or of pecuniary loss by abatement of practice, — because the 
true physician knows no mortal fear ; it is the fear of humanity, 
that he may injure his fellow-citizen, his neighbor, his friend, 
who has placed his life in his hands — higher confidence than 
this, can no man place on earth. But what is he afraid of ? 
The baseless fabric of a vision. 

The ground of this fear is, that by a few grains of calomel, 
comparatively speaking, consequences severely injurious have 
sometimes taken place — effects which last for life ; reasoning, 
that if a small amount of gunpowder occasions disastrous results 
when fire is applied, a greater amount of powder would be 
attended with proportional injury. Seasoning by comparison 
is always dangerous. A gentleman, reading the Jan'y No., 
concluded he would carry a few ten-grain calomel pills in his 
pocket, and applied to a German apothecary to put up half-a- 
dozen for him. " What are you going to do with ten-grain 
calomel pills ?" in evident astonishment. " I will swallow 
them, if necessary." " Are you going to kill yourself?" And 
when it is remembered that German apothecaries are scien- 
tific men, educated expressly for the purpose, the reader may 
see the extent of the general prejudice when it pervades the 
intelligent classes. 

Will any physician in New York, or out of it, who opposes 
ten, twenty, fifty-grain pure calomel doses, inform me by mail, 
at my expense, if he ever knew a man to take a hundred grains 
of calomel at a time ; if not, then all that he imagines as to 
large doses of calomel being injurious, is purely hypothetical. 

Calomel in a man is, in some respects, like sugar in a cup of 

42 HalVs Journal of Health. 

coffee : you can sweeten the coffee to a certain point — beyond 
that you cannot go ; the coffee takes up no more, and the sugar 
falls to the bottom, and no use is made of it. In a state of 
disease, the human system will take up a certain required 
'amount of a single dose of calomel, and will take up no more ; the 
remainder is hurtless and useless, and passes from the system 
mainly unchanged. This was the principle adopted by John 
Estin Cook, our honored preceptor, who had, in our opinion, 
one of the greatest purely medical minds of this or any other 
age or nation : but he was considered, on the subject of calo- 
mel, as mad as a March hare, or as the Apostle Paul, and for 
the same reasons, that is Paul, not the hare : 

1st. He was fifty years ahead of his time. 

2d. He, like most minds of mark, was not understood. The 
fog of prejudice was so thick, that his express declarations 
would be interpreted to the very reverse of his intentions. The 
impression became so general, that he "gave so much calomel" 
he was scarcely able to make a living by the practice of his pro- 
fession. The same is said of the immortal Harvey. The actual 
facts were, that in any given case, he would, in the course 
of his treatment of it, give less calomel than other physicians. 
" Young gentlemen," he would say, with his manuscript lec- 
ture in one hand, and his spectacles astride the fore-finger of 
the other, sawing the air with great earnestness, " the differ- 
ence between us is this : I give a man a single dose of calomel 
— you call it a large one — and I cure him up in a day or two ; 
you give a little at a time, often repeated, and at the end of 
many days he is convalescing, — you, in the mean time, having 
given in the aggregate five times as much as I would." 

In general practice, he did not often give more than five or 
six grains at a time ; but in urgent cases, where danger was 
imminent, he was a perfect Napoleon — he feared nothing 
when his patient's safety was involved — and I have known 
him to give from one hundred to three hundred grains of pure 
calomel at a single time, with the most triumphant success, in 
the restoration of the patient to perfect health, without saliva- 
tion or any appreciable subsequent ill result. It is known, too, 
that Southern physicians, thrown as they often are by frequent 
and great exposures, into desperate situations, have been known 
to grope their way at midnight to the calomel jar in their 

Observations on Cholera. 43 

offices, and catch it up in their fingers, as men do flour from a 
barrel, and swallow it down, and be visiting their patients 
within the next twenty-four hours. If the reader will turn to 
one of the old dispensatories, he will find that five grains of the 
sub -nitrate of Bismuth was considered a dose which might he I 
increased gradually to twelve or fifteen grains at a time ; and 
it was considered dangerous, becanse poisonous, to go much 
beyond that. I use it in certain forms of loose bowels, in 
doses of a teaspoonful, or a hundred grains, three times a day, 
and that with admirable advantage, apparently without any 
medicinal effect whatever, seeming to do good by acting as a 
mechanical coating over the tender surface of the intestines. 
And yet for generations it had been dribbled out in doses of 
five and ten grains, — the tyrant Authoeitt wielding, as it al- 
ways does, the sceptre of a despot. Here is a case parallel 
with that of calomel. Men have drawn back with consterna- 
tion at large doses, without ever having had the courage to 
take or give a large dose, and see for themselves what its 
effects would be, basing their practice on mere conjecture 
from the effects of small doses, or in combination with other 

In an able historical article in the New York Herald of the 
2d August, the writer says that he " was, at one time, in 1834, 
attacked in a most violent manner with Asiatic Cholera, when 
he took about six or seven even teaspoonsful of calomel before 
one remained on his stomach. Eeaction then commenced, and 
he was next day enabled to walk out. The only external re- 
medy used was the temporary application of a mustard plaster 
over the stomach. The only inconvenience he felt was a slight 
ptyalism, from his susceptibility to the influence of mercury. 
But this was nothing to dying. He then tried the same treat- 
ment in other violent cases with the most uniform and perfect 
success. In 1840 he experienced another attack of cholera in 
Liverpool, and again cured himself by similar treatment. He 
became acquainted with Dr. Jackson, who had enjoyed great 
experience in the treatment of the disease during a long period 
in the Hon. East India Company's service. He informed us 
that the calomel practice, in the form and manner we have 
described it, formed the most successful practice of any 

44 Hall's Journal of Health. 

While such are my sentiments as to giving calomel, largely, 
in desperate cases, I do not advocate its free use in general 
practice, where I have seldom given over four grains at a time, 
and not oftener than once a week ; and with certain nauseants 
not necessary to be named in a popular Journal, I find that it 
does not fail once in a thousand times to act within the twelve 
hours, and hence nothing is given afterwards to carry it off, as 
it takes care of itself. It is the weak-minded admirer of a great 
theorist who runs the principle into the ground, making the 
step from the sublime to the ridiculous so short, that the preju- 
diced and the hide-bound " have it all their own way." 

Gentlemen of the Press, having taken a common-sense view 
of the statements I have made, do you feel prepared to abide 
by the pure calomel treatment, administered with a bold hand, 
in case you are seriously attacked yourselves ? Then let me 
arm you with a succinct statement of the advantages of it. 

1st. Calomel is tasteless, and therefore can be easily taken 
by small babies and grown ones. 

2d. It will remain on the stomach when even water is ejected 
with a powerful force the moment it is swallowed. Can't you 
see the utter inutility of every other remedy, of even a specific 
that would cure every case in ten minutes after it was swal- 
lowed, when you can't keep it in the stomach a half minute ? 

3d. Calomel costs almost nothing, is to be had at every drug 
store, and is furnished without charge at the dispensaries. 
What is the use of talking about the advantages of pure brandy 
to the multitudinous poor, who seldom have a shilling ahead ? 
Then again, where is that brandy ? Besides, every physician 
knows it will kill any man who relies upon it in any case of 
actual Cholera. 

4th. A double or tenfold dose of calomel can't kill you. 
Death, simply by an overdose of calomel, is impracticable. 
But if you take an overdose of opium, in any of its forms, 
alone or with calomel, or with, any other medicine, a very 
speedy death is certain ; while in a quantity not considered a 
very large dose, it very frequently, when given for loose bowels 
in children, gives water on the brain, — and, in adults, causes 
convulsions, congestion, typhoid fevers, and death — death, too, 
in one of its worst forms, — allowing you to linger for hours 
and days in an unconscious stupor, and in that state to pass 

Observations on Cholera. 45 

from all we lore. Let not such a death be mine ; let my eyes 
be open, and my intellect as clear as the dewdrop of the morn- 
ing, when that great hour comes to me. 

Trusting that what I have said will invite the unprofessional 
reader to reflection, to think for himself, and that medical men 
may be stimulated to renew their investigations, with a view 
to more truthful and more practicable ideas on a subject 
which involves the lives of unborn millions, I here introduce 
two or three articles from other sources, not endorsing what is 
said of anodynes, stimulants, or the innnitessimal dilutions, — 
the last being as yet a terra incognita, an unexplored country, 
a domain where I would like to travel, had I the time which 
thousands have so much of, yet do not use, except in studying 
how to kill it often. What a murder — what a profanation. I 
am inclined to think there is something in Homoeopathy ; for, 
as far as my observations have gone, it acts on the principle of 
the bread-pills of the regulars — they give their bread-pills with 
a serious face and a confident anticipation of good results ; and 
I see no reason why the little white ones should not do as well 
— they certainly go down easier. 


''Suppose our profession should arouse and make a combined 
movement to help the community to an accurate discrimina- 
tion of the disease in its early stage. Why don't our editors 
instruct the public ? The distinction between Asiatic Cholera 
and common domestic diarrhoea is palpable and easy, and every 
man can carry that distinction in his memory. Cannot an un- 
educated man tell certainly if he has an evacuation which is 
copious, watery, colorless, painless, and inodorous t Any man 
of ordinary talents can ascertain, in two minutes, that some- 
thing has happened to him which he never experienced before. 
I said painless. It is this quality of the evacuation which leads 
men to the amazing apathy so common, and permits them to 
let hours, even days elapse before the physician is at his post. 
As this Asiatic destroyer may become Americanized, 
our people must be able to make an early discrimination, and 
our profession must learn how to prevent the fatal collapse. 
Why will not the editors instruct their readers that they can 
better afford to lose a pint of common red blood than a pint of 

46 Hallrs Journal of Health. 

this colorless blood of cholera ? How hopeless is the state of 
the patient from whom gallons of liquid, colorless nutriment 
have escaped ! 

If the editors, and especially my medical brethren, could 
feel as I do on the subject of incipient cholera, and lend us 
their facts and thoughts through the medical journals, in short, 
condensed paragraphs, my hopes would be answered. 

Having been watching every movement since this disease 
first broke out near Calcutta, in 1817, I have seen no scheme 
so rational as that fixed on by the Army Board of Surgeons of 
Bengal, and, according to reports, more successful when taken 
in the early stage. It consisted of heroic doses of calomel, 
combined with opium sufficient to anchor the calomel and re : 
tain it in the bowels. The formula was a combination of 15 
grains of calomel and 4 grains of opium. Possibly it was five 
grains of opium. Fifteen or twenty grains of calomel every 
four hours, with opium only sufficient to control the bowels, 
must have a powerful and rapid effect in changing the secre- 
tions. But if every business man would keep a powder of the 
above description in his pocket to swallow if occasion required, 
it would scarcely do harm, and would greatly aid the efforts of 
the physician employed." 

M. L. North. 

Saratoga Springs. 



At a meeting of the Hahnemann Academy of Medicine, 
held July 16, 1854, the Committee on Cholera reported the fol- 
lowing instructions for the domestic management of this dis- 
ease : 

1. Avoid crowded assemblies and crowded sleeping apart- 
ments, and as much as possible shun the presence of filthy 
persons, for the disease is mostly developed in crowded dwell- 
ings, ships, prisons, camps, &c. 

2. Observe cleanliness of person and enjoin the same upon 
your household. * 

3. Dwellings — especially the sleeping apartments — should in 
all cases be thoroughly ventilated. 

HalVs Journal of Health. 47 

4. Pursue your ordinary course of diet, observing some mo- 
deration as to vegetables and fruits. Night meals are to be 
avoided. Regularity in the hours of eating is very desirable. 
Alcoholic drinks are objectionable, the intemperate being par- 
ticularly liable to this disease. Ice-water and ices should be 
used with extreme moderation. Articles of diet known to dis- 
agree with the regular action of the bowels should be most 
scrupulously avoided. 

5. Avoid mental or bodily excitement or fatigue. Keep the 
person warmly clad. 

6. Cathartics and laxatives must be wholly avoided. No 
means should be taken to remove constipation, except such as 
are prescribed by a physician. The use of laudanum, opium, 
or cholera mixtures of any kind is hazardous. 

7. It is better to take no medicine as preventative of cholera, 
but the slightest derangement of the bowels should be met by 
appropriate treatment. 

8. Should there be oppression or sickness at the stomach, 
shiverings or dizziness, with or without relaxed bowels, Ipecac 
of the second or third trituration or dilution, may be taken 
every two or three hours. 

9. If there be watery looseness of the bowels, with or without 
nausea, pain or cramps, take one drop of Veratrum, first dilu- 
tion, every half hour or hour. 

10. If the *diarrhoea should become profuse, with or without 
pain or vomiting, discharges very frequent, being watery or 
resembling rice-water, with or without cramps, coldness, and 
blueness, with rapid sinking, take one or two drops of the spir- 
its of camphor every iivQ or ten minutes until reaction takes 

From the moment the diarrhoea becomes urgent, the patient 
should go to bed and be well wrapped with blankets. Bottles 
of hot water should be applied to the feet, and medical aid at 
once be summoned. No external use of camphor is advisable 
while other remedies are employed. 

Published by order of the Hahnemann Academy of Medi* 
cine, New York. 

48 HalVs Journal of Health, 

It may seem out of time and place, to fill two whole num- 
bers of this Journal with remarks on the Cholera, in the win- 
ter time, when it has never prevailed in our country during 
that season, and may not appear among us in the next ten 
years. But, in all probability it will visit us next summer : 
such is the apprehension of scientific men ; and such has been 
its usual course ; hence, it is thought advisable to consider the 
subject in time, especially as there are four facts of inconceiv- 
able importance, which ought to be known to every human 
being liable to an attack. 

First. The primary cause of Cholera is in the atmosphere, 
but that primary cause may be said to be almost as incapable 
of causing an individual attack of Cholera, as powder is incapa- 
ble of detonation, without the application of a spark ; or as 
tubercle is incapable of causing common consumption of the 
lungs without the application of causes which soften it, this 
softening being the actual disease. 

Second. The immediate cause of epidemic cholera, that is, 
the thing which excites cholera in a choleric atmosphere, is an 
emanation from the surface of the earth, in localities where 
vegetable matter and house offal is in a state of decomposition, 
with certain exceptions. 

Third. There is scarcely any ordinary disease which is so 
easily and so certainly prevented, as cholera. 

Fourth. It is difficult to remember the name of any disease, 
which is so easily and so infallibly and so perfectly cured, as 
epidemic cholera, if prompt measures are taken at the very 
first indications of its approach ; this Fourth head has been 
fully presented in the preceding pages ; it is the third, to 
which special, present and personal attention is directed, that 
is, the easy preventability of cholera, if timely and possible 
efforts be made to that end. 

During the last prevalence of cholera,it made its appearance 
in only one house in a large district of houses, which had been 
closely inspected and cleansed. On closer investigation, a 
large heap of house and kitchen offal, the apparent accumula- 
tion of years, was found in a dark corner of the cellar. 

In one of the larger cities in the northern part of the State 
of New- York, the cholera made its first,its most malignant and 

HalVs Journal of Health. 49 

long continued onset, on the line of a street which was in pro- 
cess of being dug up for some necessary improvement, a filling 
having been made there,, and some years before. 

While the Erie Canal was in process of construction, and 
also again in building the Hudson River Railroad, destructive 
fevers attacked the workmen engaged in those parts of the line 
where the fillings up of low places with leaves, rotten wood, 
&c, had gone on for great lengths of time. The practical con- 
clusions which force themselves on th<» most common minds is 
that, 1st, Every householder owes it to himself, to his family, 
to his neighbors, and to the community in which he. resides, to 
have his house, from cellar to garret, from the street curb to 
the rear line of his lot, most scrupulously cleansed, by sweep- 
ing, washing and whitewashing: 2d, Every man who has any 
authority in city or town government, should consider himself 
bound by the oath of office, and by every consideration of hu- 
manity, to give himself no rest, until every street, alley, close 
gutter and sewer, is placed in a state of as perfect cleanliness 
as possible, and kept so, until the frosts of next season come. 
3d, These cleansings should be done now, in February and 
March, because, if put off until warm weather, the very effort 
necessary to the removal of filth, will only tend, in the essen- 
tial nature of things, to hasten the appearance of the disease, 
to increase its malignity, and to extend the time of its devasta- 
tions ; because, the suns of spring and summer the sooner warm 
into life and intensify the viperic and malignant influence, 
which, in its remorseless tread, wrecks so much of human hap- 
piness and desolates so many hearth stones. 

50 HaWs Journal of Health. 

" A Father's Letters to his Daughter," by Robert West. 

" Effie Morrison or the Family of the Redbraes," a narrative 
of truth, by the author of Allan Cameron, &c, 157 pp. 

A dollar and a quarter will purchase the five, and would be 
a valuable, instructive present for any child or friend. 

The American Teact Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 
Bible House, New- York, present to the christian public for 
reading in their own families and for distribution to friends, to 
kindred, to employees and to neighbors, the following, 

"Michael the Miner," a Hungarian story, 120 pp. 

"The Lolster Boy ; or the Son who was a heaviness to his 
Mother," by the Author of the Fisher Boy, 120 pp. 

"Kate Woodman, or the heart revealed," by Alice A, Bodge, 
author of The Way to the Cross, &c, pp. 229; 

"The Daughters of the Prairie," 301 pp, a narrative of great 
interest and highly instructive to young and old: 

" Frank Victory and the Nevers," 144 pp., and " The Fisher 
Boy, or the Son who made a glad Father," by the author of the 
Casket Library, 107. " The Cup Bearer," tinted paper with 
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" Victor's Stories for Boys and Girls," by the writer of Uncle 
Paul's Stories, 144 pp. Five dollars will buy all these publi- 
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the attention for weeks and even months, for they will bear 
repeated readings, and then they might be distributed here 
and there among neighbors, not only to benefit and elevate 
them, but to excite a taste perhaps for such reading, thus in- 
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" Every Saturday" Vol.1, No.l, published weekly by Tick- 
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reading, selected from foreign current literature. Single Nos. 
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articles on Precious Stones, The Spectral Rout, Tupperides, 
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Passenger, An Apology for the Nerves, : Land Martins. Who- 
ever reads the first number will want to be a subscriber. 

HalVs Journal of Health. 51 

"Every Saturday " contains 28 pages 8vo. of reading matter, 
and will be put at four dollars a year to those who take any 
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" The Mother's Assistant and Child's Friend," published 
monthly, by C. H. Pearson & Co. at 21 Cornhill, Boston, $2.50 
a year, is admirably adapted to the wants of every family, and 
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" The Richmond Medical Journal," is published at Richmond, 
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The Mother's Assistant. This is the growing Magazine, the 
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of sterling religious influence, few families can afford to do with- 
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What cannot a band of noble ladies accomplish under suitable 
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Vital Godliness: A Treatise on Experimental and Practical 
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Health Tracts, 236 in number, with a splendid steel en- 
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paid by P. C. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, for $2.50. 

X7V-A_3KT , 'X , 3E2]!0 "X'O C3rX"^7"33 to any person who will take the time and 
trouble to procure Sixty paying subscribers to Hall's Journal of Health for 1866 at $1.50 a year, 
the choice at the establishment of Wheeler & Wilson, 625 Broadway, New York, of one of their 
best Sewing Machines, which are sold for cash, at Fifty- Six Dollars each, and the same in propor- 
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frey, 831 Broadway, New York. 

52 cholera: 

Should the cholera come next summer, it will not be felt that 
we have said one word too much: We desire further to say, 
that as it may come^in a night, and with great malignity, may 
fall on multitudes of families between the setting and the 
rising of the sun, and all cannot command a physician, it is the 
part of wisdom as well as the duty of all, especially of heads 
of families, to remember that there is a probability that physi- 
cians must be extemporized for the occasion, and fortunate 
will they be who had treasured up some practical knowledge 
on the subject • for it will enable them to save many valuable 
lives, if they only make themselves masters of the external 
treatment, and to administer internal remedies, only in case no 
physician can be had. As to the external treatment, the easiest 
and simplest of all, until a medical man can be brought, two 
additional facts may be stated. Of all the physicians in Great 
Britain during the last cholera, Dr. Ayre was perhaps the most 
successful and the most celebrated. A French gentleman left 
an amount of money to be given to the writer of the best 
essay on the nature and treatment of the disease. Of all the 
articles handed in, the one which met with the most decided 
approbation was that which was founded on Dr. Ayre's prac- 
tice, which was to rely on calomel. If, then, calomel has had 
such strong advocates in America, in England, in France, 
and above all in India, it must have positive merit up to this 
time ; hence, the probabilities are in its favor, of its future 
efficacy. Physicians of #11 shades are earnestly invited to 
direct their attention to this important practical point. The 
reason for the efficacy of calomel is simply this. Cholera is 
essentially the result of the liver failing to separate the bile 
from the blood ; in medical phrase, it " secretes no bile," it is 
torpid ; asleep ; it does not work ; scientific men, the world 
over, know that no medicine so certainly, so infalliably " acts 
on the liver,' 7 that is, " sets it going," makes it work, makes it 
separate the bile from the blood, and delivers it into the bowels 
as calomel ; other medicines do this, but none of them with 
anything like the infallible certainty of calomel ; it is the bile 
which gives color to the discharges from the bowels ; in cholera 
they have no color ; as soon as they do begin to have color, 
either yellow, green or black, depending on the quantity of 
bile, we know that the cholera patient begins to get well ; and 
as the passages begin to loose their colorless appearance, they 
lessen in frequency and become thicker, more consistent ; then, 
another wheel of the human machinery begins to turn, that is, 
the kidneys begin to work ; the patient begins to urinate and 


he is safe ! No man ever did get well of actual cholera with- 
out these changes ; the first effect of an efficient dose of 
calomel in cholera is the passages are less frequent within two 
hours ; then more colored, then more consistent, and the crisis 
is past. Whatever causes fevers ordinarily, will cause cholera 
in cholera times. "Whatever depresses the mind in cholera 
times is a cause of an actual attack in individual cases ; hence, 
worriement, fear, despondency ,will bring on the disease. What- 
ever weakens the body will cause cholera, whether it be over- 
doing or any debilitating ailment. If you wait until the cholera 
appears around you, flight is fear, and fear is death ; you carry 
the seeds of the disease with you, and place yourself more 
completely beyond the possibility of skilful medical aid ; and 
even if you can get it, the difference between a stranger's in- 
terest and your own family physician is infinite odds against 
you. To every family in New- York, or other large cities, who 
doubts its courage, we say on the 1st of May next go to some 
country house in Northern New-England, especially Vermont, 
and remain there altogether if you have the means ; for the 
flatter and the warmer a country is the more it is liable to the 
scourge ; and by going before the warm weather disseminates 
the seeds of the disease, you will in proportion be safe from an 
attack. Dr: Patterson, of the Egyptian Medical Service, in a 
letter to the " London Medical Times and Gazette" says that 
the cholera of 1865 was of such a virulent form at Cairo and 
along the Mediterranean that the premonitory symptoms of 
diarrhoea were not present, but that men and women in the 
prime of life and in apparent robust health were struck down 
with it and died in from eight to twelve hours, either all the 
functions of life were suddenly suspended or instantaneous 
vomiting and purging took place, or cramps came on in the 
beginning. In all cases the engorgement of the liver was 
present, and in cases of recovery large quantities of a black 
oily substance was discharged, which was acrid bile, showing 
conclusively, as above stated, that the essence of the disease is 
the inaction of the liver, and that when it begins to work, the 
patient begins to improve and urination and recovery follow. 
It is scarcely possible, if it ever appears among us, that it will 
manifest itself in such a virulent form, because the filth and 
squalid poverty and depraved constitutions, from laziness and 
vicious habits of life, are not to be found in this country, which 
are almost universal among the semi-barbarous peoples of those 
warm countries. But as physicians will be the first to discover 
any peculiar phases of the disease, it will be the part of wis- 
dom in all cases to secure the services of a medical man at the 
very earliest possible moment. 


Brojicliitis & Kin- 
dred Diseases. 

Asthma, Common 
" Perpetual 
* Causes & Nature 
" Symptoms & Treat. 

Broschitis, what is 
" Nature & Cause 
" Symp. & Treat. 

Brandy & Throat disease 

Clerical Health 

" Cause of 

" How diseased 
" Many cases of 

Dangerous Delays 

" Exposures 
Disease Prevented 
Debilitating Indulgences 


Frail and Feeble 
Food, Tables of 

" Disease of 

How remain Cured 
High Livers 

inhalation, Medicated 
jinammation described 

Lawyers, Cases of 
Lungs described 
" Contents 
Lake Shore, situation 
Life, average duration 

Mistaken Patients* 
Merchants' Cases 

Nitrate of Silver 

Over Feeding 
Oxygen Breathing 
Overtasking Brain 


Prairie Situation 


Patent Medicines 



Smoking, Bainful elects 
Shortness of Breath 
Sea Shore 
Sea Voyages 
Spitting Blood 

l&roat Ail 

" What is it 

u Symp*«~« 

' Causes 

« PhilosopV/ 

« History 
tobacco, effects of 
tonsil Cutting 


7oioe Organs described 



Apk ie, Nature's 
Arkansas Hunter 
Air and Exercise 
Alcoholic Effects 

Bad Colds 
Brandy Drinking 

Consumption Described 
" Delusive 
w Not painless 
" Causes of 
M Symptoms 
" Localities 
« Liabilities 
** Nature of 
" Curable 
" Commencing 
«' Seeds deposited 
" Is it catching ? 

Cough, Nature of 
" Causes of 
" Effects of 

Cluster Doctrine 

Cheesy Particles 


Earliest Symptoms 
Exercise essential 

" Various forms of 

" Sinking In water 

Great Mistake 



Horseback Exercise 

Impure Air 

* Effects of 
Lacing Tight 

Night Sweats 
Nitrate of Silver 

Occupation in 
Out Door Activities 
Over Exercise 


Porter Drinking 

Respirator, Best 

Spitting Blood 
Short Breath 
Sea Voyages 
Sea Shore 
Safe Treatment 
Southern Climate 

Throat Ail, distinguished 
from Consump. 
11 From Bronchitis 
Tickling Cough 

Health & Disease 
$1.5 o. 



Anal Itching 

Appetite , 


Apples Curative 

Bowels Regulated 

Bad Breath 

Baths and Bathlag 




Binding Food 



Children, Health of 


Chills at Meals 


Clothing Changes 




Cooling off Slowly 

Chest Developed 

Clerical Rules 

Choosing Physlclarts 

Cracked Wheat 

Corn Bread 

Drinking at 








Feet Cold 

First Things 



Horseback Exercise 

Inverted Toe Nails 

Late Dinners 

Morbid Appetite 



Pleurisy and Pneumonia 

Public Speakers 



Summer Complaint 

Spring Diseases 


" Sleep J" 


Air, Deadly 

" Breathing Bid 

" State of 

« Of Crowded 

M Taints 

" Noxious 

" Bath 

« Country 

" Hills 

" Sea Shore 

" Close Rooms 

" Of Chambers 

" And Thought 

Black Hole of Caleutti 
Bodily Emanations 
Bad Habits 
Breath of Life 

Crowding, effects of 
Convulsions, Children's 
Capacity of Lungs 
Charcoal Fumes 
Chambers, Vitiated 
Chemical Affinities 

Deadly Emanations 


Electrical Influences 
Excessive Child-bearing 
as depriving of sleep,to 

Griscom's Ventilation 
Gas Burning 

Human Effluvia 
Houses and Cottages 
House Plans 
" Warming 
" " by steam 

** « by open fire plao. 

Indulgence, over 

" Measure of 

Invisible Impurities 
Marriage a safeguard 
Nocturnal Ems 
Nursing at Night 

Pure Chambers 
Physiology Books 

« " Their bad effects 
Papered Rooms 
Pernicious Instruments 
Population Control 
Ruined Youth 

Second Naps 
Sleep of Children 
Sleeping with others 
" Old with young 
" Strong with feeble 
" with Consumptivea 
« with Children 
" Well 
" How learned 

Youth's Habits 
" " How remedied 

&c. &c 

The above books are sold at the prices annexed, If 

ordered by mail, send 10 cts. for postage. Address simply, " Dr. W. W. Hall, New- York." 
Hall's Journal of Health, $1.50 a year • bound vols. $1.50 each ; 

hall's journal of health. 53 

For March, 1866. 

"Where to build and what shall be the plan of the house, are 
questions which have to be decided every year by thousands 
and thousands of enterprising farmers all over the country; 
either young men just married, who are about "opening" a 
farm in the boundless West, or by men more advanced in life, 
who, having done well, have decided to treat themselves and 
their faithful wives to a new and a better house than the one 
in which they have lived and striven so long and so well to- 

In eitjier case it is of the 'first consequence and is necessarily 
the first step to be taken, after having decided to build, to fix 
upon an answer to the question, 



Upon the wise decision of this important inquiry depends, 
to a greater or less extent, the health, the consequent happiness, 
and eventual success in life, of every young farmer. It has 
been the experience of tens of thousands who began life hope- 
fully, and who went to work with willing and brave hearts to 
" clear " a farm and make it a home for life for themselves and 
families, that they did well until sickness came, under which. 
their strength and energy wilted away like a flower without 
water; they fell behindhand, lost their energy, ran in debt 
and finally settled down in the poor ambition of only meeting 
their expenses from montii to month; their idea of getting 
ahead having been abandoned forever. 

It is demonstrably true, that the difference of a few hundred 
yards, of a dozen rods sometimes, in locating a dwelling for a 
family, is precisely the difference between its extinction, in a few 
years, by disease, and its prosperity, its health, and a large family 
of industrious manly sons, and of refined, educated, and notable 
daughters. A citizen of New- York purchased a beautiful build- 
ing site for a country residence, and after spending two years and 
a large amount of money in preparing it for the reception of his 
wife, children, and servants, he moved into it. Every body was 
delighted with the "prospect" which it afforded, of river and 
field and woodlands and distant mountains. With autumn,, 
came chills and fevers among, his servants. He abandoned it, 


•and never occupied it afterward, being wholly unwilling that 
his family should live where such a disease was possible. 

A publishing house in this city erected a private residence in 
the country, at an expense of over thirty thousand dollars; it 
could be seen for many miles around; while its spacious piaz- 
zas afforded near and distant views, which delighted every vis- 
itor. During the very first year such a deadly pestilence broke 
out among the inmates, that it was at once .abandoned, and was 
eventually "sold for a song." It is now known by residents on 
the banks of the Hudson as " Blank's Folly." ; 

A wealthy and retired citizen of New- York built for himself 
a splendid mansion up- town, about four years ago, anticipating 
that it would be his home for life. He had occupied it but a 
short time, when one by one of the members of his family were 
taken sick. A strict examination discovered the fact that the 
house had" been, erected over a "filling," the emanations from 
which constantly ascending, impregnated every room in the 
building with deleterious gases ; it was at once abandoned for 
another home. 

'The hospitals and barracks in and near Bengal are now al- 
most useless, having been built in a locality utterly 'unfitted for 
human habitations, as far as health was concerned; their erec- 
tion cost the British government sixty -five millions of dollars. 
This great waste of- money might have been altogether avoided 
by the application of a very limited knowledge of the causes of 
disease. j 

From official papers presented to the British government,, it 
is shown that of each hundred British soldiers in India, ninety- 
four disappear from the ranks before the age of thirty -five years, 
when, from military returns, it is known that "the average stand- 
ard for health for Europeans in India, would compare with that 
existing anywhere else in the civilized world, if the known 
sources of disease were dried up." It is admitted, that in forty 
years, one hundred thousand men might have been saved, u if 
proper localities had been chosen for their dwellings/" 

During the official investigations as to the causes of so much 
sickness and death at the National Hotel in Washington City 
some years ago, it was shown that there was no unusual sick- 
ness in anv of the houses across the street, and that the causes 

hall's journal of health. 55 

of the disease were under the building itself. The symptoms in 
some persons were so malignant and virulent, it became the 
general conviction that they were the result of poison having 
been designedly introduced into the food. This proves the truth 
of the assertion already made, that the difference of a few feet 
in the locality of two buildings, is the difference sometimes be- 
tween life and death. These things being so, it is a matter of 
personal happiness and pecuniary interest to every farmer who 
contemplates building a house, which is to be a home for himself 
and family, probably as long as he lives, to possess himself of 
such information as to enable him to ascertain certainly^ why 
are certain localities so prejudicial to the health of families resid- 
ing therein ? or, in other words, what is the agent which causes 
disease in this mysterious manner? , It may seem discouraging 
at first view to state that this destructive agency is as invisible 
as the viewless wind ; at the same time it will afford encourage- 
ment to be assured that its nature is known, as also some of the 
laws by which it is regulated ; and that' by an easy attention to 
them, the Samson may be shorn of his locks; and the great 
destroyer may either be avoided, or rendered as harmless as the 
gentlest touch of infancy. 

The name of this perfectly remorseless destroyer of human 
life is 


From a Greek word which means emanation ; that is, arising 
from ; because it comes up from the surface of the ear$h. It is 
a short word, but it brings weary sickness and agonizing death 
to hundreds of thousands every year; it will bring sickness and 
death, sooner or later, to many a reader of this article ; but a 
sickness and death, which, could have been avoided. 

Miasm is the principal cause of nearly every "epidemic" 
disease; that is, of every sickness which "falls upon the people ;" 
attacking numbers in any community, such as fever and ague, 
diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, bilious, intermittent, congestive 
and yellow fevers. But it is gratifying to know that it is an 
avoidable cause of disease. Money and wisely directed efforts 
can banish it from almost any locality. All that is needed is to 
know the laws of miasm, and wisely adapt ourselves to them. 

In I860, one of the daily papers of New-Orleans stated : " The 

56 MIASM. 

yellow fever lias broken out in the city under every conceivable 
variety of circumstances ; when the streets were clean and when 
they were filthy; when the river was high and when it .was 
low; after a prolonged drought, and in the midst of daily tor- 
rents ; when the heat was excessive, and when the air was 
spring-like and pleasant; when excavations and disturbances of 
the soil had been frequent, and when scarcely a pavement had 
been laid or a building erected. Almost the only fixed and un- 
deniable fact connected with the disease is, that its prevalence is 
simultaneous with the heats of summer, and that frost is its 
deadly enemy." Here, then are two important laws of miasm ; 
and scientific observation directed to that special point in all 
countries, confirms the two great truths, that, 

First. Miasm prevails in hot weather. 

Second. Miasm can not exist as a cause of disease in cold 

Third. An inference is drawn embodying a third law of 
miasm, which is, that it is a cause of disease only from June to 
October, in our latitudes. 

Fourth. A fourth law of miasm is confirmed by the now his- 
torical fact, that for three summers yellow fever has not been 
known as an epidemic in New-Orleans ; because, from the sci- 
entific views held by those in power in that city in the early 
summer of 1861, it has been kept well drained; in other words, 
it has been kept clean and dry. ; 

It is ^ithin the memory of the present generation, that some 
thirty years ago or more, the city of Louisville, in Kentucky, 
was one of the most pestilential spots in the habitable West. But 
by a wise system of filling and draining, it is now one of the 
healthiest, as well as one of the most beautiful cities of the great 

We have then arrived at four controlling facts in reference to 
miasm — that heat and moisture are essential to its production in 
any locality ; that it can not exist where there is severe frost or 
great dryness. . • . 

But as it is known the world over that miasm never exists in 
deserts, where there is nothing but dry sand and a burning heat, 
it is clear that something more than heat is necessary to cause 
miasm. But it is further known that when miasm is so malig- 

hall's journal of health. 57 

nant in localities where it is certain death to sleep A shore for 
a single night, a man can go a mile, and sleep on shipboard, 
and keep in perfect health ; this shows that something more 
than heat and moisture are necessary to the production of 
miasm. The third element is vegetation, any thing that grows 
from the earth in the nature of grass, leaves, or wood. These 
three things in combination are the great agents for the produc- 
tion of miasm; no two of them can produce it — they all must 
be present together, and for a considerable time, so as to pro- 
duce destructive decay of the vegetation, which requires a de- 
gree of heat exceeding eighty degrees of Fahrenheit. These 
three elements will always produce miasm, whether out of 
doors, under the influence of the heat of the sun, or on ship- 
board, or in an uncleanly kitchen, by the heat of stoves or fire- 

If then a farmer builds his house over a " filling," he will 
have sickness in his household. If he builds on " bottom lands," 
"made land," where running streams have in the course of 
years been depositing decaying and dead leaves, mud, etc., he 
will certainly have various diseases in his family, unless a sys- 
tem of thorough and constant draining is put in operation. 

Ponds, sluggish streams, or any accumulations of water in a 
productive soil, always yield miasm; and a dwelling in their 
vicinity will be certainly visited with miasmatic diseases, unless 
attention is paid to certain circumstances which may modify the 

Miasm is not supposed to pass a swift running stream ; hence 
if a stream runs through a farm, and one bank of it is level and 
rich, the other higher and rolling, better far, build on the ktter, 
for then the miasm of the flat land can not cross the stream, to 
the house. 


If there is no stream, but a pond or flat land, and the house * 
must be built in the vicinity, build it so that the prevailing 
winds from June to October shall blow from the house toward 
the pond or flat land, for miasm being a gas or air, is carried 
before the wind. 

It is a hazardous experiment to built on an eminence, if it 
gradually slopes to the water's edge or to a flat piece of land ; 
because miasm, like the clouds, will sometimes "roll up" the 

58 MIASM. 

side of a hftl or mountain. . It is known that vigorous growing 
bushes, or hedges or trees, between a miasm -producing locality 
and a dwelling, antagonize the miasmatic influences ; the living 
leaves seeming to absorb and feed upon the miasm ; but there 
should be a space of fifty yards at least between the hedge and 
the house; and the thicker and broader and higher the hedge, 
the better;- and the nearer the leaves are to the ground the 
better, for the miasm gropes on the surface in its greatest ma- 
lignity : and is seldom concentrated enough at the hight of ten 
feet to be materially hurtful to man, unless it comes up a slope. 
Hence, in the old cities of the world, in the times of plagues and 
pestilences, the people who could not " go to the country," had 
a custom among them to live in the upper stories of their dwell- 
ings, while the sickness raged ; they would not even come down 
stairs to obtain marketing, but would let down baskets by ropes 
to the country people, for the provisions they had to sell. But 
they failed to discover why the country people could come to 
town with impunity, while they themselves were safe from dis- 
ease in proportion as they lived in the upper stories of their 
dwellings. But a law of miasm has since been determined 
which beautifully unravels the mystery. Miasm is condensed 
by cold, made heavy, and falls to the earth, hovering, as it were, 
within a foot of its surface; hence is not breathed, unless a man 
sleeps on the ground. On the other hand, heat so rarefies 
miasm, as to make it comparatively innocuous. Hence the 
coolness of the early morning and of sundown threw the miasm 
to the surface, by condensing or concentrating it, and thus mak- 
ing it heavy ; while the heat of the day, of a summer's sun, so 
rarefied and lightened the miasm, as to send it upward to the 
clouds. The country people came to town in the daytime ! 

Less than fifty years ago, the yellow fever and other deadly 
diseases prevailed in Charleston, South-Carolina, and it Was 
known to be certain death, except to the very hardy or the ac- 
climated, to sleep in the city a single night Yet the merchants 
came to town at mid-day, under a blistering July sun, with per- 
fect impunity. Hence, from June to October, it is best for 
farmers' families to sleep in the upper stories of their dwellings. 
In this connection, it is practically useful to know that the most 
malignant agencies of nature may be rendered harmless by a 

hall's journal of health. 59 

little observation, and the wise use of a little knowledge. Miasm 
is most pernicious about sunset and sunrise, because the cooling 
of the "atmosphere at the close of the day causes it to become 
condensed above> to become heavy and fall to the earth, where 
it is breathed ; while after sundown, it has settled so near the 
earth as to be below the mouth and nostrils, hence it is not 
breathed. When the sun begins to rise in the morning, the 
miasm begins to warm and to ascend, but after breakfast it is so 
high as to be above the point at can be breathed; and 
besides, it is so rarefied, so attenuated, as to- be innocuous. 
Therefore, the great practical truth beautifully follows, that 
miasm exerts its most baleful influence on human health about 
sunrise and sunset ; hence, of all the hours of the twenty-four, 
these are the most hurtful, in which to be out of doors ; and for 
the same reason, the hours of midday and midnight are the 
most healthful to be in the open air in miasmatic seasons and 
countries ; that is, from June to October, north of; the> thirty- 
fifth degree of north latitude. 

But unfortunately the cool of the early morning and the late 
afternoon are the most pleasant times in the twenty-four: hours 
for field work, and the industrious farmer will be exceedingly 
loth to spend these hours in-doors, should his house be already 
located in a miasmatic situation. There is, however, an almost 
infallible preventive of any ill effects arising from such an ex- 
posure to miasm about sunrise and sunset, and one that is easy 
of practical application under almost any ordinary circum- 
stances ; and it ought to be made known and repeated millions 
of times through the public prints every year, until the inform- 
ation has reached every farmer's dwelling throughout the 
United States. Farmers, whose houses are already built in 
malarial districts, such as in low " made " lands, near ponds and 
stagnant water, or in the neighborhood of sluggish streams or 
marshy places, may exempt themselves almost altogether from 
the whole class of malarial diseases, such as diarrheas, dysente- 
ries, chills and fevers of nearly every grade, by eating a hearty 
and warm breakfast before they put their heads out of doors in 
the morning, and by taking their suppers just before sundown; 
the philosophy of the matter is, that a hot or hearty meal so ex- 
cites the circulation, and so invigorates the whole frame, that it 

60 .] ' MIASM. 

acquires the power of resisting the disease-engendering influences 
of miasm. A neglect of such a simple precaution,, in certain 
districts where malaria is known to exist in a concentrated form, 
is a cause of death so common as to be known and guarded 
against by the most uneducated laborers. A gentleman, a na- 
tive of the city of Eome, informed the writer that multitudes of 
■ agricultural laborers who have been employed during the day 
in the low, level damp fields near the city, come f into town 
about sundown and sleep in the streets and on the steps and 
stoops of houses; in order to avoid the sickly atmosphere of the 
evening in the "marches." No less a personage than a young 
king lost his life within two years, under the following circum- 
stances : Having to pass the night in one of his journeys at a 
house located in the midst of an extensive low land or marsh, 
and wishing to be on horseback early in the morning for a hunt, 
the landlord pressed upon him the danger of being out early, 
and that aj; least he should take his breakfast first. The impa- 
tient youth was observed early next morning sitting at his open 
window, enjoying, as he thought, the delightful air as it blew in 
upon him, and soon after ordered his horses. He became ill 
and died of fever in a few days. The writer has lived among 
the Creoles of Louisiana where vegetation is rank in swamps, 
upon which the hot summer's sun beams with fiery power for 
many hours every day ; but they are proverbially exempt from 
fevers, as are Northerners also, who adopt the habits of the Cre- 
oles — that is, to have their breakfast, or at least a cup of hot strong 
coffee with milk, brought to their bedsides before they get up of a 
morning. The value of this practice is known and appreciated 
all over the South; so that while it is greatly better to locate 
a house where miasm can not reach it from ponds or sluggish 
streams or bottom lands, a farmer whose house is already thus 
situated, is not without an efficient remedy in the plan proposed 

But there is another infallible remedy against miasmatic dis- 
eases as to families who feel themselves compelled to live in a 
house exposed to miasm. It was stated awhile ago that heat so 
rarefied miasm as to render it innocuous. No family can be 
troubled with fever and ague in any ordinary locality, if from 
June to October a brisk fire is kindled in the family ^room, to 

hall's journal of health. 61 

burn for an hour about sunrise and sunset, and if the family are 
required to repair to that room morning and evening and re- 
main there, at least until they get their breakfast in the morn- 
ing, and their supper at the close of the day. 

It follows then that ordinarily, there is nothing unhealthful in 
the night-air after supper ; on the contrary, health would be pro- 
moted, and important social benefits would accrue to country 
neighborhoods, if two or three nights of every week, after tea, 
were spent in friendly visiting, remaining not later than ten ; thus 
encouraging that interchange of social associations which diffuses 
intelligence, promotes kindly feeling, enlarges the views, ex- 
pands the ideas, and elevates the whole character, by cultivat- 
ing the tastes as to dress, tidiness of person, and the imitation 
or copying after any ornament or improvement of the grounds 
and dwellings of the neighborhood. In this way, one intelli- 
gent practical farmer in a neighborhood, by occupying a house 
which he has built or remodeled for himself, so as to have all 
the comforts and conveniences which knowledge and observa- 
tion and experiment have found to contribute largely to the 
health, happiness, and thrift of the occupants, will prove a leaven 
which shall spread from one habitation to another in a compara- 
tively short time, until every dwelling in the circuit of many 
miles will be more or less improved, and thus the face of the 
whole country be changed for the better, with the promise and 
realization of a further progress, onward and upward. 


Although the statements which have been made were pre- 
sented in connection with the selection of the most healthful lo- 
cality for building a new family residence, they are practically 
applicable to all cases wherein it may be desirable to make a 
house already built more comfortable and more healthful than it 
is, because, from what has been stated, it will be seen that a 
dwelling already erected should not be hastily and blindly 
abandoned merely on account of its insalubrity, for in the light 
of the above statements, it may be found that the causes of 'any 
present sickness are of a transient or of a remediable character, 
which may thus be illustrated : 

The most favorable circumstances for the production of a mi- 


asmatic epidemic, speedy, malignant, and wide-spreading, are the 
exposure of the muddy bottom of a pond or sluggish stream to 
the beaming heat of a summer's sun. In less than a week whole 
neighborhoods have been stricken with disease, yet under such 
circumstances, and according to the well-established laws of 
miasm, five families may dwell within half a mile of a drained 
mill-pond, and yet only one will suffer from it, while the other 
four will remain exeiript from unusual disease : 

First. If a rapid stream half a mile wide runs between the 
drained pond and the house. 

Second. If there is interposed a thick hedge or growth of liv- 
ing luxuriant trees or bushes. A treble row of sun-flowers are 
known to have answered the purpose in repeated cases. 

Third. If the prevailing winds from June to October are from 
the house toward the pond. 

Fourth. If the house be on a steep hill. 
The reasons for the above exemptions are here shortly re- 
capitulated : 

First. Miasm does not cross a wide, rapid stream. 
Second. Miasm is absorbed by thick, living luxuriant foliage. 
Third. Miasm can not travel against the wind. 
Fourth. Miasm can not ascend a high, steep hill. 
There is no mystery in these variations, nor any complexity ? 
when the laws of miasm are thoroughly understood. 

It will be practically useful for the young farmer, in a pecu- 
niary point of view, to understand further that in one year a house 
on the banks of a mill-pond or sluggish stream may be visited 
with sickness ; the very next year that same house may be ex- 
empt, because it is a very cold summer ; the third year it will 
escape, because it is a very hot summer ; the fourth year it will 
be a very healthful habitation, because it has been a very wet 
summer. "Why these variations ? 

First. Miasm can not form, or if it does, can not rise through 
a foot or two of depth of water, and the wet summer kept the 
bed of the pond covered. 

Second. The hot summer dried the bed of the pond to dust, ' 
and there can be no miasm without dampness. 

Third. The cold summer did not give the degree of heat ne- 
cessary to the generation of miasm — that is, eighty degrees of 

hall's jouenal of health. 63 

These principles fully . explain the apparent mystery of the 
epidemics in New-Orleans, already referred to in the first part 
of this paper. 

An illustration of the laws of miasm, which the reader will 
never forget, was had during a cholera summer in Boston, un- 
der the following circumstances: the city authorities inaugurat- 
ed a most perfect system of cleanliness. Efforts were made to 
procure the services of the most reliable men to visit every 
house from cellar to garret, and compel the removal of every 
thing which could have even a remote tendency to invite the 
fearful scourge. The results were admirable; there was not 
a single case of cholera except in a very restricted district — in 
fact one family only was attacked. A more special examina- 
tion was instituted, when there was found in a remote corner of 
the cellar a large pile of the accumulations of bad housekeeping 
for years ; and this was in a state of putridity. On its removal, 
and the plentiful use of the most powerful disinfectants, the dis- 
ease at once disappeared and did not return ! . 


With a fact like the above staring one in the face, and in con- 
nection with another, that farmers generally make their cellars 
the winter and summer receptacles of every variety of vegetables 
and fruits, more or less of which are put away in a bruised, rot- 
ted, or unripe condition, and thus speedily become putrid, by 
acetous fermentation without the aid of much heat, it is appar- 
ent that these gases are constantly ascending, and must unavoid- 
ably impregnate every room in the house with a vitiated and 
unwholesome atmosphere; and in consequence of another 
known fact, and unfortunately almost universal, that the cellar 
being convenient and " out of sight " of visitors, is made the re- 
ceptacle of all that is old and unseemly as well as of kitchen 
offal, by the laziness of bad housekeepers or unprincipled serv- 
ants. For these considerations, it is clear that no cellar should 
be built under that part of a house which is to be occupied as a 
place to eat and sleep and live ' in, whether in town or country. 
The great cost of land in towns and cities may be some apology 
for having cellars underneath ; but there is none for having 
cellars under a farm-house. Where there are already cellars, a 


great deal may be done toward preventing them from becom- 
ing the fruitful source of sickness and suffering ; and if there is 
any obscure or slow disease in the /family of any reader of this 
article, and a cellar is attached to the building, it is worth the 
experiment to secure the following "alterations" as to the cel- 
lar: let the cellar be emptied of every movable thing; let the 
walls and floor be thoroughly swept, and, if practicable, washed ; 
and after being allowed to " air " for a week or two, have the 
ceiling plastered, the space between that and the. floor having 
been filled with dry sand or gravel, or ashes or pulverized char- 
coal, not only to keep dampness and cold and any hurtful 
chance emanations coming up from below, but also, in case 
water should leak through the floors, it might easily pass 
through- the sand, and thus perfect dryness Jbe secured. The 
walls should be smoothly plastered, and the floor covered with 
a hard cement, thick, smooth, and strong; and both walls and 
ceiling should be well whitewashed twice a year ; once a year, 
at least, the old whitewash should be scraped or swept off, be- 
fore the new is applied. The best, because the cheapest and 
most universally available whitewash, is made as follows : put 
unslaked lime, that which is in the form of the original rock } 
in a vessel ; pour boiling water on it until it is covered ; place a 
cloth over the vessel so as to confine the most minute particles 
of the lime, they being the ones which most perfectly " pene- 
trate " the surfaces to which the wash is applied, and conse- 
quently remain the longest. Subsequently dilute the wash to 
the consistence of thick cream, and apply it thoroughly and 
thickly, thus accomplishing two objects, a white, light-giving 
surface, having a "body," as painters term it, which is capable 
of absorbing, and thus rendering harmless the "bad" airs or 
gases which may be formed in the cellar. 

Every partition and every shelf in a cellar should be made of 
smoothly planed boards, well covered with good white paint, 
thus preventing the accumulation of dust, and aiding in making 
the cellar light, cheerful, and clean, for the more light you can 
have, the better. Every cellar should be so contrived, that 
either by its grating or windows or doors, it may be easily and 
thoroughly ventilated, an hour or two at least every day in the 

hall's jouknal of health, 65 


It is scarcely necessary to remark, that if a cellar is liable at 
any time of the year, even for a few days, to have water rise 
aod stand on the floor, or even to have the floor a little wet, 
draining tiles should be put under it before the floor is " cement- 
ed." All shelves in a cellar should be so arranged that you can 
go all around them ; it is not advisable to put any shelving 
against a cellar- wall ; and if all the shelves are suspended from 
the ceiling, so much the better on several accounts, not the least 
of which is that more "floor-room" is thus obtained. 

When a house is to be erected in a new locality, and it has 
been wisely determined to have the cellar off from the family 
building, but yet to be easily accessible from the kitchen with- 
out having to go " out of doors " — say under the kitchen itself or 
under the wood-house, or simply under the ground, its roof 
being a part of the front yard or garden, if you please, but so 
covered over with soil and grass, bushes, etc., that it would not 
be known to be there — the next point is to arrange that the 
foundation of the house should be on a rock, at least three feet 
deep, and on a spot descending, if possible, in every direction. 
The walls of the house should be at least two feet above the sur^ 
face of the earth, crevices having been left at intervals on each 
side, so as to admit a free circulation of air, but not large enough 
to admit mice. There should be an open ditch all around the 
inside of the wall, as a drain to any dampness, with a sufficient 
descent, at least at one point, to insure the drain to be passed off. 

It is well to plaster a foundation wall inside and out, and to 
have every stone well laid in a good mortar, not being sparing 
of lime or sand in its preparation. Too much "loam," or com- 
mon dirt, is generally used, so that the mortar crumbles to pow- 
der, has no tenacity, no binding power, instead of hardening 
and becoming a part of the wall itself. 

The space between the lower edge of the joists of the ground 
floor and the upper edge should be filled with dry sand, ashes, or, 
which is much better, charcoal, for the three-fold object of, first, 
keeping the lower floor dry ; second, keeping it warmer in win- 
ter; third, absorbing any deleterious gases which might arise 
from the ground. As to the materials for building, each lo- 
cality has its peculiar conveniences, but it should not be forgot- 


ten that wooden buildings are best for the country, because they 
are dryer, and consequently more healthful. 

The best kind of roof for a country house is the old-fashioned 
steep roofs, with a "comb" in the center; with no "hips" or 
dormer windows ; these may make a building more picturesque, 
but they so generally leak, that a plain, steep, shingled roof is 
safer, more economical, and more universally available. 

As to the shape and size and hight of the rooms, each 
builder must decide for himself, according to his taste and the 
length of his purse. A square building gives most room for 
the same money ; and a broad hall in the center of the building 
affords greater advantages than any other arrangement. 

If High ceilings," as they are called, are now much the fash- 
ion ; but they are more costly in the first place, and occasion an 
unnecessary waste Of fuel ever thereafter ; they are commended 
for their spaciousness ; but they sometimes give a barn-like ap- 
pearance to a house, and are never so cosy as rooms which are 
not quite so high. 

Winding stairs are objectionable everywhere, but especially 
in the country, where persons rise by daylight or sooner, and 
where there are old persons or young children; as in' haste or 
darkness there is danger of falling, and breaking or disjointing 
the limbs or neck. 

It is a great saving in the cost of furniture, if, in the erection 
of new buildings, and in the modification of old ones, large, 
light, and roomy closets are plentifully supplied, and with them 
shelves, hooks, and drawers. Many persons in the country 
when "dressed," show bad housekeeping and characteristic 
slovenliness, by having their outer garments marked with in 
numerable "creases," showing that they have been thrown 
negligently into a drawer, and allowed thus to remain from one 
"going-out" to another. The outer dresses of both sexes 
should be hung up in closets, protected by doors from dust; 
and to this end, every farm-house should have a great abun- 
dance of closet-room. These closets should be always large, 
and all the doors should be hinged within two or three inches 
of the wall, so that there may be no dark corners for the col- 
lection of dust or other improper thing, or for the hiding of 
what is valuable, and may occasion the loss of valuable time in 

hall's jouknal qf health. 67 

being searched for. For the same reason, there should be no 
"closets " arranged under the stairways, unless they are lighted 
in some way.. 

Every room should be so arranged, if possible, that there 
should be at least one window opposite another, or a door, so that 
the room may be speedily and thoroughly ventilated by open- 
ing both at the same time. 

For the purpose of a more perfect ventilation of each apart- 
ment, especially: those which are to be occupied as chambers, 
the sashes should be so arranged that they can be let down from 
above, as well as raised from below, for the reason that the foul 
air of a room rises to the ceiling in warm weather, because it is 
lighter than cold air. This makes room for the cold air from 
without to rush in at the lower part of the window; thus a 
11 circuit," or draught of air, is soon formed, admitting pure air 
from below, and driving the foul air out of the room above. 
But every chamber should be so constructed, that a window 
can be left opened or raised, more or less, without having the 
11 draught" come right in upon the sleeper, and it is safer, that 
whatever draught there is, should pass the foot of the bed 
rather than the head, because the feet are always covered. 
Hence it is not so easy to take cold, nor so dangerous. The air 
blowing in upon a sleeper's head, for even half an hour, has 
often caused quinsy, or other form of sore throat, to prove 
fatal in the course of a very few days. Where windows are 
already constructed, so that they can not be let down from the 
top, -there is an admirable contrivance by which a draught is 
less dangerous than in the form of window recommended 
above. Have a planed board made the breadth of the window 
in length, and five or ten or more inches broad ; raise the win- 
dow, and then close the space made with this board, allowing 
the lower part of the window-sash to rest on this board, so as to 
hold it in its place. This allows of an open space between the 
glass of the lower and upper sash, through which the cold air 
will come with considerable force, with the current directed 
upward toward the ceiling, thus making it quite safe as to the 
sleeper. When there is only one opening into a room from 
out-doors, the physical law which governs the atmosphere 
operates so that the warm, impure air goes outward at the 


upper part of the opening, while the pure air from without 
comes in below, TJhis may be proven any winter's night, by 
placing a lighted candle or other flame at the lower opening, 
when the flame will turn inward; if put at the top, it will tend 

There should be a door opposite every fireplace ; this dimin- 
ishes the chances of having a smoky chimney ; for in fire-time 
of year, the cold air will be always entering the room at the 
crevices of the door? and in the direction of the fireplace, and 
upward through the chimney. The draught of a chimney may 
be increased by the simple expedient of cutting out a small part 
of the floor with a saw, so that it may be easily replaced after 
the fire is kindled. 

No chimney will "draw" well" if there is any Wall or other 
thing near, which is higher than the chimney itself. 



This household calamity can easily be prevented, and always 
in building new houses ; thus, let the throat of the chimney be 
'so constructed that immediately inside of it, the space shall be 
abruptly increased several inches in length and breadth ; let it, 
increase upward for two or three feet, and then be gradually 
"drawn in" to the dimensions necessary, and let the whole 
inside of the chimney be plastered with cement, which will 
harden with time. A Yerj convenient method of ventilating 
a room already built, is to arrange that one of the "panes" of 
glass at the upper edge of the sash shall move on a pivot at 
the center of each side, so that it can be turned, the upper end 
outward, the lower end inward, or vice versa ; or to prevent 
breakage, a thin board painted white, or a piece of tin or zinc 
may be made to replace the glass. A similar arrangement in 
new houses will have its conveniences. But in every room this 
device should be near the ceiling, above the fireplace ; for ordi- 
nary rooms, the orifice should be a foot long and five or ten 
inches broad, and arranged so that a cord shall open or close it, 
without the necessity of getting on a chair or step-ladder. 

In building a house in the country, it will save expense and 
trouble, besides preparing the way for a great deal of comfort 
on emergencies, to have a neat opening left for a stove-pipe 
near the ceiling, in at least one room in the house, say the 
dining-room or parlor, so that in case of excessive cold weather, 
a common stove for burning wood (or coal) may be put up, and 
thus have the facilities of making at least one room in the house 
comfortably warm during any u spell " of bitter cold weather ; 
and warmed, too, at a comparatively small expense. For let it 
be remembered, that with a common fireplace or grate, more 
than one half the heat goes up the chimney, and is an utter 
waste. The longer a stove-pipe is, the more heat is saved in 
the room ; hence the advantage of having the arrangement for 
receiving the stove-pipe near the ceiling. Many persons, for 
the sake of appearances, or from a mistaken notion of economy 
as to the cost of pipe, have the pipe adjusted so as to open into 
the fireplace, by which a very large amount of heat is lost. 


Much has been said of the injurious effects of a dry stove 
air, and to obviate this, it has been recommended that a vessel 
of water be kept standing on the stove. If this is left to be 
attended to by servants, it is far better to have nothing of the 
kind, because unless the pan is of white stoneware, and is 
emptied, washed, and rilled with pure, fresh water every three 
or four hours, it "collects" dust, dirt, gases, and emanations, 
which, by being kept warm, generate a most pernicious malaria, 
which is much more likely to produce disease than, a simple 
dry air. 

It should be remembered that a room is but very little venti- 
lated, and even that very slowly, by simply opening a door or 
folding-doors. Many persons ignorantly, and to their own 
injury, rely upon this method of ventilation, when they sleep 
in the same room in which a fire has been kept all day ; and 
for this reason, also, every chamber should have a ventilator 
arranged in the original construction of the house. 

The coolest part of a room in warm weather, for sleeping, is 
the floor; but by the operation of the same law of nature, that 
cool air is heavy, and falls to the surface, the healthiest part of 
a chamber in very cold weather is the higher. A sleeping 
person consumes two hogsheads of air in an hour ; that is, de- 
prives it of all its oxygen, and replaces it with carbonic acid 
gas, which is a negative poison ; leaving it so destitute of any 
life-giving property, that the person breathing it will die in a 
short time — in an hour sometimes. This is the operation going 
on in a close room where charcoal is burning in an open vessel ; 
the oxygen is consumed in burning the coal, and its place is 
supplied by carbonic acid. Cold condenses this carbonic acid 
makes it heavy, and causes it to " settle " on the floor. It has 
been so condensed by cold as to be made visible in the shape 
of a snow-white substance ; just as the invisible warm moist 
air, by the application of cold, is reduced to mist, to dew, to 
rain-drops, and to solid hail-stones. There are some localities 
in Italy and elsewhere, into which if a man and his dog come, 
the dog will die in a minute or two, while his master will re- 
main uninjured. There was carbonic acid there ; it was con- 
centrated, condensed, made heavy, and, settled on the surface, 
where the dog breathed it ; but the man's nostrils being five or 

hall's journal of health. 71 

six feet higher, took in none of it. From these facts, two prac- 
tical lessons of very great importance to human health and life 
are drawn: 

First. There is more need of ventilating a chamber in winter 
than in summer. 

Second. There is no advantage, as to health, in sleeping in a 
very cold room, cold enough to have ice formed in it during 
the night. Thousands of persons who have gone to bed in 
perfect health at night, have waked up next morning with 
"pneumonia," that is, inflammation of the lungs, and have ' 
died in a few days, because the room was too cold for them ; to 
say nothing of the debilitating effect of breathing an atmos- 
phere more or less loaded with carbonic acid gas, which de- 
prived the system of its ability to resist the approach of disease. 
Had the room been well ventilated, the attack would have been 
less severe, or there might have been none at all ; because the 
breathing of a pure air would have given power to ward off 
any ordinary attack of sickness. Hence there are the most con- 
clusive reasons for building houses, or remodeling them, so as 
to have the utmost facilities for ventilation. 

Really, every chamber should have two systems of ventila- 
tion, internal and external, so that either may be employed, 
according to the season of the year, and the health and vigo* •* 
or peculiarity of the sleepers — the internal ventilation, that * 
is, openings above the fireplaces, for feeble persons, or for very 
cold weather, or in the autumn ; the external, that iSj through 
the windows, from all out-doors, for the vigorous, and in mod- 
erate weather. 

To some persons, in any latitude, and to all in some sections 
of the country, it is certain suffering to sleep with an open 
window, especially in August and September; and by under- 
standing the reason of this fully, the necessity may be removed 
from some families of " selling out," or of building elsewhere. 
Before changing a residence on account of its being unhealth- 
ful, it should first be noticed whether it is connected with any 
special season of the year, with any special part of the house, 
or any particular habit of the persons who are attacked ; in 
other words : 

Does the sickness appear during the autumnal months ? 


Does it appear among that part of the family sleeping on the 
same side of the house; on the northern side, for example, 
keeping the rooms always more or less damp ; or in that part 
of the building nearest to some pond, or marsh, or sluggish 
stream ; or whether, of several persons sleeping on the same 
side, only those are attacked who sleep with their windows 
open ? 

As a general rule, young children, invalids, infirm and 
old people, should have their chambers, during the night, ven- 
tilated from within ; and so should all families living in 
"bottoms," on low lands, near ponds, sluggish streams, 
marshes, or recently cleared land, especially during the au- 
tumnal months, or where there is more or less of chill and 
fever, fever and ague, etc. The reason for this is, that from 
these localities miasm constantly rises and comes through the 
open windows upon the sleeper, who breathes it into his 
lungs, corrupting and poisoning his whole blood in a night ! 

Many cases are given in standard medical publications, 
where persons sleeping in certain parts of a building suddenly 
became ill, although they formerly had good health, and had 
occupied the same chambers, and had slept with open windows 
all the time ; but a change of dwelling, or a determination to 
,-^wild elsewhere, should not be hastily made by the farmer, for 
'Some standing water may have been drawn off recently for a 
merely temporary purpose, the repairing of a mill-dam, for ex- 
ample ; and when reflooded, so as to cover the wet, muddy 
bottom several feet deep in water, the sickness will immediately 
disappear; or a "belt" of timber between the dwelling and 
some standing, miasm-producing water, may have been cut 
down; if so, a substitute should be provided, by planting a 
thick hedge of sun-flowers or other rapidly-growing and lux- 
uriant vegetation. 

The lower floor of every country house should be on the 
same level; for every step upward taken by domestics and 
women fn the family, is not only a useless expenditure of 
strength, and a large portion of it too, when it is considered 
how many times in a day the cook and housemaid and wives 
and daughters who do the household work must go in and 
out, and pass and repass from one room to another ; but it is 

hall's journal op health. 73 

physiologically a great strain upon those internal organs which 
are peculiar. to the sex; and when too much of it is done, 
diseases are every day induced which are to embitter the whole 
after-existence. It is very easy to wink the eye — an inappre- 
ciable effort — but if a man attempts to do it a hundred times 
in succession, its repetition becomes a painful effort. It is very 
easy to step up a step or two, but the strongest will " pant and 
blow" if a hundred have to be gone up, as briskly as an ordi- 
nary cook steps about. It may be said that the objection does 
not apply, because only one step is taken at a time ; but it 
must be remembered that those who do housework almost 
always have something in the hand — a bucket of water, a pile 
of plates, an armful of wood, a scuttle of coal, etc., and these 
must be raised that one step, besides the body of the person, 
altogether weighing between one and two hundred pounds. A 
certain amount of strength is expended in this unnecessary 
effort, and however small it is, each repetition of it is that 
much taken from the store of strength with which the person 
arose in the morning. A purse containing a hundred dollars 
is as much depleted by taking out a dollar at a time, until fifty 
are withdrawn, as if the whole fifty were detracted at once. 

The kitchen should, as far as practicable, be central to the 
whole house, having the dining-room on one side, the wood- 
house on another, and the place for meats, milk, and vegetables 
on another, unless these are all kept in the cellar, located as 
previously advised. If, however, the dairy is an important 
item about the farm, that is, if it is intended as a source of in- 
come, it should be arranged by all means to be on the north 
side of a hill or rising ground, and in such a way that a natural 
stream should flow through it, or that the surplus water of the 
well or spring or cistern should do so ; but by all means let the 
dairy be approached from the kitchen by a raised graveled 
walk, with a view to have it as dry as possible at all seasons ; 
for this walk must be passed over many times every day, and 
if not dry, it dampens the feet, and thus endangers the health. 


If water is not supplied by artificial means, so as to come 
into the kitchen by pipes and a faucet, it should be arranged 


to have the well or cistern or spring deliver its supply in an 
apartment immediately adjoining the kitchen, on the same level, 
and without going outside. the house. It can not be truthfully 
denied that multitudes of women Ipse health and life itself 
every year by having to step out from the dry, warm floor of 
the kitchen upon the cold stones and wet path outside, going to 
the spring, the wood-yard, or the "smoke-house." And with 
the experiences and harrowing narrations wliich daily come to 
physicians from this direction/ that farmer is criminally remiss 
who, in building a new house, or reconstructing an old one, 
does not arrange to have a dry and level floor for those who do 
the cooking, washing, and general housework of the family ; 
so as to make dairy, cellar, wood-house, water-closets, and 
smoke-house easily accessible by a dry pathway. 


The location of these, in connection with a family residence, 
has an important bearing on the health of any family ; a great- 
er influence on the destiny of many than would be supposed 
by other than a medical practitioner, from the operation of a 
single law of the animal economy, in connection with a fact, 
to be afterward stated, which no observant person can truth- 
fully deny. It is of the very first importance that the water- 
closet should be always, and instantly, and easily accessible ; in 
proportion as this is not the case, the calls of nature are post- 
poned. This never can be done with impunity, for nature never 
does any thing in vain, nor out of time. But it is singular to 
observe how she never allows herself, as it were, to be trifled 
with ; if her call is not heeded, it is less and less urgent ; her 
appeals to the nerves of sensation are less and less strong, until 
they cease to be felt ; the inclination passes off, and it may be 
hours before she has recovered strength to call again ; but with 
this unvarying result, the next day the call is made later, and 
later, and later, until after a while it is omitted for a whole day, 
and before the person is aware of it, it is found that the bowels 
are constipated ; that several days pass without an evacuation, 
and with this, certain uncomfortable feelings are observed, en- 
tirely new to the person in question; they are simply "symp- 
toms," the indications that disease is setting up in the system; 

, hall's journal of health. 75 

such as headache, cold feet, bad taste in the mouth on getting 
up in the morning, an irregular appetite, qualmishness, an ab- 
sence of accustomed vivacity ; and in due time there is actual 
disease, in the shape of sick headache, sour stomach, piles, 
wasting diarrhea, catarrh, " the least thing in the world gives 
me a cold," dyspepsia, with all its horrors, or a general decline of 
the whole system. .Every observant physician knows that 
more than half of all ordinary diseases have their foundations 
laid in a constipated condition of the bowels — that is, a failure 
in them to act every day with almost the regularity of the 
rising of the sun ; and he further knows, that the beginning of 
this irregularity was brought about by deferring the calls of na- 
ture until company was gone ; until the chapter was finished ; 
until the newspaper was looked over; until some work in hand 
was completed; or until "the coast was clear." It is in this, as 
in thousands of other cases, that the greatest of calamities arise 
sometimes, from almost inappreciable causes ; and in all human 
record there is not a stronger exemplification of it than in the 
case in hand. There are thousands and tens of thousands of 
intelligent and observant persons in mature life, and still later 
on in years, who would cheerfully give a large portion of what 
they possess if they could have a natural, regular action of the 
bowels every day, without any artificial aid ; and who can and 
do look back in vain remorses to the times when there was a 
proper and healthful regularity, and to the occasions and man- 
ner of their first breaking into it, simply for the want of a little 
personal energy, a little self-denial, a small modicum of force 
of will, which would resolutely, and even impatiently, clear out 
of its path those trifling, those cob-web obstacles which were 
in the way of our physical duty, as it were. But it is not al- 
ways that nature allows persons to escape with a moderate or 
protracted or slow punishment. There are multitudes of cases 
recorded where, from motives of false delicacy, as riding in 
public vehicles, waiting for others, or for daybreak to come, or 
from sheer laziness, the power 1 to pass water has been taken 
away, acute inflammation has set in, and death has followed in 
two or three days. It is well worth while then to be at pains 
to say all that has been done, if by it a single family should, in 
the erection of a new house, or in the remodeling of an old 


one, be led to make a wise and practical use of the facts which 
have been presented, in having a large privy constructed, with 
five or six apartments, appropriated to the different classes of 
the family, so that one may never need have to wait on another 
for a single instant, and also that approaches may be made with 
as much privacy as practicable, and by a path protected from 
the weather, to be used when inclement, and by another to be 
used in good weather, and still as distant from the house, as 
can be conveniently arranged ; for example, to be approached 
through the wood-house, and also through the garden. The 
deposits should be made in a water-proof receptacle, placed on 
the surface of the earth, on runners or wheels, to be removed 
and emptied once a week on pasture or other land. The debris 
of one individual will fertilize an acre of ground every year, to 
an extent greater than any ordinary compost. In addition, for 
the seven warmer months of the year, lime or fresh ashes of 
wood should be scattered around the receptacle every fortnight, 
while a gallon or two of the following solution should be thrown 
into the receptacle itself every week or two. One pound of 
copperas, known as "'sulphate of iron," costing but a few cents, 
dissolved in four gallons of water, will most completely destroy 
all offensive odors, whether in sinks, privies, or cellars. The 
warmer the weather, the oftener must the application be re- 
peated. Sprinkling the copperas itself about is advantageous, 
and, if in cellars, is one of the best means of keeping rats away. 

It is advisable to have a water-closet in some convenient part 
of every dwelling, to be used only on emergencies, which may 
occur during the night, for example. 

One of the happiest thoughts in this connection, and one 
which could scarcely occur to any other than one of the mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends, so remarkable for their thought* 
fulness and happy talent of having about them all the con- 
veniences and appliances which so much add to the comforts 
and enjoyments of domestic life, was in having a water-closet 
connected with his barn, for the convenience of his gentlemen 
friends who visit him in the summer at his delightful mansion 
on the banks of the Hudson ; this is one of the earliest pieces 
of information given to those coming for the first time ; to this 
they can repair at any hour, with a feeling of perfect privacy 

A Comprehensive Book. 

Advantage of Pure Air during Sleep. 

xLL Effects of the Young Sleeping with the Old. 

Do. Well with the Sick. 

Safe Yentilation of Sick-Kooms. 

Ventilation of Buildings by Griscom. 

Hamilton's do. and Tenement-Houses. 

Baker's Plan of Warming and Yentilation. 

Andrews & Dixon by Open Fire-places do. 

Balefulness of Small and Crowded Chambers. 

Importance of Sound, Connected, Sufficient Sleep 

How to Secure it to Nursing Movers. 

Do. to Infants at Night. 

Sleeplessness, its Prevention and Cure. 

Importance of full Sleep to Growing Children. 

Do. to those at School. 

Debilities, Nervousness, etc., from this and other causes- 

cJure and Prevention of. 

Amount of Sleep needed. 

Chambers should be Light, Airy, High, and Dry, 

Single Beds, Crowded Chambers, etc., etc. 

|@5" See book on " Sleep," 336 pages, 12mo, $1.60; by mail. By I*. 

fr. W. Hall, New- York, Editor of " Hall's Journal op Health,"- 

$1.50 a year. Author of "Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," "Consumption," 
* Health and Disease," each $1.60 by mail. Also of " Soldier Health,* 

25 cents. 

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To understand the value of the Sewing Ma- 
chine, and the happy changes which it has ef- 
fected in the social and family relations, one 
must be familiar with the quiet households 
scattered throughout the East and West, the 
North and South, of this great and thriving 

Everywhere in the interior, domestic assist- 
ance of any kind is so difficult to be obtained, 
that it is scarcely looked for, and every good 
housewife relies upon her own exertions, not 
only to keep.her house in order, her larder well 
supplied with the essential luxuries of home- 
made bread, cake, and pies, but her own, the 
children's, and frequently her husband's ward- 
robe furnished with all the useful, if not the 
ornamental, articles of dress. 

This necessity provided an immense amount 
of work for one pair of hands to perform— the 
female head of the house, the hard-tasked wife 
and mother, found not a moment for relaxa- 
tion. The drudgery of the kitchen was suc- 
ceeded by that of the work-basket, whose pile 
of shirts and small garments seemed never to 
decrease. Not a moment of time could be af- 
forded for the gratification of any simple fancy, 
even in ornamental needlework, all, to the last 
moment, and far into Saturday night, was ex- 
hausted in the necessities of the plainest work 
upon little aprons, frocks, and drawers, and the 
inevitable weekly collection of family mend- 

In a large number of these households the 
case is now widely different ; the Sewing Ma- 
chine, generally the GROVER & BAKER, oc- 
cupies an honored place in the family sitting- 
room, and accomplishes more and better than 
the most skillful seamstress. It is in a sense, 
which only those can appreciate who have 
known what it is to 6ew all the household gar- 
ments by hand, the family friend. It is looked 
upon with eyes of real affection. 

The interior of a country house, at thi3 sea- 
son of the year, is as pleasant as can be imag- 
ined ; and it is made so, in a great degree, by 
the presence of the Sewing Machine. An hour's 
work in the afternoon, upon a bright, rapid, 
wonder-working GROVER & BAKER, will ac- 
complish more than could be done by a weary 
hand-working almost into midnight. It will 
not only fluish the dozen shirts in " less than 
no time," but it will tuck drawers and chemi- 
ses, ruffle nightgowns, stitch trowsers, quilt 
linings and coverlids, and all this, and rnucn 
more, with such strength, beauty, and preci- 
sion, as would throw the neatest hand-work 
into the shade. 


A Sewing Machine needs only to be pnrchas 
ed once in a lifetime, it is therefore of the great 
est importance to get the best ; the one which, 
all things considered, is most perfectly adapted 
to meet the requirements. 

This, we sincerely believe, and the opinion is 
corroborated by the highest authorities in the 
community, is the GROVER & BAKER Ma- 
chine making the celebrated . " GROVER & 
BAKER" stitch, the only stitch, as far as we 
know, sufficiently elastic to be adapted to all 
kinds of family sewing. 

The peculiar qualities of the GROVER & 
BAKER Machine, are strength, beauty, elasti- 
city, and versatility, or adaptation to any Rind of 
work. It compasses the whole range of family 
sewing completely, and without any of the vex- 
atious delays in rewinding, fastening, and 
finishing, which are common to other ma- 
chines, and which occupy so much time, and 
waste so much material. It makes a beautiful, 
smooth, elastic seam upon cloth or cambric, 
which gives when it is washed or stretched 
without breaking, and in which every stitch is 
so firmly locked that the seam can be cut oflf 
between every half dozen-stitches without im- 
pairing its strength. 

Testimonial letters, from ladies and house- 
keepers all over the country, speak unitedly of 
the beauty and superior elasticity of stitch. One 
lady says, it is the only machine that can 
" quilt ;" another, that it is the only one "fit for 
boy's trowsers ," and a third, that she is particu- 
larly delighted with the way in which it makea 
t' woolen drawers and flannel garments." 

The GROVER & BAKER stitch is the only 
one that can be properly used upon Mas seams, 
and is therefore adapted to an immense variety 
of garments containing such seams, and also 
seams which are subjected to much stretching 
and wear. In addition to the fact that no re- 
winding and no fastening is required, a great 
deal of time,' and temper too, is saved to the 
operator, by the simplicity, regularity, and 
ease of the various movements, the adjust- 
ment without change of tension to different 
kinds of work, and the method by which it is 
thrown from the machine, without delay or 
embarrassment, and also in such way as to en- 
able the operator to maintain a pleasant and 
graceful position. 

For dress-makers, the GROVER & BAKER 
is the only suitable machine ; it is the only one 
that will accomplish satisfactorily, and with 
an immense saving of time, all the plain sew- 
ing, stitching, and quilting which they have to 

For the heads of families it is equally valu- 
able. It ivill do everything. It is simple, re- 
liable, perfect in its operation, easy to be un- 
derstood, not easy to get out of order, and 
gives such thorough satisfaction, as to leave no 
room for complaint.-^. Y. S. I'imes. 


Containing 236 Health Tracts on the following subjects, with a 
engraving of the Editor, sent post-paid for $2.50. 


Aphorisms Physiolog'l 


Antidote to Poisons, 

Acre, One. 


Burying Alive. 

Baths and Bathing. 


Bites and Burns. 


Beauty a Medicine. 

Best Day. 


Burning to Death. 

Bilious Diarrhea. 

Balm of Gilead. 


Cold Cared. 

" Neglected. 

" Avoided. 

" Nothing but a. 

" In the Head. 

" How Taken. 

11 Catching. 
Catarrh. . 

Checking Perspiration. 
Children's Eating. 

" Feet, 

Children Corrected. 

" Dirty. 
Cute Things. 
Coffee Poisons. 
Clothing, Flannel, 
" Woolen. 

" Changing. 

Cholera. r 

Clergymen. , 
Convenient Knowledge. 
Cooking Meats. 
Cheap Bread. 
Church Ventilation, 
Diet for the Sick. 
Debt, a Death ! 


Dying Easily. 
Diptheria, . 

Death Rate. 

Digestibility of Food. 
Dirty Children. 
Drugs and Druggery. 
Eyes, Care of. 
« Weak. 

" Failing. 
Erect Position. 

" Wisely. 
Eat, How to. 

M What and when to, 
Eating Habits. 

" Great. 

« 4 Curiosities of. 

" Economical, 
Elements of Food. 
Fruits, Uses of. 
Flannel Wearing. 
Follies, Fifteen. 
Fifth Avenue Sights. 
Food and Health. 

Fetid Feet. 
Food,Nutritiousnessof. Pain. 

" its Elements. Peaceless. 
Greed of Gold. 
Genius, Vices of. 
Great Eaters. 
Gruels and Soups. 
Hair Wash. 
Health a Duty. 

** Observances 

" Essentials. 

'* Theories. 

Ice, Uses of. 
Inverted Toe-NaiL 
In the Mind. 
Kindness Rewarded. . 
Law of Love. 
Life Wasted. 
Loose Bowels. 
Leaving Home. 
Logic Run Mad. 
Medicine Taking. 
Music Healthful, 
Milk, its Uses. 
Morning Prayer. 
Month Malign. 
Mental Ailments. 
Mind Lost. 
Medical Science. 
Nursing Hints. 
Nervous Debilities. 
Old Age Beautiful. 
One Acre, 
One by One, 
Obscure Diseases. 
Presence of Mind. 
Private Things. 
Poisons and Antidotes. 

Parental Trainings. 
Physiological Items. 
Posture in Worship. 
Physician, Faithless. 
Popular Fallacies. 
Read and Heed. 
Restless Nights. 

Household Knowledge. Recreation, Summer 


Home, Leaving. 

Happiest, Who are. 



Sitting Erectly. 
Shoes Fitting. 
Sour Stomach. 

Sick Headachei 

Suppers, Hearty. 
Soldiers Remembered. 

" Cared for. 

« Health. 

* Items. 
' « AIL 

Sunday Dinners, 
Sleep and Death. 
Spot the One. 
Summer Drinks. 
Sickness not Causeless. 
Sayre, the Banker. 
September Malign. 
Summer Mortality. 
Soups and Gruels. 
Sick School- Girl. 
Stomach's Appeal 

Study, Where to. 
Salt Rheum. 

Traveling Hints. 
Three Ps. 

Toe-Nail, Inverted. 
Thankful Ever. 

Valuable Kuowledge. 
Vermin Riddance. 
Winter Rules. 
Warning Youth. 
Woman's Beauty. 
Worth Remembering. 
Worship, Public. 

' ' Posture in. 
. " Without Price. 

Weather Signs. 
Weather and Wealth. 
Warmth and Strength. 
Worth Knowing. 

Address " Hall's Journal of Health," No. 2 West 43d St., New-York, 

($1.50 a Year.) 

> a o w 


Is a " flowing from ;" and the part from which the " flowing" comes, gives 
name to the disease ; which is an inflammation arising from a cold, *' sett- 
ling'' in that particular part ; as " catarrh of the head." " catarrh on the 
chest," " nasal catarrh," &c ; thi3 last, is by far the most common, and as it 
is not only troublesome, but in some cases descends to the lungs, and be- 
comes consumption, and in others causes a constant discharge from the 
nose, of so offensive a nature, that the room is filled with a most noisome 
odor, the moment the affected person enters it, it is no wonder that per- 
sons thus ailing, are willing to " give anything in the world" or to do any- * 
thing, and everything possible, to get rid of such an affection. Some tak- 
ing advantage of this condition of things, make exhorbitant charges for 
even attempting a cure ; as much as five hundred dollars have been ex- 
torted from alarmed patients in New York City ; three hundred dollars 
has been the common asking price. A single supply of " Godfrey's Catarrh 
Remedy," which lasts about a month, and costs but five dollars, will effect 
in all cases, what has hitherto cost from one hundred, to five hundred dol- 
lars. All that is needed is to snuff up from the palm of the hand, several 
times a day, a liquid and a powder, alternately ; requiring no precautions, 
and in every sense, perfectly harmless ; the effect being to close up the 
mouths of the vessels which yield the horrible odor, and to restore them 
to their healthful action ; all which is done without any ill effects what- 
ever ; the patient need not see a physician, nor be confined to the house five 
minutes. Any one who purchases the remedy, and is willing, after a two 
weeks use of it, to return what is not used, in good order, will have the 
money refunded on demand, at the only office at which it is purchased- 
P. C. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New York. It is the prescription of one 
of the most eminent allopathic medical professors in the United States. 

A single case, and that of recent occurrence, in New York city, will an- 
swer for a thousand similar ones. A gentleman in Broadway, writes, Oct. 
12th, 1865 : '■ My wife suffered from Catarrh for quite seven years ; finally 
the odor became insufferable. Every remedy was tried, which promised 
to be of any service ; when Godfrey's Catarrh Remedy was suggested as 
the preparation of one of the first Surgeons in the United States, and once 
a Professor in one of the leading Meclical Colleges. It is the only remedy 
that gave her even temporary relief. She had been assured that she could 
not be cured for less than three hundred dollars ; and yet, by using God- 
frey's Catarrh Remedy she was cured in a few weeks, so that no odor was 
perceptible, and she remains cured to this day. Others by my recommend- 
ation have used \t, and in every ^ase it has proved satisfactory to them. ,, 
Sold only by P. Godfrey, 831 broadway, New York city. 





Corner of Fourteenth Street and Third Avenue, M. T. 

These instruments are made in accordance with a principle recently developed and patented by 
Horatio Worcester, which consists in the use of a divided iron plate instead of the solid one 
heretofore in vogue. The detached piece is coupled with the inner plate by means of a link at 
the base end, and is sustained in its proper position by the tension of the strings, which are 
attached to it in the usual manner. This gives to the strings a greatly increased power of vibra- 
tion, and frees the sounding-board so as to allow it to reverberate throughout its whole extent. 
VThe increase obtained in volume and musical quality of tone is carefully estimated to be full one 
hundred per cent, as stated upon the authority of Louis M. Gottschalk, William Mason, William 
Berge, E. Muzio, Theodore Thomas, David R. Harrison, Charles Fradel, Christian Berge, and many 
*ther distinguished artists. Attention is respectfully invited to the following opinion of the 
improvement from leading journals : 

From, the New-York World, 

A discovery worthy the attention of every one interested in musiq has been made By an old-established piano- 
forte maker, Mr. Horatio Worcester, whose warerooms and factory have for years formed a landmark on the corner 
of Fourteenth street and Third avenue. Mr. Worcester has succeeded in doubling the volume of sound belonging 
to the piano, and at the same time improving in a great degree its quality. This has been effected by merely using 
a plate made in two pieces instead of the common solid one. A portion is firmly fixed in the case in the usual 
manner, and to this the second piece is attached by means of a coupling at the base end. This coupling on one side 
and the tension of the strings on the other, hold it in its proper position, and allow it to move freely with the 
strings While they are in operation, the effect of which is to give double their former vibratory power to both the 
strings and sounding-board. The plate thus made is termed a hinged-plate. A few days since Mr. Gottschalk 
examined this novel feature and found it a worthy subject of approval, as appears by the subjoined extract from an 
autograph note of his to the inventor, under date of the 17th instant : " I estimate the volume of tone (in the 

improved pianos) to be increased about one hundred per cent Their singing quality is excellent. The 

upper part of the key-board is exceedingly brilliant, while the base is of a rich and powerful sonorousness." Other 
esteemed artists have also cordially indorsed the use of a hinged-plate. Among them are the names of William and 
Christian Berge, Charles Fradel, David R. ^Harrison, and William Mason. Had the Worcester improvement been 
sent to the London Exhibition, American pianos would have stood even a better chance than they do of winning 
valuable laurels as model instruments. 

From the New-York livening Post. 
Hijjged-Plate Piano-Fortes.— A piano-forte manufacturer of this city has perfected a genuine improvement in 
the method of constructing and bracing the iron plate to which the strings are attached. The iron is divided and a 
vortion of it left free to yield with the vibration of the strings and sounding-board. It is thought that pianos so 
?ashioned will stand in tune better than others, from the fact that the strain of the strings centers at one point only, 
(the hinge,) and also because they are less liable to injury resulting from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding- 
board. The substantial character of the improvement is vouched for by many leading musicians, artists, and 
critics, by whom it has been well tested at the warerooms of the inventor, Mr. H. Worcester, corner of Third avenue 
and Fourteenth street. 

From the New-York Musical Review and World. 
One of our oldest-established piano-forte makers, Mr. Horatio Worcester, has just received letters patent for an 
Improvement in the construction of that favorite instrument. The advantage consists in the use of a hinged plate 
which gives to the sounding-board a freedom similar to that found in the violin. Mr. Worcester uses a plate cast 
In two pieces, one of which is fixed in the case after ttyp usual manner, and with which the second or inner portion 
is connected by a coupling or hinge. To this second piece the strings ar? attached in the ordinary way, and by 
exerting a strain in opposition to that of the hinge, the piece is held in position. The effect of this is to give increased 
power of vibration throughout the whole extent of the sounding-board. This produces a singing quality of tone 
unusually powerful and agreeable, while for general volume, durability, and richness of tone, the instruments are 
decidedly superior. As the tension of the strings centers at the hinge, instead of being felt around the entire ed<*e 
of the pliate, there is a greater chance of these pianos standing longer in tune than those having a solid plate. The 
strings are also relieved of considerable pressure arising from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding-board. It 
is the opinion of nearly all the skilled musicians and artists who have compared the Hinged-Plate Pianos with others 
of the same scale and make, that the increase in volume and beauty of sound is quite equal to fifty pei* cent. The 
principle is certainly a correct one, and having worked in a most satisfactory manner so far, aiter ample testing 
during nearly a year past, we see no reason to doubt its efficacy as claimed by the inventor. Being simple and 
substantial, it needs only to be known thoroughly to create for itself favor with the musical community. Mr. Wor- 
cester has received autograph testimonials from many of our most esteemed and influential resident musicians and 
critics, \n ^hich they express their entire confidence in the genuine character of the improvement. 

Complimentary notices have also appeared in the New-York Evening Express, Commercial 
Advertiser, Scientific American, Brooklyn City News, Brooklyn Weekly Standard, New-York 
Leader, Saturday Evening Courier, Dwighfs Journal of Music, and other Standard journals, all 
nf which indorse the Worcester modification in the strongest terms. 



Furnace Heat Dispensed "With, 

14 A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor, warming the feet delightfully, with an oval fire-place nearly three 
feet across, with no visible blower, very little dust, and absolutely no gas ; 
the ashes need removing but once a year, while by the extra heat, pure 
air direct from out-doors, is conveyed to an upper room, without the possi- 
bility of meeting with any red-hot metallic surface, or with any corrupting 
surface whatever — it is simply pure air warmed. A Philadelphia corre- 
spondent who has used one of these low-down grates in a room eighteen 
feet square, for six years, says : * I have never known a day that a fire 
made in the morning was not equal to the day, no matter what the temper- 
ature was outsrde.' 

" To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least one 
room in the house where there are absolutely ail the advantages of a wood 
fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from the cellar, 
and not from the room itself — this open, low down, air-tight, easily regu- 
lated grate, or rather fireplace, with its large broad bed of burning coals, 
or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, will be a great desideratum. No 
one who has a wise regard for the comfort, cheerfulness, and health of a 
family of children, should be without one for a single day. One can be 
put in at any season of the year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty 
to fifty dollars, according to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes 
about the same amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out, how- 
ever, as is supposed, near one third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of 
an old-fashioned wood-fire, (the oxygen being supplied from without.) It is 
equally adapted to burning soft coal, hard coal, or wood." — HaWs Journal 
of Health, for December, 1859. 


T. S. D IX O 1ST, 



References given -wizen required. 

^ ddr ess, T. S. DIXON, 

No. 1394 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 


Op his Agents, Messrs. MEAD & WOODWARD, 37 Park Row, New-York. 





Are sent free by mail for One Dollar a paper. 


Is sent free by mail for Five Dollars a package. 


Is sent free for Five Dollars a bottle. 


Is sent free, for One Dollar a bottle. 


For Man and Animals, is sent free, by mail, for One Dollar 

a paper. 

For the purposes named these remedies are believed to be infallible ; 
and that no one may be imposed on, the proprietor binds himself to re- 
turn the price paid on demand, if made within twenty days, with the re- 
turn, in good condition, of three-fourths of the article purchased. These 
parcels last from one to three months; they are not wholesaled, hence can 
only be obtained of the proprietor P. C, Godfrey, 831 Broadway 
New York. The above remedies have been used by personal friends 
for nearly a quarter of a century, and their efficapy is such, that it is 
considered a public good to offer them for sale, now, for the first time. 

New- York, Sept. 15th, 1865, 


; — 1 i = 

Vol. Sin.] APRIL, 1866. [No. 4. 

FARM HOUSES, Continued. 
In building a new bouse, or in remodeling an old one, tbe 
upper rooms, tbe chambers especially, when practicable, should 
be so arranged that the sun should shine into them through 
windows on three sides ; this would afford admirable facilities 
for ventilation, and would give the light, and dryness, and 
cheerfulness, which so much contribute to the healthfulness of 
a chamber, and the lively, cheerful temper of those who occu- 
py them. All farm-houses should be arranged, as far as possi- 
ble, so that the rooms which are to be most generally occupied 
should have most of the sun during the day. It is too often 
the case that the parlor, the company room, is the largest, light- 
est, and best room in the building ; this parlor is barricaded 
with curtains, window-shutters, and closed doors, except when 
there is " company," which will, perhaps, average about a dozen 
half days in the year ; the remainder of the time all its sweet- 
ness is 

" Wasted on the desert air." 

By all means let the best room in the house be enjoyed every 
day by the members of the family ; give the room which is 
largest and lightest to your own wife and children all the time, 
instead of saving it for other people for a dozen hours in the 
year. Besides, such a room, almost always closed up, is a 
positive injury to every person who enters it ; for in winter it 
has a pernicious " closeness " about it, while in summer there is 
a mustiness and dampness, often a "chilliness" present, which 
makes it feel almost sepulchral the moment it is entered. 


Wall-paper, like carpets, are the inventions of laziness and 
filth ; they conceal dirt and noisomeness of every description. 
The almost milk-white floors and white plastered walls of the 
olden time have almost entirely disappeared, to the great detri- 
ment of family purity and personal health. It is greatly to be 
regretted that this is the case, to the extent that it is. White 

78 hall's journal of health. 

plastered walls can be kept clean for a number of years ; the 
lime in them has the effect to purify them. Next to this is the 
painted wall, covered well with a suitable varnish ; for it can 
be readily washed without injury, and is easily kept free of 
dust. In cases where walls must be papered, if for the first 
time, there are two important precautions : use no paper which 
has a green color, especially a "fuzzy green," which is com- 
posed of arsenic, and is capable of causing convulsions and fa- 
tal disease in a single night. Children have been taken ex- 
xremely ill after playing a few hours in a small room covered 
with paper which had considerable green- colored patterns on it. 

Care should be taken that the paste should be fresh, and put 
on equably and thin, and that any holes in the wall should be 
filled up with plaster. A tidy room in a certain dwelling was 
appropriated to lodgers. It was noticed, after a time, that as 
certainly as a person slept in that room a single night, severe 
sickness next day was the result. The authorities ordered an 
investigation, when it was found that a depression in the wall 
had been filled up by one of the workmen by gathering up a 
bucketful of pieces of paper, and some remnants of paste, to 
make them adhere. After a time, decomposition began to take 
place, giving out emanations of the most poisonous character • 
and for this reason, if any wall of plaster, or of wooden par- 
tition, is to be papered or re-papered, it should be thoroughly 
cleaned first, then made smooth; every particle of old paper 
should be removed. 

The way in which the smallest" amount of money can be 
made to go the farthest on a farm, morally and pecuniarily, is 
by investing it in lime and white lead. Filth, dirt, darkness, 
and untidiness, always and inevitably degrade those who dwell 
among them. Cleanliness purifies and elevates. If white- 
wash is used, it should be reapplied twice a year to whatever 
is exposed to wind and weather; that which is, perhaps, the 
cheapest, most durable, and most generally available, is made 
thus : one ounce of white vitriol, that is, sulphate of zinc, and 
three ounces of common salt, to every four pounds of fresh 
lime, which is lime not fallen into any powder from exposure 
to the atmosphere, with water enough to make it sufficiently 
thin to be applied with a brush ; this makes a durable out-door 

WATER. 79 

whitewash. When paint is used, two precautions, are^neces- 
sarj : first, obtain a good article of white lead from a dealer 
whom you know to be honest. There is, perhaps, not one pound 
of pure white lead in a million that is sold for pure white lead, 
for there is a substance called barytes, which can be purchased 
by the ton*for, perhaps, less than a cent a pound, which, when 
mixed with white lead, can not be distinguished until some 
time after it is spread, when it becomes dark ; when it is re- 
membered that white lead sells for ten. times as much per 
pound ; the temptation to adulterate is too strong for the hon- 
esty of any white lead manufacturer known to the writer. 
The proportion of this adulteration is from ten to ninety per 

Second. The preservative power of white paint depends, in 
considerable measure, on the time of year. If in hot weather, 
the water of the oil evaporates so quickly that the paint itself 
is not carried into the wood, and remains as a powder on t the 
surface, and can be wiped off with the fingers. If in the in- 
clement weather of winter, it is apt to be washed off by the 
rains before it has sufficiently dried. The autumn is best, when 
the ground is not likely to be dusty, and when the weather is 
long enough dry to allow the paint to get thoroughly dry itself. 

Out-door wood- work should be painted once in every three 
years, and if done as just proposed, it not only preserves the 
building far beyond the cost of its application, but it gives- an 
air of thrift, and life, and beauty, of which almost every reader 
has had personal experience. And in case of wishing to sell 
a farm thus kept painted and whitewashed, as to its fences and 
buildings, a better price can always be had, and from a better 
and more elevated class of purchasers. 


As to the greatest number of farms, it is the best plan gene- 
rally to dig a well or build a cistern on a spot to be covered by 
the roof of the dwelling ; and perhaps, under all th^ -circum- 
stances of the case, the cheapest, most available, an$9last trou- 
blesome method of obtaining the water, is by means of the old- 
fashioned pump, which does not often get out of order, is easily 
repaired, and, under the above circumstances, is not likely 
to freeze. 

80 hall's journal of health. 

The roof of almost every farm-house will catch enough 
water to supply the wants of a family ; this is most healthful 
to drink and is best for cooking purposes, and for washing 
clothes ; and, indeed, for all cleansing purposes. When it is 
not practicable to have a good cistern, a running spring is next 
best, and a well next to that; but whether wel?, cistern, or 
spring, aH should be most thoroughly washed out, scraped, 
and washed out again in the spring and autumn, especially 
the latter. 


All persons of cultivation and refinement must instinctively 
shrink from cookery in the dark. Hence, it should be arranged 
that the sun should shine in upon this department for at least 
three fourths of daylight, and also that the <k back-yard," as it 
is called, and which is usually in the rear of the kitchen, should 
have the advantage of abundant sunshine, so as to keep it dry 
and. healthful. 

A little sink near a kitchen door-step, inadvertently formed, 
has been known, although not exceeding in its dimensions a 
single square foot, to spread sickness through a whole house- 
hold. Hence, every thing of the kind should be studiously 
obviated, so that there should be no spot about a farm-house 
which can receive and hold standing water, whether it be the 
pure rain from the sky, the contents of a wash-basin, the slop- 
bowl, or the water-pail. 

One of the most general, and, at the same time, one of the 
most pernicious errors in modern architecture, especially in the 
construction of private dwellings, is founded on the mischievous 
supposition that almost any place is good enough to sleep in. 
It is common everywhere to set apart the smallest rooms in the 
house for sleeping- apartments. To show what a ruinous mis- 
take this is, let the reader remember that at least one third of a 
man's $g$stence is spent in bed, in sleep. Eight hours out of 
every twenty-four we are in our chambers. ' And when it is 
considered that air is essential to health, that without it we .can 
not live two minutes, it must be of material importance whether 
we breathe a pure or an impure air for a third of our existence. 
A full-sized man breathes, takes into his lungs at each breath, 


about a pint of air ; while in there, all the life-nutriment is ex- 
tracted from it ; and, on its being sent out of the body, it is so 
entirely destitute of life-giving power, that if rebreathed into 
the lungs again, without the admixture of any 'pure air, the in- 
dividual would suffocate, would die in sixty seconds. As a man 
breathes about eighteen times in a minute, and a pint at each 
breath, he consumes over two hogsheads of air every hour, or 
about sixteen hogsheads during the eight hours of sleep ; that 
is, if a man were put in a room which would hold sixteen hogs- 
heads of air, he would, during eight hours sleep, extract from 
it every atom of life-nutriment, and would die at the end of the 
eight hours, even if each breath could be kept to itself, provided 
no air came into the room from without. But when it is re- 
membered, that however pure the air of the whole room was at 
first, it becomes contaminated by the first expiration, hence only 
the first, inspiration is pure, and each one thereafter becomes 
more and more impure, unless there is some ventilating process 
going on. 

Every individual has, in his own experience, demonstrative 
proof of the impurity of the air of a room in which a person 
has slept all night, by the "closeness" he has observed on enter- 
ing a sleeping-apartment after a morning's walk, and this, even 
when more or less fresh air has been coming in through the 
crevices about the doors and windows during the whole night. 
The most eminent physiologists at home and abroad have esti- 
mated that no sleeping-apartment, even for a single person, 
should have a floor surface of less than what would equal 
twelve feet long and twelve feet broad, or one hundred and 
forty-four square feet, and eight or ten feet high, or about twelve 
or fifteen hundred cubic feet to each sleeper. But the sleeping- 
apartments of hotels, the "state-rooms" of ships, steamboats, 
and steamships, do not average one third of that cubic space to 
each sleeper. The state-room of a steamer is ordinarily eight 
feet long, seven broad, and seven high, and even these are 
adapted for two sleepers ! 

As, therefore, each out- breathing vitiates the whole air of a 
room, as a drop of ink will discolor the whole bulk of water in 
a tumbler, the chambers for the members of farmers' families 
should not only be large and commodious, but should be so ar- 
ranged that a system of ventilation, at least to a small extent, 


shall be going on all the time, not only in spite of inattention, 
but a system which can not be easily prevented, which is ac- 
complished by the simple expedient of having a fireplace in 
each room, which can not be closed with screens or " summer- 
blowers," for by this means a draft will be made by the cold 
air coming in at the bottom of the doors and from other places, 
passing over the floor toward the open fireplace, driving, the 
heavy carbonic acid gas before it up the chimney. 

If a neglect of these things were invariably followed by death 
before morning, attention to them would be compelled. . But 
although the deleterious effects do not thus speedily and im- 
pressively follow, they do inevitably result to all persons, under 
all circumstances — coming on slowly, it is true, but none the 
less surely and disastrously. To show what a little taint in the 
atmosphere, not natural to it, may affect the whole system, it is 
only necessary to state an observed fact, that a man who sleeps 
near a poppy-field, with the wind blowing toward him from 
the field, will die before the morning. A canary bird, in its 
cage, hung to the ceiling of a curtained bed where there were 
two sleepers, was found dead in the morning. Prof. Carpenter, 
the first physiologist in Great Britain, ascertained that an at" 
mosphere containing six per- cent of carbonic acid gas would 
produce immediate death, and that less than half that amount 
would prove fatal in a short time. But every expiration of a 
sleeper brings out with it some portion of carbonic acid gas, 
and disperses it through the room ; and if six per cent of carbonic 
acid gas will cause speedy death, the effects of breathing it 
nightly, even in very small quantities, for twenty or thirty years, 
can not be otherwise than pernicious to the whole system, must 
lower the standard of human health, and materially shorten life. 
But not only is the air in a close room thus constantly being 
impregnated with carbonic acid gas to the amount of about 
twenty-eight cubic inches per minute, for each adult sleeper, 
but the lungs and pores of the skin are constantly discharging 
an equal amount by weight, that is, three and a half pounds in 
twenty-four hours, of effete, decaying animal substance, in the 
form of invisible vapor, which we often see condensed in drops 
upon the window-glass of crowded rooms, rail-cars, and other 
vehicles. These drops, if collected and evaporated, have been 
found to leave a thick putrid mass of animal matter, which is 


believed to be quite as injurious as carbonic acid gas, if breathed 
into the lungs ; but if not at all injurious, the idea must be ab- 
horrent to every feeling of purity, of taking such a substance 
into our bodies and incorporating it into the very blood, which 
is, at the next instant, to be dashed to the lips and tongue for 
food and nutriment. 

In the winter of 1860, a man named Kobertson, his wife, and 
three children, were in the habit of sleeping in one small, ill- 
ventilated room. One morning, about five o'clock, the wife 
woke .in a very exhausted state, and found her infant of nine 
months dead in her arms ; she immediately aroused her hus- 
band, who had barely strength enough to get out of bed ; they 
next discovered that their son of three years of age was also 
dead, and a daughter of nine in an apparently dying condition, 
but recovered on being removed to another apartment. Facts 
like these show that breathing a bad air for a single night is 
perilous to life, and ought to have an impressive effect on the 
mind of every man who has a family when he is contemplating 
building or arranging for them a home for life. 

Every chamber, then, should be arranged to have a ventilat- 
ing process going on all the time, at least by having an open 
fire-place in it; and as there can be no advantage, but a posi- 
tive injury, resulting from sleeping in any room colder'than 
forty degrees above zero of Fahrenheit, a little fire should be 
kept burning in the grate or fire-place, under such circumstan- 
ces ; this creates a draft up the chimney, and keeps the atmos- 
phere of a sleeping-room comparatively pure. In cases where 
an actual fire can not be kept, an admirable substitute will be 
found in placing a large lamp in the fire-place, to be kept burn- 
ing all night ; this creates a draft without making much heat, 
and is a good means of ventilating a sick-chamber when warmth 
is not desirable, such, for example, as in measles, scarlet fever, 
and other skin diseases, where a cool air, and at the same time 
a pure one, is an indispensable means of a safe and. speedy cure. 
But let it be always borne in mind that cold air is not neces- 
sarily pure, nor is warm air necessarily impure. With a little 
fire in a cold bed-room not only is the chamber kept ventilated, 
but fewer bed-clothes are needed, less clothing does more good 
next day, while there is a freer escape of gases and exhalations 


from the body of the sleeper, and the person wakes up in the 
morning more fresh and vigorous. 

Chambers should not only be constructed with a view to a con- 
stant, thorough, and unpreventable ventilation, but also with an 
eye to their perfect dryness and their free exposure to the sun for 
the greater portion of every day. Florence Nightingale, that 
beautiful name and more beautiful character,' which will go 
down to posterity with that of John Howard and Dorothea 
Dix, and others of nature's nobility, writes after long years of 
experience with the sick and suffering :'• 

" A dark house is always an unhealthy house, always an ill- 
aired house, always a dirty house. Want of light stops growth, 
and promotes scrofula, rickets, etc., among children. People 
lose their health in a dark house, and if they get ill they can 
not get well again in it. Three out of many negligences and 
ignorances in managing the health of houses generally, I will 
here mention as specimens. First, that the female head in 
charge of any building does not think it necessary to visit every 
hole and corner of it every day. How can she expect that 
those under her will be more careful to maintain her house in a 
healthy condition than she who is in charge of it? Second, 
that it is not considered essential to air, to sun and clean rooms 
while uninhabited ; which is simply ignoring the first element- 
ary notion of sanitary things, and laying the ground for all 
kinds of diseases. Third, that one window is considered enough 
to air a room. Don't imagine that if you who are in charge 
don't look to all these things yourself! those under you will be 
more careful than you are. It appears as if the part of the 
mistress was to complain of her servants and to accept their 
excuses — not to show them how there need be neither com- 
plaints nor excuses made." 

In reference to the same subject, and in confirmation of what 
has been already stated in this article, Dr. Moore, the metaphy- 
sician, thus speaks of the effect of light on body and mind : " A 
tad-pole confined in darkness would never become a frog ; and 
an infant being deprived of heaven's free light will only grow 
into a shapeless idiot, instead of a beautiful and responsible be- 
ing. Hence, in the deep, dark gorges and ravines of the Swiss 
Yalais, where the direct sunshine never reaches, the hideous 


prevalence of idiocy startles the traveler. It is a strange, melan- 
choly idiocy. Many citizens are incapable of any articulate 
speech ; some are deaf, some are blind, some labor under all 
these privations, and all are misshapen in almost every part of 
the body. I believe there is in all places a marked difference 
in the healthiness of houses according to their aspect with regard 
to the sun, and those are decidedly the healthiest, other thiDgs 
being equal, in which all the rooms are, during some part of 
the day, fully exposed to the direct light. Epidemics attack in- 
habitants on the shady side of the street, , and totally exempt 
those on the other side ; and even in epidemics, such as ague, 
the morbid influence is often thus partial in its labors." 


Are beginning to be considered an indispensable appendage 
to a farmer's house, and, indeed, to every man who owns his 
premises. They are not a necessity, and where there is a good 
spring, or never-failing well, they can be very readily dispensed 
with, especially as they do not contribute to the general health 
of any family, unless the use of ice is wisely controlled. The 
free use of ice- water tends to the decay of the teeth premature- 
ly, is liable to produce dangerous inflammations of the stomach, 
and certainly is the immediate cause of dyspeptic diseases in 
multitudes of cases, where it is freely indulged in at the regular 
meals of the day. At the same time, as many will prefer -build- 
ing ice-houses, it is proper here to give some directions in refer- 
ence to the subject. 

That ice keeps better ordinarily above ground than below, 
and that ventilation is necessary in order to its well-keeping, are 
two indisputable facts. The more compact the mass of ice is,' the 
longer will it keep ; hence plans have been devised of letting a 
stream of water run slowly into the ice-house after it has been 
filled, so that all the crevices may be filled up ; or where a run- 
ning stream is available, some persons have arranged to let the 
water in a foot deep during very cold weather ; when this has 
frozen solid, let in a few inches more, until the house is entirely 
filled ; or it can be done with less trouble and attention if during 
very severe weather the water is conveyed into the ice-house dur- 
ing the night, by or from a running stream, in a very fine spray, 
freezing as it falls. There should be a double roof ; the under 

86 < ' 

part of the rafters should be boarded closely, and between that 
and the shingles a space of eight or ten inches or more should 
be filled up with saw-dust, spent tan-bark, or other porous sub- 
stance. There should be a space between the straw on the sur- 
face of the ice and the roof, for purposes of ventilation, to 
prevent the air from becoming damp and close, with a wooden 
chimney of eight or ten inches square piercing the roof, or a 
sliding panel in the door would answer ; the ventilation must 
not be a current of air. If the eaves of the roof extend a foot 
or two over the sides, a greater protection is afforded against 
rain and the rays of the sun. The roof of an ice-house should 
be steep. Great care should be taken against leakages of this, 
as well as of all other farm buildings. A cement may be 
applied with a trowel or case-knife to all leaks in roofs or about 
chimneys, etc., made thus : Take pure white lead and mix it with 
boiled oil until it is of the thickness of thin paint, add to this 
common sand until of the thickness of common mortar ; there 
is perhaps nothing better than this. A space twelve feet in the 
cellar in every direction, will hold enough ice for a large family. 

Ice-houses should be located, as a general rule, on the north 
side of a hill, if built under ground, so that the ice can be ap- 
proached on a level with the ground on which it is built. On 
many farms such a location is impracticable, and the only alter- 
native is to build one on the surface. The general construction 
should be a wooden frame building, with another outside of it, 
with a space intervening of from fifteen to thirty inches, which 
should be filled in with coal-cinders, tan-bark, or, which is bet- 
ter than either, pulverized charcoal. It would be better if the 
inner building were made of solid timbers close together, and 
about three inches thick ; the outer one, or the shell, may be a 
common frame, neatly weather-boarded, and kept well painted 
with white lead, so as to repel the heat of the sun. It will add 
to the convenience of an ice-house if the bottom, or at least a 
part of it, is arched, so as to form a place for a larder under 
this arch, or the drainings of the ice should' be made to pass 
through the dairy or " spring-house.' ' 

Many farms have small streams of water running through 
them. In such cases, the locality for an ice-house should be 
selected with reference to the convenience of damming this 


stream near it, before Christmas, in such a way that a lake of a 
hundred feet or more in diameter, and about two feet deep, may 
be formed, and properly protected from cattle and all nuisances. 
This body of water would yield enough ice for a large farm, 
and by its shallowness would be more certain to yield a crop of 
ice, because a less degree of cold would be required to freeze it 
solidly than in a deeper stream, or one which was running, even 
with a sluggish current. One freezing over would yield thirty 
or forty one-horse loads of this summer luxury. While the 
lavish use of ice and ice- water can not but be prejudicial to the 
health of any family, common ice is one of the most valuable 
of remedial means in case of sickness in various forms. 

To a person burning up with internal fevers ice is a comfort 
beyond expression. 

Swallowing ice freely in small lumps is the chief treatment 
in inflammation of the stomach. 

The constant application of ice", pounded fine, and envelop- 
ing the head with it by means of a cushion, or other contriv- 
ance, is the most reliable remedy for that dangerous malady, in- 
flammation of the brain, which so often sends its victim to the 
grave in a few days, or to that living death, the mad-house ! ! 

In all inflammations, whether internal or external, ice dimin- 
ishes rapidly the size of the blood-vessels, and thus relieves the 
pain they give when thus swollen by their pressing against the 
nerves which are always in the neighborhood of the arteries of 
the system. 

Diphtheria, and some of the worst of other forms of sore 
throat, has been arrested in a very short time by pounding a 
piece of ice in a bag, then laying the head back, take the lumps 
and swallow them continuously until relieved, allowing them 
to be detained in the throat as long as possible, there to melt. 

In all forms of diarrhea and dysentery, where there is great 
thirst, the gratification of which by drinking any liquid in- 
creases the malady, are promptly controlled, and in many cases 
perfectly cured, by simply swallowing as large lumps of ice as 

Epilepsy itself, one of the most uncontrollable of human 
maladies, is said to be treated successfully in London by the 
application of ice to the spinal portion of the system. 

88 hall's journal of health. 

A piece of ice laid on the wrist will often arrest profuse and 
dangerous bleeding of the nose. 

In croup, water as cold as ice can make it, if applied freely 
and persistently to the throat, neck, and upper part of the chest 
with a sponge or cloth, often affords an almost miraculous relief, 
especially if followed by drinking copiously of ice-water, wiping 
the wetted parts perfectly dry, then wrapping the child closely 
up in dry flannels, allowing it to fall 'into a* delightful and life- 
giving slumber. 

These statements may induce the farmer to be at pains, if he 
does conclude to build an ice-house, to have it done in the most 
thorough manner and after the most approved pattern. 

Shade -Trees. 
It looks well in the midst of summer to see a tidy farm-house 
almost hid from view by trees and bushes ; but the influences 
they have in keeping a dwelling damp in summer and in pro- 
ducing a raw and chilly atmosphere in winter, thus engendering 
disease the year round, are sufficient reasons for exercising a 
wise discretion in this direction. Persons who have visited 
England have often admired the country -places of the gentry, 
one very uniform attendant being a beautiful green lawn in 
front of the buildings, not a single bush or tree, unless it may 
be in a diagonal direction from the front corners of the build- 
ings forward and away. It would subserve the purposes oi 
health, especially in level or low or damp localities, to have 
neither tree nor bush within twenty or thirty feet of the front 
of the farm-house, unless it be a flowering plant here and there, 
or some stately and ancient denizen of the forest, to give an air 
of antiquity and substantialness to the surroundings, but even 
these should not be so near as to keep the roof of the building 
always more or less damp, nor to darken the best and most fre- 
quented rooms of the house ; for the first, the most indispensa- 
ble requisite, in building or remodeling a farm-house, should be 
to arrange for its healthfulness. 


These should be erected in as dry a locality as possible, where 
the sun can shine upon them the whole day, and where the 
ground descends in every direction. Special attention should 


be paid to the roofing, so that the rain may be turned off rapid- 
ly, and that the snow may melt very soon without the possibili- 
ty of large accumulations. 

The Stable 
Should be arranged to be above ground, to be well ventilated, 
and to have abundant light ; in short, to be cool in summer and 
warm in winter. He can never be a successful farmer who 
does not shelter his cattle effectually and well, in all seasons 
from the inclemencies of the weather. It is not only a humani- 
ty, but a great pecuniary saving on every farm where there is a 
single living animal. Some build stables low for warmth, but 
the advantage is more than lost by the vitiation of the atmos- 
phere. A warm, bad air is worse than the cooler and still at- 
mosphere of a stable. The ceiling of a stable should be at least 
ten feet high, with an aperture for the escape of foul air ; 
the walls or partitions should be. close, and arranged to have 
abundant light admitted through glass windows. In summer 
the sash may be removed. 

The American Agriculturist for December, 1863, gives a de- 
scription of a stable for draught and farm horses which contains 
the most important points on this subject : 

" The stable should not be less than eighteen feet wide, and 
of such a length as will allow six feet standing for each horse. 
It should be ten feet high. The horses stand in a single row, 
and the harness is hung on pegs in the wall behind them. This 
width admits of thorough ventilation to the stable, without sub- 
jecting the horses to drafts. Each standing should be parted 
off by an upright post reaching from the ground to the ceiling 
rafter, placed three feet from the wall at the horse's head. 
These partitions should be closely boarded up three feet above 
the manger and hay-crib, to prevent the horses quarreling 
about the food, and biting each other. To each of these posts 
a ' bale,' eight feet long and twenty inches wide, should be 
hung by a strong chain, to divide the standings, and suspended 
by another strong chain at the hinder end from the ceiling raf- 
ter. Each chain should have a hook and eye within reach, that 
may be readily unfastened. This arrangement will leave a 
space of six feet opposite the head of each horse, available for 
feeding purposes. The manger for corn and chaff (cut feed) 


may be two and a half feet long. It should be two feet wide 
at the top, one foot two inches at the bottom. The hay and 
straw, which should be cut into six-inch lengths, will require a 
larger receptacle, which should be three feet six inches long 
two feet wide at its upper part, and half that width below. It 
should be so constructed, that while it is even with the manger 
above, it should reach to the ground, two feet above which 
should be fixed to the wall a bottom, sloping to one foot above 
the ground in the front, where some upright openings should be 
cut, to allow the escape of the seeds and dirt. 

" At the top of this hay and straw-crib, an iron rack with bars 
six inches apart, should be so hung as to open up and fall back 
against the wall to let the fodder be put in, and then be put 
down upon it for the horse to eat through. It should be so 
much smaller than the opening that it can fall down with the 
fodder as it is consumed, by which means not a particle is wasted. 
The manger may be constructed of yellow deal one and a half 
inches thick for the front, back, and ends ; the bottom, of slate 
three quarters of an inch thick. The top of the front and ends 
should be covered with half round iron, two and a half inches 
wide, screwed on to project over the front, a quarter of an inch 
outside, and three quarters of an inch inside the manger. This 
prevents the food being tossed out and the manger being gnawed. 
A short post must be put up as near the center of the standing 
as possible, to support the manger, into which a large screw 
ring must be put to let the chain or rope of the headstall pass 
freely up and down without constant friction. The manger 
may be three and a half feet from ground to top ; the hay-crib 
of course the same hight. The paving of the standings, to 
three and a half feet from the head, should be flat, then with a 
fall from both sides to the center, where an angle iron drain of 
four inches wide from end to end, with a removable flat iron 
cover fitted to the inside of it, should be placed straight down 
the standing, with a fall into another larger cross main drain 
ten feet six inches from the head, so placed as to carry away 
the urine from all the smaller drains into a tank outside the sta- 
ble. This main drain so placed, takes the urine from the mares, 
and has a loose cover also fitted to it, easily removed for sweep- 
ing out when necessary, perhaps once a week. This system 


keeps the stable healthy, economizes the urine, and the straw 
also — the latter very important where it can be sold, or con- 
sumed as food. The width of eighteen feet for the stable gives 
room for narrow corn bins three feet high, so that each carter 
may have his horses' corn separate." 

In the above, paving has been alluded to for standings, but a 
hard, dry dirt floor is greatly better than stone or plank. A 
nice smooth, hard, and dry floor may be secured with small 
stones packed like a McAdamized road, the interstices being 
filled up with good cement, or with the dust made by breaking 
up limestone rock. This will make a floor which water can not 
penetrate nor horse-shoe disturb. The cheapest and best bed- 
ding, at least near mills, for such a floor, or for any other if 
kept dry, is saw-dust, which should be laid in abundantly, when 
dry, in the fall of the year. 

It may be added that a good farmer and a generous man, 
having arranged his house for the comfort, health, and happi- 
ness of his family and the elevation of the tastes of his neigh- 
borhood, will not rest satisfied as long as the noble horse, the 
useful cow, and the patient ox and mule are without comforta- 
ble quarters, warm in winter, cool in summer, and all the year 
round abundantly fed and kindly treated, extending these with 
a right good-will to pigs and poultry too ! 


It is becoming more common *every year to supply farm- 
houses with water through lead pipes, distributed through the 
building. Some waters, as the Schuylkill, which supplies Phila- 
delphia, contain an element which forms on the inside of the 
pipe, a film which is absolutely impervious by the water, and pro- 
tects the lead against all corrosion or chemical change. And in 
cities and large towns, where the water is kept running almost 
incessantly, time is not allowed for chemical action on the lead ; 
where the same water, through the same pipes, would produce 
speedy sickness in a farm-house. It is water stagnant in a lead 
pipe which causes mischief; so that every faucet should be 
allowed to run the water waste for at least one minute the first 
thing in the morning, especially in the kitchen. Still, compara- 
tively little harm would result under ordinary circumstances if. 


while the leaden pipes are laid, the most special care should be 
taken as to these points : 

Allow no angles in the pipe. 

Let every piece of pipe which is horizontal lie perfectly 

Have all curves as large as possible. 

Have no indentation on the outside of the pipe, for this may 
cause a projection on the inside. 

Be at great pains that no pebble or other thing shall be left 
in a pipe at the time of its being laid. 

All these look to one point, that is, the prevention of any 
sediment lodging at any one point, for where this occurs, there 
will be found the elements of corrosion and chemical change, 
from which the poisoning comes. 


There can be no good reason why a piazza from ten to four- 
teen feet broad should not extend the whole front, end, and 
part of the rear of every farm-house ; and considering the per- 
sonal advantages of such an arrangement, and the air of cool- 
ness and beauty and liveliness which they present in summer, 
it must be put down as a great oversight, in that they are not 
more common than they are. It can not be denied that they 
contribute greatly to the coolness of the lower rooms in warm 
weather, and afford facilities for play to the children in incle- 
ment or muddy weather, and for exercise to grown persons, 
which are of inestimable value in promoting health. It would 
surprise most persons greatly to know how many girls in the- 
country have fixed diseases grafted on them before they leave 
their teens ; this is more strikingly the case with the daughters 
of farmers who are "well off" and actually rich. This comes 
about largely from the fact that they have not the facilities of 
exercise half equal to similar classes in large towns and cities. 
They, perhaps, sweep a room, or dust the parlors, or make up a 
bed or two in the morning ; and that is about all the exercise 
they take on foot during the day, except when they have visit- 
ors ; the remainder of the time they sit and sew, or read, or loll 
about, not altogether because they do not want to exercise 
themselves, but because there are not the facilities of doing so. 
Few farmers have a spare horse suitable for a girl to ride, and 
if they did, she must have some one to ride with her ; that re- 


quires a second horse, and the brother or father must accom- 
pany her. These circumstances narrow down the chances of 
horseback exercise, exclusive of church-going days, to about a 
dozen or two hours in a year to eleven farmers' daughters in a 
dozen. And however inclined to walk, it is impracticable, in 
winter, because they must step from the door-sill into mud, or 
slush, or snow. In summer it is too hot in the middle of the 
day; in the morning the grass is bedewed; and so in the even- 
ing, unless it is early, say just before sundown, when it is not 
altogether safe to be out of sight of the house. If there were 
commodious piazzas, there would be admirable facilities . for 
walking at all seasons, and every day, for games, rope-jumping, 
plays, and promenades of every description ; and by reducing 
it to a system, an amount of exercise in the open air could be 
taken every day, the value of which upon the physical health, 
the mental power, and general vivacity, can not be readily esti- 


The most loved and admired of all domestic animals r de- 
serves an additional mention in connection with the description 
of a model stable, as recommended by Mr. J. "Wilkinson, Kural 
Architect and Landscape Gardener, of Baltimore, Maryland, 
and communicated to the Maryland Farmer, of that city, a 
monthly magazine, well deserving a large circulation. Mr. Wil- 
kinson gives the pine plank floor the preference : "The worst 
of all is the clay floor. I lay the planks lengthwise, across the 
stalls, with a slope from front to rear. I lay the planks length- 
wise across the stalls, and cut each plank under the partitions, 
and also in the centre of the stall. I lay them so as to leave an 
opening of half an inch between the ends, which forms a slot, 
or opening of a half inch in width and six feet in length, in the 
centre of the floor of each stall. I lay the floor so that it has a 
slope of three quarters of an inch from each side .toward the 
centre, where the opening or slot is, but give the floor no ob- 
liquity ' fore and aft.' By this arrangement I accomplish a 
double object, namely, that of giving the animal the position 
he instinctively always seeks when in the pasture, by lying 
with the back ' up hill,' or the highest, for either side is higher 
than the centre. 


" My mode of ventilation consists in making the building as 
close as practicable, with the exception of the ingress and egress 
openings for ventilation ; tbe former I place in the floor, imme- 
diately in front of the horses ; the latter on the highest part of 
the roof, having no obstructions between these two points. I 
take the air into the ground, if practicable, at the distance of 
one hundred feet from the stable, and lay an air-duct of proper 
dimensions from the receiving-well to an area under the feeding 
passage-floor, that portion of the floor over it being latticed. 

" By this arrangement I take the air into the building, sum- 
mer and winter, at the temperature of the ground, at the depth 
of which I lay the duct. Thus it is warmer than the external 
atmosphere in winter, and cooler in summer, and every breath 
is fresh and pure — a condition of things widely contrasting 
with that I have described, the result of the ordinary stable 
arrangement, which no one conversant with the subject will 

" I feed the hay directly from the hay -loft through a sheet- 
iron hay-tube, which is eighteen inches in diameter at the top, 
and twenty-four inches at the base. It stands on the tie-rail, 
level with the top of the manger, between two stalls, and ex- 
tends to the level with the surface of the hay-loft floor. The 
top of it is covered. There are openings on either side, so that 
two animals eat from one tufye. There is no waste of hay nor 
dust made in the stable in feeding it. The grain-feeding man- 
ger is of cast-iron, is hung on hinges, hence, may be removed 
and cleansed at pleasure. ? 

"I also secure the most perfect drainage, by allowing the 
urine to fall directly through the slot in the floor, where it is 
received into the Y-shaped iron gutter under the floor, which 
discharges it into a main gutter under the floor in the rear of 
the line of stalls, outside of the stable. 

"By this arrangement neither the bedding nor the floor is 
wet, only where the urine falls, which is usually over the open- 
ing in the floor, hence, the bedding will be less saturated with 
urine, even if it is allowed to lie for a fortnight without moving 
it, than it will be in a single night with the use of the tight 
floor laid with a slope from front to rear. The urine Usually 
falls about five feet from the rear of the stall, and if the floor 

hall's jouenal of health. 95 

has a slope to the rear, it will, in running that distance, be ob- 
structed and spread over nearly the entire width of the stall 
before it is discharged into the surface-gutter in the rear of the 
stalls. In this gutter* it is still more obstructed by the excre- 
ment ; and the result is, that when the animal lies, he presses 
the bedding on to the floor, surcharged with putrescent urine, 
which it absorbs, and saturates the belly, thighs, and tail of the 
animal, and the blanket; all of which is avoided by my ar- 

" This excessively filthy condition of the animal, revolting 
as it is to all who have proper appreciation of 'cleanliness,' 
which is next, to godliness,' is not the worst feature consequent 
upon this barbarous, though universal state of things. The 
heat of the bed and animal lying on the bed and floor, fully 
saturated with putrid urine, will give off the most fetid gases, 
which the animal must breathe over and over again during 
the whole night." 


The American Agriculturist says : " First, the ground se- 
lected must be dry, and out of the way of floods, if near a 
stream ; for if water stands in contact with the ice, it will 'melt 
away almost Mike the morning cloud.' It is well to have the 
ice-house on the north side of a hill, or of a house or big tree. 
If close to the house, and a cool-room can be made between it 
and the house, that will be found very convenient, and the ice- 
house wall next the cool-room need not be made so thick as 
on the other sides ; in fact, a double boarding, with an inch 
of space between, is enough. It is well to dig out the ground 
so as to set the house a little Jo wer than the general level, and 
it may be several feet lower if convenient. The bottom ought 
to slope to the middle or to one side, and to be grouted ; that 
is, laid with broken stones which are covered with hydraulic 
cement mortar, poured over and in among them, and smoothed 
off even on the surface. The inclination of the bottom should 
lead to a sealed drain, so protected that it can not be stopped 
up by accident, or by sawdust. It is important that the drain- 
age of an ice-house, whether the bottom be cemented as we 
have described or not, should be perfect, and that a circulation 

96 hall's journal of health. 

of air should not take place through the drain. This is easily 
affected by having the end of the drain (a round tile) rise two 
or three inches in a cemented depression, or basin, and turning 
over it a common flower-pot with the hole stopped. 

" A house 10 x 10, or 12 x 12 feet, and eight feet from the 
bottom to the eaves, with a half-pitch roof, is about what is 
wanted on an ordinary farm, and will hold and keep more ice 
than is usually needed. The sides should be ten inches thick, 
the frame being of eight-inch uprights, of two-inch plank, set 
four on a side, (the end ones being a foot from the outside cor- 
ners,) upon sills of the same width. The inside boarding 
should be of cheap inch stuff. The outside may be clapboard- 
ed, or boarded up and down and battened. Dry sawdust, 
planing-mill shavings, or dry spent tan-bark, may be used to 
fill in between -the outer and inner boarding, and the filling 
should be settled down solid. The plates may be of two-inch 
plank ; the rafters four on each side, of two-inch plank, six 
inches wide. They should be boarded outside and inside, and 
the space filled with shavings. The roof should be thatched 
or shingled, and the gable ends double boarded and filled like 
the sides. The door should be in one of the ends, four to six 
feet from the ground, and four feet high ; and close to the 
peak there should be a sliding shutter for a ventilator. There 
should be a flooring not nailed down but laid firmly, to sup- 
port the ice. 

" The sides may rest on the grouting, or on a stone under- 
pinning. When they are laid, they should have a coat of 
coal-tar all over, and when the house is done,* sawdust stirred 
up with coal-tar should be filled into all the ere vices, and holes 
near the ground outside and inside^ and earth heaped up around 
the sides and trodden down. Paint the sides with tar as high 
as the earth comes. How to fill an ice-house will be a subject 
for our December number. 

" Straw Ice-Houses. — Where there is a great abundance 
of straw, ice ma}^ be preserved throughout the year, if packed 
in a compact mass and well covered with .straw, perfect drain- 
age being secured." 


HalVs Journal of Health. 97 

"WANTED TO GIVE To whomsoever will procure sixty paying subscribers to 
Hall's Journal of Health for 1866, a Wheeler and Wilson sewing Machine, costing 
cash $56. This Machine will sew all kinds of fabrics,and is the cheapest and best 
manufactured of its kind. Specimen numbers will be sent post-paid for Ten cts. or 

TO STUDENTS, The best and most complete edition of Webster's Dictionary, 
retailed at Twelve dollars, will be given to any one who will procure Twelve Sub- 
scribers, which many a person could do in an hour's time, who could not clear 
that much money in a month, in any way available to them. Or we will furnish a 
copy of all our publications, nineteen in number, for thirty subscribers. 

Godey's Lady's Book, Edited by Mrs. Sarah J. Hale and L. A. Godey, pub- 
lished monthly at the north-east corner of Sixth and Chestnut St. Philadelphia, Pa, 
for Three Dollars a vear, is said by an exchange to be " The oldest, best and 
cheapest, for the best is always cheapest." The March No. contains Twenty em- 
bellishments, and about sixty different articles of reading matter. Back Nos. can 
always be supplied. Twelve copies are sent for one year for Twenty-eight dollars. 

A Valuable Book. The Harper Brothers have just published an 8vo. of 300 
pages, in handsome style, fSt $3.50, being A Text Book on Anatomy, Physiology 
and Hygiene, by Prof. John C. Draper of the University of New- York ; for the use 
of Schools and families ; with 110 illustrations ; if is at once scientific, practical 
and popular, and well deserves to be made a text book in every public school, sem- 
inary, college and university; if this were done, the knowledge which would be 
imparted to the youug and others, in reference to the laws of the human 
body, would not only prevent an incalculable amount of sickness, but would add 
several years to the average of human life. We will send the book post-paid to 
any subscriber who will forward four subscriptions to the Journal for 1866. 

The American Tract Society of 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible House, New- 
York, has sent us one of the sweetest little books it has ever published, " Polished 
Diamonds," by Rev. John Todd, D.D. Whoever has lost a darling child, whoever 
may have one to loose, will find in these few pages a comfort inexpressible. Its 
first chapter is headed " Mary Brace Todd," then "Grinding the Diamond," "The 
Pearl Oyster," "Crutches in the Garret," "The Funeral," "Heaven." Its first 
words are, "Just as the night begins to pass away, and the light of a new day to 
spread over the earth, the father stands at the fresh grave of his child with a little 
wreathe which he has woven to lay on that grave," and ends thus, " Dear reader \ 
have I been able to throw one ray of light beyond the grave, or one beam of hope 
into your heart. I thank God if I have." This book is a well of water springing 
up unto everlasting life ; and to every sufferer, to every one in trouble, it is amine 
from which joy and gladness may be quarried, in every human sorrow, when 
there is hope in God. We will send a copy post-paid to every one who will send 
us three dollars for Two subscribers to Hall's Journal of Health for 1866 — the offer 
will extend to the close of the year. " Precious Truths in Plain Words," contains 
sixty Tracts of two pages each, particularly adapted to family reading. Some of 
the subjects are, Hearers and Doers ; Why we love God ; Conflict here ; Rest 
hereafter; True and False Peace; Always Rejoicing; Not Servants, but Sons- 
Wake or Die; The family in Heaven and Earth; Now or Never, &c. These two 
books will be sent for Three new subscribers. 

98 HaWs Journal of Health. 

" Enoch Rosen's Training," 233 pages. This a reprint from the London Re- 
ligious Tract Society, and every father who has a son whom he desires to restrain 
from evil ways, and to follow those paths which lead to usefulness and honor,and 
every youth who is about deciding what calling in life he shall pursue and who has 
an ambition to succeed, not merely in making money, but in becoming a respected 
and wealthy citizen, will derive invaluable practical lessons and hints from this 
very excellent book; as a means of introducing such books into families, the pub- 
lisher will send.the three, post-paid, for four new subscribers to Hall's Journal of 
Health for 1866 ; the offer to last during the year. This Society is doing a great 
and good work, and we heartily wish it commensurate success. 

The Word of Promise, 299 pages, being a hand book to the promises of Scrip- 
ture, by Horatius Boner, D. D., shows that there is a promise making and a 
promise fulfilling God. How sweet to take the Bible and open it with such a 
thought filling the whole soul, making it the more ready to appropriate all its 
words of love and drink them in as the hunted hart drinketh in the cooliog 
water brook! How much they loose daily, who fail daily to make the Holy 
Scriptures their ever dear delight. If any reader has not this delight in the 
Law of the Lord, it would be well for him to readjust such a book, and others 
like it, especially as we know not what the coming summer may bring forth to 
any one of us ; certain it is, that it will be the last on earth to some, and if they 
be not " saved," then have they lost a beatific immortality. To all we say, 
read such books as will not only inspire au unwavering confidence in the Bible, 
but will cherish a love and a habit of dwelling upon its truths, leaning upon its 
promise, and this will Dr. Bonar's delightful work help those to do, who want 
to do it. 

Fables for the Young »Folks, by Mrs. Rosser, Original, may be safely and 
profitably placed on every family centre table. These fables will be a perfect de- 
light to youtliful readers, and cannot fail to make life-long impressions for good. 
The five books will be sent post-paid for five new subscribers to Hall's Journal of 
Health for 1866. Five unusually excellent books without money ; for a labor 
that almost any person might perform in half an hour, thus doing good all round. 

CATARRH. The three advertisements in March, of Catarrh will save us the 
trouble of answering letters, which come to us from every quarter, inquiriug as to 
the respective merits of the persons who advertise to treat the disease ; these 
persons require from fifty to five hundred dollars in advance and some of them 
require the patient to sign a paper which they suppose will relieve them from all 
obligation to refund, in case the treatment is not satisfactory. We have seen 
several persons, who looked like sensible, respectable people, who confessed to 
have "so signed; " we certainly think that they ought; to have Cattarh of the 
nose, head, liver, lights, paunch and gizzard for the remainder of the term of their 
natural life; we would advise our readers before paying and "signing," to "try 
it" on a small scale and venture a dollar or two with Prince or Burrington, or ra- 
ther venture nothing but a little time, on Godfrey who was not afraid to tell us 
what his Remedy was and shows his faith in its merits by offering to return the 
money in full on demand "and no questions. asked" if it is not satisfactory, and 
as we know the Remedy and that it is relied upon by educated medical men as 
safe and efncien , < in many cases, we rather give our vote for Godfrey first; fl^p° if 
you should find that your family physician does not afford you the desired relief: 
but to purchase any secret remedy, before consulting a regular physician, merely 
from the assurances of the' persons who sell it, proves that there is something 
wrong in the upper story, a soft place somewhere in that individual's skull cap. 

HalVs Journal of Health. 99 


Are thus noticed in one of our exchanges : " In Hall's Jour- 
nal of Health, one of the best periodicals published in the 
United States, there can be found a series of the most valuable 
essays ever placed in type : they are not mere ephemeral fan- 
tasies, but practical truths, which, if read and followed care- 
fully, will benefit the whole human race." These Health 
Tracts, 236 in number, with a steel engraving of the Editor, 
are sent, post-paid, for $2.50, by addressing " Hall's Journal 
of Health, No. 2 West 43d St., New- York." 

Of the Book on "Health and Disease," (price $1.60 by mail) 
which has now passed through several editions, the manuscript 
of which was rejected by all the prominent publishers of New 
York City, a member of Congress, who has made his mark for 
time, says, in a letter recently received by the Publisher. 
" Send me another copy of Health and Disease. I have been 
so much pleased with it, that I desire to extend its usef ulness." 

The " Health Tracts " were offered to one of the very largest 
Publishing Houses in New- York, but were " Yery respectfully 
declined." It would seem from this, that there is a difference 
of opinion as to their value. As they have been copied, all of 
them, in hundreds, perhaps thousands of papers, all over the 
country, it may reasonably be presumed that they are of some 
practical value. The original intention was to print a tract 
on moral health, On the other side of the page of one on physi- 
cal health, and thus make one preserve the other, and do good 
by stealth ; the Editor is thankful to possess the evidence, in 
letters received from all parts of the country, from persons of 
all classes and professions, including strangers and friends, that 
the mark aimed at has not been wholly missed. Each tract is 
eminently practical, and is contained on one page ; it is believed 
that they will be as useful and true in the next generation as 
now ; and that the increasing intelligence of the people will 
proportionably increase the general favorable estimate of their 

While writing about our own books, we add something in 
reference to that on 

the third edition revised, with additions ($1.60 by mail) ; its 
object is to point out the very earliest and infallible symptoms 
of its first approach ; the indications of its more advanced 

100 HalVs Journal of Health. 

stages ; and then to show the comparatively easily practicable 
cure of the malady at this point of the disease, by entirely 
physical means, which are stated and illustrated by cases com- 
ing under the care of another physician, an Army Surgeon, in 
connection with corroboration under the author's care ; by 
means of the suggestions made persons have recovered their 
health and lived many years afterwards ; perhaps the same 
thing may occur again in reference to others and for this 
reason, it is brought distinctly into notice again especially as 
we believe that it is the only book yet. published for popular 
reading which gives a truthful view of the dreadful disease. 

Several years ago w r e made a statement that there were 
more farmers lunatics than of any other class. Several corres- 
pondents of various papers called the truth of the statement in 
question; We made no reply, as we had the facts in our pos- 
session. It is of no use to ar'gue as to the truth of a whole 
fact ; yet many persons are ready at a moment's notice to do 
this same thing and begin usually to explain away the facts by 
V supposing a case." We used the fact in order to draw a 
practical inference of very great value as it regards farmers 
and farmers 7 families. The reason given for the fact was that 
there was too much sameness in a farmer's life ; there were top 
few subjects of thought ; the remedy proposed was to increase 
the intelligence of farmers by directing their attention to the 
patronage of Agricultural books, magazines, and newspapers ; 
to scientific farming, derided as it is by too many. The time 
is upon us when only scientific farming will pay ; the exhuber- 
ant richness of the soil is becoming exhausted in mairy parts of 
the country, and in such places a ,hap -hazard agriculture will 
not pay in times when labor is doubled and in some cases com- 
mands three or four times as much as it used to. See the 
Journal for January and February of 1863. 

The report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the insane at 
Philadelphia, made by Dr. Thomas Kirkbride for 1866, as 
physician-in-chief and superintendent. No similar institution 
has a more conscientious, faithful and competent head. This 
last report is of unusual interest and value, on account of its 
suggestiveness as to the management of such establishments. 
Tjais report shows that out of four thousand five hundred pa- 
tients, there were one hundred more farmers than of any other 

HaWs Journal of Health. 101 

class ; there were more farmers' wives than of any other class, 
more widows of farmers, than any other class ; and nearly as 
many farmers' daughters, as of any other class. These things 
show that, as a general rule, a farmer's life is a hard one, 
whether for husband, wife or daughter, and we commend the 
remedy, the effectual remedy proposed in the two numbers of 
the Journal already referred to, sent post-paid for thirty cents. 
It is suggestive to note in this connection, that merchants, their 
wives, daughters and widows are next in number to crowd the 
insane asylums. 

The American Tract Society, 150 Nassau street, New York, 
offer " Wee Davy," by Norman Macleod, D. D., a beautiful and 
instructive narrative of Scottish, christian life ; also, " While 
they are with us," most beautifully suggestive, and which all 
can read with profit who have any one to love ; the great idea 
is, treat the living lovingly, and, when they are dead and gone; 
the reflection will be a balm of sweetest consolation, as long as 
you live, and growing sweeter to the end. To have a con- 
sciousness, abiding alway, that the father, the mother, the 
child, the wife, now dead, were never neglected, were never 
treated harshly. Reader, think of it. " How George Neumark 
sung his hymn." " Individualized Religion," by Dr. Adams, 
of the Madison Square Church, New-York ; every living chris- 
tian will be profited and fed by its./ perusal. "The Power of 
Truth," by the Rev'd John Gray, a beautiful narrative by a 
warm-hearted christian man — love divine shines out in every 
page. " Titles and Attributes of the Holy Spirit," a vest- 
pocket edition, in Scripture words exclusively ; a precious 
doctrine, strongly set forth. 

A New Sugae. — C. Cory & Sons, of Lima, Indiana, have sent 
us a good sugar, made from a species of sorghum or sugarcane, 
from the Sandwich islands ; they can supply the seed or cane. 
If a barrel of syrup is set aside, more than three-fourths chrys- 
talizes into sugar of itself. These gentlemen have also pat- 
ented a method of converting the cider or juice of apples into 
a jam or jelly ,which is perfectly delightful ; there is a tartness 
about it which was a perfect god-send to our suffering soldiers 
over a year ago, to whom they sent eight thousand pounds. 
We have some which we have kept for more than a year, 
without any change ; it is as clear as. amber; a teaspoonful 
stirred into eight times as much water, dissolves without a 

102 HalVs Journal of Health. 

particle of sediment and makes a delightful cider. Vacuum 
pans are not used. The article will soon be largely supplied. 

The Richmond, Va., Medical Journal, $5 a year, published 
monthly, 80 pages 8vo. is edited with great industry, discrimi- 
nation and ability by Drs. G-aillard and McChesney. Dr. G. 
has given a most instructive article, with engraving, of Cere* 
bro-Spinal-Meningitis. Dr. Houston contributed an essay on 
Cholera — for February, which, none can read without profit, 
although in some points there may be a difference of opinion. 
We heartly commend the Richmond Journal of Medicine to the 
Profession throughout the country. 

Ventilation. Isaac Pitman of Providence, Rhode Island, 
has introduced a system of ventilation for private dwellings and 
public buildings, which is well worthy of the attention of 
builders; he claims for his plan, all the principles in its action, 
required for a thorough and complete ventilation ; producing 
a state of air indoors, like that without ; this certainly has not 
been accomplished hitherto, and if Mr. Pitman's plan does this, 
he merits the gratitude of the present and future generations. 
He aims to give a pure warm air, constantly renewed. Any 
gentleman who contemplates building or altering a house for 
his own residence, would do well to communicate with Mr. P. 

The Christian Intelligencer of New YorJi says : " Harper's 
Weekly is the most popular and widely-circulated of American 
illustrated papers. During the war it manfully and energeti- 
cally sustained the Government, and still gives it efficient 
support. Its general reading is good and genial; Terms, $4 
a year. 

" Laws of Health" 427 p. 12mo., by Edward Jarvis, M. D. 
is just published by A. S. Barnes & Co., 51, 53 & 55 John St., 
New York, for the use of Schools, Academies . and Colleges. 
The great and sole object of this work is to teach the " laws of 
Health." It treats of Digestion, Food, Circulation, Nutrition, 
Respiration, Animal Heat, The Skin, Bones, Muscles, Exercise, 
Rest, Brain and Nervous System -. It is a standard work by 
an educated man, and written in a style at once clear, practical 
and instructive to all classes. The publishers have done a 
public good in issuing this attractive volume, and we hope a 
demand for it will spring up .for copies by the hundreds of 
thousands, for it well merits it on account of its sterling value 
and the needs of the times. 


L. PRANG & CO., 

ISTo. 159 Washington Street, Boston, Mass 

Offer to Sunday Schools, Teachers and Dealers in Sunday School Articles, their splendid 
assortment of 



1- Rewards of Merit. 

2— Sunday School Cards. • ™ i 

3-rrang'S Album Cards in Oil Colors, or Flowers, Leaves, Scenery and 
Religions Illustrations. One thousand magnificent Subjects. 

4 -Magic Cards. I and 12. 

in iftiin tri n ttiiii 

' Twenty-five Cents, Each Part of Twelve Cards. 

Sold in all Bookstores. Also, mailed on receipt of 
price by the Publishers. 
L. P. & Co. will send to Teachers, "by mail, a good sample^ assortment of desirable 
Cards on receipt of one dollar. .; .^ , . .■■„■.'■&■ ■,'■_ ..... 

All interested in the welfare of Sunday Schools, and who wish |to please children, 
should, get Prang's Circular, and samples of various publications. 

L. P11ANG & CO., Art Publishers, 

159 Washington Street, Boston Mass. 


Sunday School and other Musio Books, 


WM. B. BRADBURY , 425 Broome Street, New- York. 

In Taper Covers. In Board Covers. 

Single Copy. Her Hundred. 

S. S. Banner 30 cts. $25 00 

Golden Censer.. .30 " 25 00 

Golden Shower-. 30 « 25 00 

Golden Chain-... 30 " 25 00 

Single Copy., Per Hundred: 

S. S. Banner 35 cts. $30 oo 

Golden Censer. ..35 " 30 oo 

Golden Shower-. 35 " 30 oo 

Golden Chain .... 35 " 30 oo 

The Plymouth Sunday School Collection 60 " 50 oo 

Palm Leaves 30 « 25 00 

Chain and Shower, in one volume 65" 55 00 

Chain and Censer, in one volume 65 « 55 oo 

Shower and Censer, in one volume 65 " 55 00 

Golden Trio, being the Chain, Shower and Censer, in one volume, 

firmly bound in boards $1 00 75 00 

Pilgrims' Songs, for Social Meetings 50 4 80 

Praises Of Jesus, a new Collection of Hymns and Tunes, 
64 pages. Price in paper, 20 cents, $15 per hundred. 
Price in boards 25 20 00 

The Sunday School Banner, by T. e. Perkins. 

Praises Of JeSUS, a new collection of Hymns and Tunes, adapted to 
seasons of deep Religious Interest and to Sunday Schools, by Rev. Edward Pay son 
Hammond, Evangelist. 

The Plymouth Sunday School Collection. 

Pafni Leaves \ a Sunday School Hymn and Tune Book, for the use of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church, by Rev. W. H. Cooke. 

Also, The Golden Hymn Book; being a selection of Hymns from the 
Chain. Shower, and Censer, S. S. Banner, Plymouth S. S. Collection, and Praises 
of Jesus. Price, in stiff paper covers, $10 per hundred copies. 

|^* Specimen Copies of any of the above boohs sent by mail on receipt of the retail price. 



Is a " flowing from ;" and the part from which the " flowing" comes, gives 
name to the disease ; which is an inflammation arising from a cold, " sett- 
ling'' id that particular part ; as " catarrh of the head," " catarrh on the 
chest," " nasal catarrh/' &c ; this last, is by far the most common, and as it 
is not only troublesome, but in some cases descends to the lungs, and be- 
comes consumption, and in others causes a constant discharge from the 
nose, of so offensive a nature, that the room is filled with a most noisome 
odor, the moment the affected ^person enters it, it is no wonder that per- 
sons thus ailing, are willing to " give anything in the worjd" or to do any- 
thing, and everything possible, to get rid of such an affection. Some tak- 
ing advantage of j:his condition of things, make exhorbitant charges for 
even attempting a qure ; as much as five hundred dollars have been ex- 
torted from alarmed patients in New Y,ork City ; three hundred dollars 
has been the common asking price. A single supply of " Godfrey's Catarrh 
Remedy,'' which lasts about a month, and costs but five dollars, will effect 
in all cases, what has hitherto cost from one hundred, to five hundred dol- 
lars. All that is needed is to snuff up from the palm of the hand, several 
times a day, a liquid and a powder, alternately ; requiring no precautions, 
and in every sense, perfectly harmless ; the effect being to close up the 
mouths of the vessels which yield the horrible odor, and to restore them 
to their healthful action ; all which is done without any ill effects what- 
ever ; the patient need not see a physician, nor be confined to the house five 
minutes. Any one who purchases the remedy, and is willing, after a two 
weeks use of it, to return what is not used, in good order, will -have the 
money refunded on demand, at the only office at which it is purchased- 
P. 0. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New York. It is the prescription of one 
of the most eminent allopathic medical professors in the United States. 

A single case, and that of recent occurrence, in New York city, will an- 
swer for a thousand similar ones. A gentleman in Broadway, writes, Oct. 
12th, 1805 : " My wife suffered from Catarrh for quite seven years ; finally 
the odor became insufferable. Every remedy was tried, which promised 
to be of any service ; when Godfrey's Catarrh Remedy was suggested as 
the preparation of one of the first Surgeons in the United States, and once 
a Professor in one of the leading Medical Colleges. It is the only remedy 
that gave her even temporary relief. She had been assured that she could 
not be cured for less than three hundred dollars ; and yet, by using God- 
frey's Catarrh Remedy she was cured in a few weeks, so that no odor was 
perceptible, and she remains cured to this day. Others by my recommend- 
ation lave used \t, and in every vase it has proved satisfactory to them.*' 
Sold only by P. Godfrey, 831 broadway, New York city. 


Containing 236 

Health Tracts on the following subjects, with a 
engraving of the Editor, sent post-paid for $2.60. 


Aphorisms Physiolog'l 


Antidote to Poisons, 

Acre, One. 


Burying Alive. 

Baths and Bathing. 


Bites and Burns. 


Beauty a Medicine. 

Best Day. 

Burning to Death. ■ 
Bilious Diarrhea. 
Balm of Gilead. 
Cold Cured. 

" Neglected. 

" Avoided. 

" Nothing hut a. 

" In the Head. 

" How Taken. 

H Catching. 

Checking Perspiration. 
Child Bearing. 
Children's Eating, 

« Feet, 

Children Corrected. 

< : Dirty. 
Cute Thing3. 
Coffee Poisons. 
Clothing, Flannel 
" Woolen. 

* Changing. 


Convenient Knowledge. 
Cooking Meats. 
Cheap Bread, 
Church Ventilation, 
Diet for the Sick. 
Debt, a Death I 



Dying Easily. 





Death Rate. 


Digestibility of Food. 

Dirty Children. 

Drugs and Druggery. 

Eyes, Care of. 

« Weak, 

" Failing. 
Erect Position. 

" Wisely. 
Eat, How to. 

1 1 What and when to, 
Eating Habits. 

" Great. 

" Curiosities of. 

" Economical, 
Elements of Food. 
Fruits, Uses of. 
Flannel Wearing. 
Follies, Fifteen. 
Fifth Avenue Sights. 
Food and Health. 

Fetid Feet. 
Food , Nutritiousness of. Pain 

" its Elements. 
Greed of Gold. 
Genius, Vices of. 
Great Eaters. 
Gruels and Soups. 
Hair Wash. 
Health a Duty. 

" Observances. 

(t Essentials. 

'* Theories. 
Household Knowledge 

Home, Leaving. 
Happiest, Who are. 

Ice, Uses of. 
Inverted Toe-NaiL 
In the Mind. 
Kindness Rewarded. 
Law of Love. 
Life Wasted. 
Loose Bowels. 
Leaving Home, 
Logic Run Mad. 
Medicine Taking. 
Music Healthful, 
Milk, its Uses. 
Morning Prayer. 
Month Malign. 
Mental Ailments. 
Mind Lost. 
Medical Science. 
Nursing Hints. 
Nervous Debilities. 
Old Age Beautiful. 
One Acre, 
One by One, 
Obscure Diseases. 
Presence of Mind. 
Private Things. 
Poisons and Antidotes. 

Preserves. ' 
Parental Trainings. 
Physiological Items. 
Posture in Worship. 
Physician, Faithless. 
Popular Fallacies. 
Read and Heed. 
Restless Nights. 
Recreation, Summer 
Sitting Erectly. 
Shoes Fitting. 
Sour Stomach. 

Sick Headache. 



Suppers, Hearty. 

Soldiers Remembered. 

" Car ad for. 

if Health. 

11 Items. 

« All 

Sunday Dinners. 
Sleep and Death. 
Spot the One. 
Summer Drinks. 
Sickness not Causeless. 
Sayre, the Banker. 
September Malign. 
Summer Mortality. 
Soups and Gruels. 
Sick School-Girl. 
Stomach's Appeal 

Study, Where to. 
Salt Rheum. 

Traveling Hints. 
Three Ps. 

Toe Nail, Inverted, 
Thankful Ever. 

Valuable Knowledge. 
Vermin Riddance. 
Winter Rules. 
Warning Youth. 
Woman's Beauty. 
Worth Remembering. 
Worship, Public. 

" Posture in. 

" • Without Price. 
Weather Signs. 
Weather and Wealth. 
Warmth and Strength. 
Worth Knowing. 

Address "Hall's Journal of Health," No. 2 West 43d St., New-York, 
($1.50 a Year.) ' 




Corner of Fourteenth Street and Third Avenue, K Y. 

These instruments are made in accordance with a principle recently developed and patented by 
Horatio Worcester, which consists in the use of a divided iron plate instead of the solid ' )ne 
heretofore in^vogue. The detached piece is coupled with the inner plate by means of a link at 
the base end, and is sustained in its p.-oper position by the tension of the strings, which are 
attached to it in the usual manner. This gives to the strings a greatly increased power of vibra- 
tion, and frees the sounding-board so as to allow it to reverberate throughout its whole extent. 
The increase obtained in volume and musical quality of tone is carefully estimated to be full one 
hundred per cent, as stated upon the authority of Louis H. Gottschalk, William Mason, William 
Berge, E. Muzio, Theodore Thomas, David R. Harrison, Charles Fradel, Christian Berge,and many 
ather distinguished artists. Attention is respectfully invited to the following opinitTis of the 
improvement from leading journals : 

From the New- York World. 

A discovery -worthy the attention of every one interested in music has been made By an old-established piano* 
forte maker, Mr. Horatio Worcester, whose warerooms and factory have for years formed a landmark on the corner 
of Fourteenth street and Third avenue. Mr. Worcester has succeeded in doubling the volume of sound belonging 
to the piano, and at the same time improving in a great degree its quality. This has been effected by merely using 
a plate made in two pieces instead of the common solid one. A portion is firmly fixed in the case in the usual 
manner, and to this the second piece is attached by means of a coupling at the base end. This coupling on one side 
and the tension of the strings on the other, hold it in its proper position, and allow it to move freely with the 
strings while they are in operation, the effect of which is to give double their former vibratory power to both the 
strings and sounding-board. The plate thus made is termed a hinged-plate. A few days since Mr. Gottschalk 
examined this novel feature and found it a worthy subject of approval, as appears by the subjoined extract from an 
autograph note of his to the inventor, under date of the 17th instant : " I estimate the volume of tone (in the 

Improved pianos) to be increased about one hundred per cent Their singing quality is excellent. The 

upper part of the key-board is exceedingly brilliant, while the base is of a rich and powerful sonorousness." Other 
esteemed artists have also cordially indorsed the use of a hinged-plate. Among them are the names of William and 
Christian Berge, Charles Fradel, David R. Harrison, and William Mason. Had the Worcester improvement been 
eent to the London Exhibition, American pianos would have stood even a better chance than they do of winning 
valuable laurels as model instruments. 

From the New-York livening Post, 

Hinged-Plate Piano-Fortes. — A piano-forte manufacturer of this city has perfected a genuine improvement in 
the method of constructing and bracing the iron plate to which the strings are attached. The iron is divided and a 
sortion of it left free to yield with the vibration of the strings and sounding-board. It is thought that pianos so 
foshioned will stand in tune better than others, from the fact that the strain of the strings centers at one point only, 
(the hinge,) and also because they are less liable to injury resulting from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding- 
board. The substantial character of the improvement is vouched for by many leading musicians, artists, and 
critics, by whom it has been well tested at the warerooms of the inventor, Mr. H. Worcester, corner of Third,avenue 
and Fourteenth street. 

From the New-York Musical Review and World. 

One of our oldest-established piano-forte makers, Mr. Horatio Worcester, has just received letters patent for an 
improvement in the construction of that favorite instrument. The advantage consists in the use of a hinged plate, 
which gives to the sounding-board a freedom similar to that found in the violin. Mr. Worcester uses a plate cast 
in two pieces, one of which is fixed in the case after the usual manner, and with which the second or inner portion 
is connected by a coupling or hinge. To this second piece the strings ar° attached in the ordinary way, and by 
exerting a strain in opposition to that of the hinge, the piece is held in position. The effect of this is to give increased 
power of vibration throughout the whole extent of the sounding-board. This produces a singing quality of tone 
unusually powerful and agreeable, while for general volume, durability, and richness of tone, the instruments are 
decidedly superior. As the tension of the strings centers at the hinge, instead of being felt around the entire edge 
of the plute, there is a greater chance of these pianos standing longer in tune than those having a solid plate. The 
strings are also relieved of considerable pressure arising from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding-board. It 
is the opinion of nearly all the skilled musicians and ^,rtists who have compared the Hinged-Plate Pianos with others 
of the same scale and make, that the increase in volume and beauty of sound is quite equal to fifty per cent. The 
principle is certainly a correct one, and having worked in a most satisfactory manner so far, alter ample testing 
during nearly a year past, we see no reason to doubt its efficacy as claimed by the inventor. Being simple and 
substantial, it needs only to' be known thoroughly to create for itself favor with the musical community. Mr. Wor- 
cester has received autograph testimonials from many of our most esteemed and influential resident musicians and 
critics, Ui ^rhich they express their entire confidence in the genuine character of the improvement. 

Complimentary notices have also appeared in the New-York Evening Express, Commercial 
Advertiser, Scientific American, Brooklyn City News, Brooklyn Weekly Standard, New- York 
Leader, Saturday Evening Courier, D wight's Journal of Music, and other sttttt&arjd journals, all 
nf which indorse the, Worcester modification in the strongest terms. 



Furnace Heat Dispensed With, 

u A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor, warming the feet delightfully, with an oval fire-place nearly three 
feet across, with no visible blower, very little dust, and absolutely no gas ; 
the ashes need removing but once a year, while by the extra heat, pure 
air direct from out-doors, is conveyed to an upper room, without the possi- 
bility of meeting with any red-hot metallic surface, or with any corrupting 
surface whatever— it is simply pure air warmed. A Philadelphia corre- 
spondent who has used one of these low-down grates in a room eighteen 
feet square, for six years, says : ' I have never known a day that a fire 
made in the morning was not equal to the day, no matter what the temper- 
ature was outside.' 

" To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least one 
room in the house where there are absolutely ail the advantages of a wood 
fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from the cellar, 
and not from the room itself — this open, low down, air-tight, easily regu- 
lated grate, or rather fireplace, with its large broad bed of burning coals, 
or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, will be a great desideratum. No 
one who has a wise regard for the comfort, cheerfulness, and health of a 
family of children, should be without one for a single day. One can be 
put in at any season of the year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty 
to fifty dollars, according to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes 
about the same amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out, how- 
ever, as is supposed, near one third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of 
an old-fashioned wood-fire, (the oxygen being supplied from without.) It is 
equally adapted to burning soft coal, hard coal, or wood." — HalVa Journal 
of Health, for December, 1859. 


T. S. D IX O 1ST, 


References given when required. 

Address, T. S. BZXQH, 

No, 1324 CJiestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

(opposite the v. s. mint,) 

Or his Agents, Messrs. MEAD & WOODWARD, 37 Park Row, New-York. 

dl00l §mtlhk"'imm\d 1355, 





J. W. SCHERMERHORN, A. M., Actuary, 430 Broome Street (near Broadway), New York. 
M. J. YOUNG, Secretary. 

G. M. KENDALL, Treasurer. 

PHILADELPHIA, 512 Arch Street, . . . . . J. R. GAUT, A. M., Secretary. 

CHICAGO, 6 Custom House Place, . . . . . EDWARD SPEARMAN, Secretary. 

, nr . WWATI „ . (GENERAL HEN KY C. WAYNE, Director, 

bAVANNAH, Georgia, 1 TArT . T _ ^^ nnjTT D 

3 ] JOHN O. FERRILL, Secretary. 

SAN FRANCISCO, California, . . . . . . SAMUEL J. C. SWEZEY, Esq., Secretary. 

More than ten years' trial has proved the " American School Institute" to be a most useful and powerful auxil- 
iary in the vast Educational Machinery of our country. Its patrons and friends are among the first educational and 
business men in the land. 

Its business has just been thoroughly reorganized, and its central office (in New York) has been removed to larger 
quarters, where greater facilities will be afforded in extending its sphere of usefulness. 

"The Right Teacher for the Right Place." 

Information of teachers will be furnished, which shall embrace the following particulars : Opportunities for 
education ; special qualification for teaching; experience, where, and in what grade of schools ; references and copies 
of testimonials ; age : religious preferences; salary expected ; specimen of candidate's letter, and sometimes a photo- 
graphic likeness. Unless otherwise advised, we nominate several candidates, and thus give opportunity for good 

Those who seek teachers should state explicitly what they will require of the teacher, what salary they will pay, 
wlien the teacher must be ready, etc.. etc. Too full particulars can riot be given. 

Tehms: Two Dollars, upon giving the order for the teacher. (Which pays for the "American Educational 
Monthly" one year, $1.50.) When a suitable teacher is secured. Three Dollars additional. Postages used in cor- 
responding with Principals, and in their behalf, with candidates, will be charged. No charge to Public Schools, ex- 
cept the preliminary fee of Two Dollars and the postages. , 

JKSf" Principals, School Officers, and heads of Families, should give early notice of what Teachers they may want. 

U©- Teachers who want positions should send for " Application Form." . . 

Testimony for the " American School Institute." 

I know your "American School Institute" to be possessed of the most reliable and. extended facilities.— -[Rev. C. 
V. Spear, Principal Young Ladies' Institute, Pittsfield, Mass. 

The benefits of a "division of labor" are happily conceived and admirably realized in the "American School In- 
stitute."— [Edward G. Tyler, Ontario Female Sem., N. Y. 

Experience has taught me that I may safely rely upon it when I want teachers.— [Rev. J. H. Brakeley, Borden- 
town Female College, New Jersey. 

I commend it to the entire confidence of all.— [Rev. D. C. Van Norman, LL. D., New York. 

The business of the Institute is systematically conducted. The proprietors are liberally educated, and otherwise emi- 
nently qualified for their duties.— [O. R. Willis, Principal Alexander Institute, White Plains, N. Y. 

I am very grateful for the prompt services which the " American School Institute" has rendered in supplying me 
with excellent teachers.— [Rev. O. W. Hewes, Female Seminary, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

I have tried the " Amer. School Inst.," and regard it a most desirable medium for supplying our schools and semi- 
naries with the best teacheri, and for representing well-qualified teachers who wish employment. All who are seeking 
teachers will find a wide range from which to select, with an assurance that in stating character and qualifications, 
there is no "humbug," and there can be no mistake. Teachers will find situations for which they may otherwise seek 
in vain. The highly respectable character of the gentlemen who conduct the " Institute" affords a sufficient guaran- 
tee, not only of fair dealing, but also of kind and polite treatment to all.— [Rev. Eben S. Stearns, Principal Albany 
Female Academy, N. Y. 

The most remarkable exponent of what method may accomplish, is that system of educational tactics, as conducted 
and developed by the " Am. School Inst." Here is a set of gentlemen who keep posted on the entire educational 
wants of the country. Every department, high or low, comes within the plan. The apparatus, the literature, the 
wants and resources of education, are tabled as in a Bureau of Educational Slatixfics. 

Mark the value of such knowledge. In a time consideration, what saving ! Instead of schools being closed or suf- 
fered to decline until the right man turns up, one is provided whose caliber is known— "The right man in the right 
place." The loss of time, misdirection of talent, imposition by unprofessional charlatanry, each in itself no small mis- 
fortune to patron or pupil, are happily avoided. — [Rev. Samuel Lockwood, Keyport, New Jersey. 


4:30 Broome Street, near Broadway, New York. 

I.— AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY, Single numbers, 15 cents; Per annum - - - - $150 
II.— AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION (Quarterly), Single numbers, $1.25; Per annnm - 4 00 

This well-known Quarterly, edited by Hon. Henry Barnard, LL. D., contains each year over eight hundred 
octavo pages, four portraits, and two hundred wood-cuts. 

The Monthly and Quarterly will be sent to one subscriber, one year, for - 5 00 

III.— AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL ANNUAL, An Educational Year-Book. Ready January 25, 1867 • 1 00 

IV.— THE PULPIT AND ROSTRUM. A Pamphlet Serial. 

Contains reports of the best Sermons, Lectures, Orations, etc. It preserves in convenient form the best 
thoughts of our most gifted men, just as they come from their lips. Great favor has already been shown the 
work. Successive numbers will be issued when worthy discourses can be found. Thirty-seven numbers 
have now been published. Lists sent when applied for. Single Numbers, 15 cents ; Twelve Numbers - 1C0 

612 Arch Street, Phila. 430 Broome Street, New York. 6 Custom House Place. Chicago. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasur- 
able and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever 
induces disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol, XIII.] MAY, 1866. [No. 5. 


are among the numerous underhand inventions of the "Adver- 
sary," as ''Friends " term that wicked spirit, who, as a general 
rule, goeth: about like a roaring lion seeking whom he may de- 
vour, but in this matter assumes the garb of philanthropy, as 
many of his followers in these latter days are prone to do. 
There is no objection to giving pleasant surprises to those whom 
we love, respect or admire, provided pernicious consequences 
do -not result, legitimately and infallibly. The clergy in this 
country are the best men in it ; they are the light of the world, 
the salt of the earth : for literary acquirements, for mental cul- 
ture, for purity of morals and blameless lives, they have not 
their equals in any class of civilized society ; and when such 
men devote their whole time to the preparation of books, 
essays, sermons and discourses for the instruction of the mass- 
es, encouraging them and persuading them to a life of purity, in- 
dustry and thrift ; warning them against whatever may deceive 
the head, corrupt the heart, debase the intellect, destroy the 
character and eventually ruin both body and soul ; devoting 
themselves singly to these things, while others apply all their 
time and talents and energies towards making themselves, their 
children and their families, comfortable and happy, it is a very 
small matter that these last shall amply support the men, 
through whose influence, examples ancl teachings, their posses- 

104 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sions are secured to them, and their rights, liberties and lives 
are preserved intact, day and night for years together, from 
the depredations of thieves and burglars and lawless, murder- 
ous men ; for ho man of thought can be so blind, as not to see, 
that if Bible teachings were to cease, and the Sabbath, abolish- 
ed, the whole foundations of society would be upturned ; an- 
archy would ensue, and our streets run w r ith human gore ; re- 
volutionary France proved all this ; and who does not know, 
that where there is no preaching, and no Sunday, there springs 
up drunkenness and profanity, prostitution, social disorganiza- 
tion and every other evil work ? The merchant pays his 
private watchman for guarding his property every night ; the 
whole of the minister's time is expended in enforcing those 
precepts which, and which only, can make, not only property, 
but even life itself, secure in any community. The Broadway 
merchant or the Wall street broker or the South street ship- 
per, would crimson with shame to have it known that his 
faithful night-watch had starved to death, on the pitiful salary 
which he had accorded him ; and yet there are rich men andj 
women, who give so little towards the support of the clergy- 1 
man of the neighborhood, that he would actually starve if 
others did no bettter by him. The minister of any community 
has a right to demand an ample support, a salary large 
enough, regular enough, prompt enough, and sure enough, to 
enable him to have a mind at perfect ease in a pecuniary point 
of view ; so that his undivided energies may be given to his 
proper work ; that much he ought to have as a salary and no 
more '; if that much is regularly and promptly paid, a surprise 
party is not needed ; if that much is not accorded of right, 
then a surprise party, a donation party, and all similar inven- 
tions of that long-headed evil one, are underhand efforts to 
cripple the ministers in the long run ; and like all underhand 
things, are mean in their very nature. In fact, these devices 
of the enemy are acknowledgments that the minister is not 
well enough paid, and that his people know it ; and by these 
parties they seek to accord him as a favor, what belongs to him 
as a right; is there not here a palpable want of magnanimity? 
Do you, wish vour minister to have a feelin'g that he is under 

Hall's Journal of Health 105 

obligations to you for your contributions to these parties ? If 
he knows where that handsome present comes from, is it in 
human nature for him to be as faithful to you in his reproof, as 
-he ought to be ? to feel as independent of your good will as he 
ought to do ? Be assured, it is impossible. These parties are 
tacit bribes ; they cannot but have to a greater or less extent, 
the effects of a bribe ; but a minister's palm should be as clear of 
a bribe as that of a judge. Who would dare to bribe his judge? 
none but the meanest of his kind! These parties are fitful and 
uncertain ; their tendency always is to make the people feel 
that their pastor's income is larger than it really is, because the 
results of such operations are always exaggerated. Of all 
things, uncertainty in the amount of salary is the most harass- 
ing to a cultivated mind, it makes an immense difference in a 
family's happiness. It may be ventured as a truth, that a 
certain salary of a thousand dollars a year, punctually and 
cheerfully paid, gives more happiness to any family, than 
double the amount promised and merely possible, and at best, 
most uncertain. A paragraph is going the rounds, most ap- 
plaudingly, that a clergyman had his rent increased one-half, 
and that as soon as his people heard of it, they promptly made 
him a present of that increase. A present ! a beautiful 
thought ; splendid idea \ why not make it a generous deed, by 
adding that much to his salary ! and then he would have no 
misgiving as the year closes, about its being made up to him 
again ; would he not be more able to lay down the law and the 
testimony without fear, favor or affection; less likely to preach 
peace, when there was no peace, if he stood upon the higher 
ground of receiving a sufficient salary as a matter of right, 
not favor ? There is another radical objection to these chance 
additions to the minister's salary. All persons who rely upon 
what is called chance, are demoralized, as beggars, gamblers, 
hunters, wreckers and raiders. Men who get a living by un- 
certain fees, such as lawyers, physicians and the like, are not 
reliable providers for their families, as a general rule ; thev 
are liberal only by fits and starts. 

That people will be best fed from Sabbath to Sabbath whose 
godly minister is kept easy in his pecuniary matters, who has 

106 Haffls Journal of Health, 

an income sufficient, if well managed, to meet his moderate 
wants \ and it will continue as long as human nature remains 
as it is. " The laborer is worthy of ihis hire/' said the mas- 
ter ; nor should the sun go down on his wages ; those wages, 
should be equal to his comfortable support and should be paid 
to him without peradventure, always and in full, as his 
bounden right and just due ; thus being generously supported 
by a loving people, he will be saved those health destroying 
anxieties which have many a time eaten out the lives of some 
of the best men ever known and laid them in a premature 
grave, to the great loss of the church, the community, and the 
world at large. 


This is the age of shams, we are met with deceptions at every 
corner ; that veteran soldier has one of Palmer's legs, and you 
couldn't tell it from a real one. You have been sitting at the 
table for a month by the very side of a man who has been eat- 
ing with Allen's teeth and you never knew any better ; wood- 
en churches are made to represent brown stone j milk is no 
longer milk, except Canfield's j coffee is made out of burnt 
bread crust; friends smile most sweetly when they contem- 
plate a fraud, and their very presents are bribes. A new 
sham has sprung up of late, in high places mostly, which is 
about as cool a piece of beggary, as any thing we have become 
acquainted with in the whole course of our natural life. Aris- 
tocratic father is " hard up ;" his daughter is about to be 
married ; he has no portion to give her, while " everybody''' 
was sure that she would have a splend outfit, and for " every- 
body" to be disappointed would never do ; what a triumph it 
would be to enemies ; what a mortification to friends • what 
a sweet morsel for the malicious. The wind must be raised by 
hook or crook, and the programme is on this wise, a choice few 
only being in the secret : The object in the first place is to 
make an impression intended to advance the social position ; 
but a more substantial aim is in view, and to be accomplished 
in a very gentlemanly way. It is given out that the best of 

HalVs Journal of Halth. lOt 

that "set" are going to make bridal presents ; now, in all sets, 
there are always crawling apes; persons who seek to be 
number ones, by imitating them ; so they express an intention, 
of doing the same thing ; then comes in another class to in- 
crease the little army; those who socially are equal to number 
one, but having been "unfortunate in business" are "very 
much cramped for want of means ; " they are not really able 
to do as " everybody" does; but the necessity of the case com- 
pel them to do something ; that something they would like to 
be very " handsome," and being poor and proud they are in a 
most perplexing quandary, but pride becomes the victor and 
a" present" is decided upon, wholly disproportioned to their 
ability, and which is to cause many a painful sacrifice and self- 
denial for weary weeks and months to come. The friends of the 
bride make their presents to show their appreciation of her ; 
the friends of the bridegroom must do the same out of respect 
to the beautiful being who is so soon to become as one of their 
friends ; the result is, that the young couple begin their mar- 
ried life with an amount of household stuff useful and orna- 
mental, equal sometimes to many thousands of dollars, more«or 
less of which is contributed by persons wholly unable to meet 
the expenditures ; but did not wish to be behind' , thers for 
fear of giving offence. This really seems to be a new method 
of levying black mail, which aforetime used to be considered 
one of the meanest ways ever devised for raising money. In 
order to goad the unwilling and unable, to contribute to the 
very utmost of their ability, the presentors are expected to* 
put their names on the articles contributed, and it has even 
been said that, in some cases, the cost of each article is affixed 
to it. These thing3 ought not to be. Let those who are 
starting out in life, stand on their own bottom ; if they start 
upon the race on an even footing with others, and win 
their way by the power of their own right arm, then they will 
have the proud consciousness through life, that they have 
made themselves what they are, and that they owe their success 
wholly to themselves. Such a feeling is, of itself, worth a small 
fortune, and i3 more enduring, because it maybe pleasure- 
ably drawn upon without diminution, to the end of life. 

108 HalVs Journal of Health. 


A member of the Society of Friends sends a recipe for the 
cure of this terrible affliction, as comfcg from one whom he 
knows to be a reliable man, but it is not here given, because it 
would mislead: The facts about Hydrophobia are these. The 
great John Hunter estimated that not more than one person 
out of twenty-one bitten by a rabid animal became Hydropho- 
bic. In a case lately reported, out of a large number of ani- 
mals bitten by a mad dog, only one died, or had any of the 
symptoms of the dreaded malady. All the so called " cures" 
which have come to our notice, are things which have been 
done immediately after the bite, and because the bitten per- 
son gave no indication of being hydrophobic, that thing is 
heralded as a cure. It is in this manner the " Mad-stone/ 7 so 
implicitly believed in by some, has gained its celebrity j it is 
well known that it has signally failed of any virtue whatever 
in some cases. By teaching the people that this, that and the 
other is a cure for the malady, they may rely on a broken reed, 
and, while so relying, may loose a life which might have been 
saved by the prompt application of the surgeon's knife or the 
cautery : JL % would say to any one bitten by a rabid animal, 
known to^Se so, have it cut out or burned with caustic by the 
nearest physician at the earlist possible moment. Persons 
have suffered for years the horrible mental torture of appre- 
hension by having been bitten by an animal only supposed to 
be mad, and which by having been killed at once cannot be 
proven to have been mad ; on this account it is best when a 
person is bitten by an animal to cage it, if possible, instead of 
killing it, for many a time it has happened that the supposed 
madness is only terror which would subside in a few hours by 
kind treatment or rest and sleep. 

The saliva of a mad dog has no effect whatever on a broken 
skin. The most indisputable signs that a dog is mad are, 1st. 
He is sullen. 2d. Scratches his ear violently. 3d. Paws the 
corners of his mouth, without its being permanently open. 

As to the article so highly recommended by our correspond- 
ent, which was given to animals and men, actually bitten by 

Hall's Journal of Halth. 109 

mad dogs or supposed toliave been so bitten, not one of them 
was actually attacked with the first symptom ; the evidence 
is entirely negative, they were' bitten, took the remedy and 
were not attacked, but to say they 'tv ere cured and that too 
when not a single symptom of it was observed is going entirely 
too far ; for in twenty of. John Hunter's cases doing little or 
nothing after the bite, no harm came of it. We will gladly 
publish any remedy which arrests the actual throes of this ter- 
rible infliction. ' t 


It is undeniable that Americans eat too much meat, and we 
may as well have an eye to principle as well as price in the 
setting of our tables. It is not wise, as a general thing, to eat 
by rule, at the same time there is nothing blameworthy in 
eating scientifically, especially if it is clearly promotive of 
health and is at the same time much m'ore economical, which 
is an important consideration with that large class of worthy 
people who live by their daily labor, the widow and the father- 
less poor. 

The most nutritious part of the potatoe is contained within 
the eighth of an inch immediately under the skin, so that in 
peeling, three-fourths of the most valuable portion is utterly 
wasted : the most healthful mode of preparation for the table 
is by baking; then all the water which does not unite with the 
starch is driven off, leaving it mealy and dry. If to be boiled, 
wash the potatoe clean; let it stand two or more hours in cold 
water, put it in a pot of - . water with some salt,boil quickly 

with the skin on, until the fork passes smoothly through the 
core: pour off all the water; set the pot over the fire, uncover- 
ed, for five minutes; remove the skin rapidly, and place on the 
table in a covered dish. When fried brown, in slices,the starch 
is turned into charcoal, indigestible and innutritions. If the 
potatoes are old, as in the Spring, they should be peeled and 
soaked in cold water, then thrown into boiling water, then 
served as before. 

Sixty pounds of potatoes make a bushel and costs a dollar, 
but five pounds of meat at twenty cents a pound gives but 

110 IlaWs Journal of Health. 

one twelfth as much nutriment ; or, to put it in another form, 
a pound of potatoes costing near two cents, warms and 
nourishes the human body as much as a pound of meat, which 
costs twenty cents ; still, as meat is mo're easily digested than 
potatoes are and has some valuable ingredients peculiar to it- 
self, the actual practical value of the two articles may be 
stated in terms thus : potatoes, as food, are one-third cheaper 
than meat, at the prices above stated. 

Three-quarters of a pound of potatoes out of a whole pound 
is water; fresh, clear, lean meat is the same. The yield of dif- 
ferent qualities of potatoes per acre, in the same soil and under 
the same cultivation will surprise many, as the following table 
will show, being the result of carefully conducted experiments 
by Dr. W. F. Hexamer of Westchester County, State of New 


Bushels per acre. Bushels per acre. 

Cuzco ...360- White Mercer .180 

Garjiet Chili 290 Fluke ..160 

Pink-eye Rusty Coat. . . 280 Prince Albert .160 

Peach Blow 240 Early June 150 

White Peach Blow 230 White Rock . . . .130 

Prairie Seedling 230 Early Dykeman. 120 

Blue Mercer. . ..." 220 Early Cottage 110 

" Buckley's Seedling" . . .210 Early Sovereign 80 

Buckeye 200 Rough and Ready 56 

The whole farming world would be increased debtors to Dr. 
Hexamer 's scientific industry if he wirl institute another set 
of experiments to ascertain how much nutrition the principle 
kinds above named contain ; such information would be of 
special practical worth to both producer and consumer, for if 
the last variety in the table has no more nutriment than the 
first and will keep as well, the difference in profit to the farmer 
would be very great. While it does not seem to pay for the 
trouble of putting the cut side of the potatoe downwards in 
planting, there is a difference of yield of nearly one-fifth in 
favor of large seed. 



HaWs Journal of Health. Ill 


The city of New York is capable of being made the health- 
iest of all the large cities of the world, and is one of the 
healthiest now. Much has been said about the fllthiness of 
its streets, its underground habitations, and its crowded tene- 
ment houses, but unfortunately, the speakers and writers have 
not been disinterested persons, or if so, were careless in their 
statements, if not very ignorant of that about which they were 
writing. When the Hub of the Universe wishes to compare 
favorably against New York as to health, she gives the pop- 
ulation and the deaths of each city, knowing at the same time 
that the foundation is false, for New York gives the deaths 
from all causes, and the regulations are so stringent that no 
dead body can be conveyed, from the city or be buried, with- 
out official permission and faithful registry; but in Boston, 
the still-born are not counted, in New York they are. From 
time immemorial, Philadelphia stoutly has contended, and 
still believes, that she is larger than New York, the cele- 
brated Frog entertained a similar opinion as to the ox, but ex- 
ploded in attempting to figure it out; she claims that she has 
more houses than Gotham, and that the only reason why New 
York has a greater number of inhabitants set down to her is 
that the population is counted twice, because the people live 
on one end of the island and do business on the other, and 
when the census is taken, the wives are called upon at their 
residences, and the husbands are called upon at their places 
of business, thus making the returns just double. 

But when Uncle Perm wants to prove that the right-angled 
city, with wet pavements and white door steps and green win- 
dow shutters, is incomparably more healthy than the great me- 
tropolis,she believes the population statistics are most religious- 
ly true. So* with the penny-a-liners and speech-makers, who 
have axes to grind; they compare the total number of deaths 
annually, with the totals given of other large cities, knowing 
at the time, or blissfully ignorant, that New York gives all the 
deaths, when some ought not, in justice, to be counted, and 
are not counted elsewhere. While Boston does not count the 

112 HaWs Journal of Health. 

still-born, Liverpool does not count those who die in the city 
who have lately come from the country, and this really ought 
not to be the case in endeavoring to arrive at the healthfull- 
ness of any locality. The Liverpool Registrar did not count 
the Irish deaths for 1847 — that would have run up the death 
rate three per cent, making it 39 per 1000, instead of 36. So 
few foreigners go to Paris, that only about two hundred die 
there in a year, while as to N6w York, out of every five deaths 
four are foreign. More foreigners land in New York city in 
a month, than at Philadelphia and Boston both together in a 
year. In 1865, one hundred and eighty-three thousand emi- 
grants landed in NewYork city: in three days in July, thirty- 
two emigrants died, more than ten a clay, some of them dying 
twenty-four hours after their arrival, and in nearly all the 
cases, the deaths were the result of sickness of long' duration, 
acquired abroad. Leaving out of the account, the still-born, and 
those of emigrants who die on landing, New York city would 
give a death-rate as favorable, perhaps, as any large seaport on 
the globe. From fifteen to twenty per cent, of deaths in New 
York are of foreigners who contracted their diseases before 
they reached the city; such deaths ought not to be set down 
to the unhealthfulness of New York. If as between New 
York, Boston and Philadelphia, the still-born were excluded 
or admitted in the mortuary returns of each ; and the deaths 
of foreigners who contracted their sickness before , they 
reached this country, were not counted, it would be seen at a 
glance, that New York city, as a healthful residence, has been 
greatly maligned. One plain indisputable fact is of very 
great significance, giving round numbers: while the native and 
foreign born population of New York is about equally divided," 
eleven thousand children of foreign born parents died in New 
York during 1864, while of children born of native parents, 
less than two thousand died, giving as a general fact, that 
five out of six of the children dying in a year in New Yorlc 
city, five are born of foreign parents. 


JlaWs Journal of Health, 113 


" Slight irritation of the throat may be relieved by sipping 
a little slippery elm tea, or by suckling a piece of gum arabic. 
These articles coat over the mucus membrane and prevent 
the irritation of the air. A very few drops of paregoric held 
in the mouth, and allowed to trickle down the throat, will 
allay coughing. The best cough medicine for children, one 
which'we have used for several years with entire satisfaction, 
is the following : Mix in a phial equal parts of paregoric, cas- 
tor oil and syrup of ipecac. Always shake well just before 
using. A few drops of this swallowed, but not washed down 
by water or other fluid, will almost always soothe a cough. 
Repeat the dose as often as the cough returns. From one- 
fourth to one-half a teaspoonful may be given when a lesser 
quantity does not suffice. A large dose after a full meal may 
produce a little nausea. Children who are subject to coughs 
should eat very little supper, and indeed, all children should 
eat much less and simpler food at night than at morning or 
noon. The above mixture may be kept on hand ready pre- 
pared, as it does not deteriorate if kept corked. It may in- 
terest those afraid of mineral medicines (though they partake 
freely of common salt, which is a mineral,) to know that the 
ingredients are all ' vegetable.' " 

The above is going the rounds, as credited to " Hall's Jour- 
nal of Health •" although wrongfully, yet as nothing is so bad 
but that some good use may be made of it, so this occasion is 
taken to impress some wholesome truths upon our readers, 
and which are literally of vital importance. 

If there is one truth more than another persistently taught 
in these pages, it is that it is generally dangerous and always 
injurious to " stop a cough." "When a man has consumption, 
and his cough is stopped by anything he swallows, or if it 
suddenly stops itself, he will die in a week, because cough is 
nature's means of bringing the phlegm up from the lungs; all 
consumptives will testify that the more freely they can 
"bring up," the better they feel, simply because what is 
brought up comes from the lungs, leaves more room for air; 

114 HalVs Journal of Health. 

they breathe freer and fuller. The cough brings the matter 
from the lungs to the top of the throat ; from that point it is 
brought with a hack or a hem, into the mouth, from which it 
is passed out by the act of expectoration; if there was no 
cough, there would be an inevitable accumulation in the lungs, 
until they would be filled with yellow matter; no* air could 
penetrate, and death would necessarily ensue. Merely "stop- 
ping" a cough, which is the effect aimed at by all medicines 
sold for coughs, colds and consumptions, not only does nothing 
towards effecting a cure, but counteracts nature in her efforts 
to do the same, hence tend to destroy, instead of preserve: of 
all the medicines known, and which are given in reference to 
coughs, opium is the most pernicious ultimately; whether it 
be in the shape of the crude material itself, or paregoric, or 
laudnam or morphine; because, if it alone is relied upon, it is 
like preventing the appearance of smoke on board ship, while 
the hold remains on fire, and is every moment in process of 
destruction. When these medicines are ignorantly given to 
children for cough, or pain, or bowel complaint, they have an 
immediate but deceptive good effect, to be followed with con- 
vulsions or water on the brain; this accounts for the thous- 
ands of deaths of young children in summer time by fits and 

Let it be remembered by our readers that we have steadily 
aimed to avoid giving medical prescriptions in the pages of 
this Journal, only making an exception in case of cholera, and 
then merely for the purpose of arresting the progress of the 
disease, until a physician could be secured. When a person 
is sick and actually needs medicine, he should send for a phy- 
sician, he ought no more to medicate himself than to mend 
his watch, or repair an old shoe. Physicians themselves after 
half a century's experience, sometimes mistake the meanings 
of a symptom, and a mistake in certain cases, is death. The 
constant aim of this Journal is two-fold. First, to show how 
to avoid sickness; second, to teach what may be done towards 
restoration by prompt attention, good nursing and the use of 
diet, exercise and air; but if more is needed, by all means 
send for a resident physician. 

HaWs Journal of Health. 115 



A good many sentimental tears have been shed over that 
phantasy of an inspirited brain, " The song of a shirt." There 
is no doubt the writer had a glass of brandy, and a pipe be- 
side him, when he wrote all that rigmarole about " stitch, 
stitch, stitch." There is nothing like " leather," but hard 
facts. Some time ago, a friend wanted a dozen shirts made, 
and asked our aid in finding a seamstress; attracted by a 
sign, a young woman presented herself; she was asked to 
name her price for making one; and was told that if the work 
was well done she could have the remainder at her own price. 
The article was dilatorily made, sent home and paid for; the 
bosom buttons came off before the man was dressed; on ex- 
amination, it was found that they were attached by a single 
th*ead, and even that, loosely. Who ever purchased a ready 
made garment that did not want repairing after a week's use, 
either as to buttons or rips. We feelingly know that a really 
good dressmaker commands two dollars a day, coming at eight 
o'clock and leaving at six, wanting two very hearty meals, 
with tea at both, two or three cups of it, of the strongest kind, 
costing one dollar and a half a pound; and to get this same 
woman, even for a day, is sometimes, the work of a month, 
that is, she generally is engaged that long before hand; to be 
sure she understands her business, and does it well. A com- 
mon sewer demands a dollar a day and board; but seldom can 
be had without -a fortnight's notice; there are hundreds of 
families in New York city to day, who would gladly pay high 
prices for a person who could sew well. There are five 
thousand families in New York city who would cheerfully 
give from fifteen to twenty dollars a month for a cleanly, ca- 
pable, honest and economical cook, who had no relations to 
feed; who had no visitors, and who retired at ton o'clock. 
There are thousand places for house girlg who are fully 
competent to the duties of their department. It is scarcely 
possible to go into any mechanical office or shop where work 
; is well done, and get it promptly done, because such men have 
more work than they can do. It is only the incompetent who 
fail to do well in New York. Nor is it different in the pro- 

116 Halls Journal of Health. 


fessions; there is always a great demand for really able cler- 
gymen; men of might are wanted everywhere. There are a 
hundred churches in the city of New York ready and willing 
to pay large salaries to able men; the few who are here are 
constantly solicited to go elsewhere. As a good mechanic is 
never out of work; so a clergyman of real ability, is never out 
of a place long, if it is known that he is disengaged. We 
know a minister who is sixty years of age, who has never 
spent a Sabbath without a pastorate since he left the semin- 
ary ; we know another who has pressing calls, with a princely 
salary, to New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco. Now 
and then a man of worth and power may stand awhile idle in 
the market place; but when it is so, it is because he is not 
appreciated, and is too retiring to push his claims. There are 
tens of thousands suffering this moment in the public hospit- 
als, asylums and other places of charity, from destitution and 
diseases from want of occupation,. not of necessity, but simply 
because they were either too idle to work, too incompetent 
to do it well, or too lazy to apply themselves. 

We say to persons coming to fhe city to seek their fortunes, 
that they cannot get good places and high wages right away; 
but they can always be secured in a reasonable time, by ac- 
cepting the first place offered, however small the salary, if it 
will provide very plain board and decent clothing; discharge 
all the duties promptly, well and cheerfully, and as your real 
merit becomes known, confidence will grow, salary will 
increase, and soon you will be considered indispensable, and 
in ten years become " one of the firm," and eventually, the 
head of the house on the retiring or death of your original 
employer. The most elegantly chaste house on Fifth avenue, 
within a stone's throw of our dwelling, is owned by a gentle- 
man, who came to New York as a poor youth, and became " a 
store boy;" but he was economical, industrious and faithful, 
rising by degrees to clerk, confidential adviser, partner, and- 
then principal, on the death of his employer. He is not now 
an old man, and his annual income would be considered a 
large fortune; but he never drank a glass of liquor, never 
smoked a cigar, never entered a theatre. 



It is of vital importance, especially in warm weather, when any disease prevails 
in a community, to keep the air as pure as practicable ; under such circumstances 
every man owes it to himself and to neighborly comity, to keep his own premises 
as perfectly clean and pure as possible, and to do this with as little trouble and 
expense as possible; the following suggestions are made : — A deodoriser simply 
makes a bad smell imperceptible (see tract 154.) A disinfectant separates the 
odor into its original elements, and makes new combinations, new substances, 
which are hurtless. Fresh burned lime, called unslacked or quick lime, is the 
most common disinfectant, dissolved in water until it is thin enough to be 
sprinkled, or used with a brush. 

Copperas, called green vitriol or sulphate of iron, is better than lime ; a pound 
costing half a dime, dissolved in four gallons boiling water, and thrown into a 
privy or sink, will remove the odor in ten minutes, to be repeated two or three 
times a month in warm weather, or as often as any odor is perceptible. 

Hydrated per-chloride of Iron, i. e. Copperas roasted and made into a paste, 
one pint to ten pints of water, is perhaps the most efficient deodorizer and disin- 
fectant known. 

Chloride of Lime, sprinkled over damp places, ,in yards, cellars &c, cleanses and 
purifies, but it has an odor of its own and is supposed by some to be hurtful. 

A layer of fresh burned charcoal in powder, two or three inches in depth, over 
a heep of decaying offal, absorbs the odor, decomposes it and burns it up. 

If this cannot be had, a layer of fresh earth, six inches deep, confines the odor, 
of decaying matters, but does not destroy them, and is good for temporary use 
until better substances can be obtained- Sulphunted Hydrogen has an odor 
similar to that of rotten eggs; it arises from sinks, privies, and heaps of decaying 
animal and vegetable matters- — it is thart which blackens our door plates; it is effec- 
tually decomposed and destroyed by the Hydrated Per-chloride of Iron " 

The manganate3 of soda or potash, dissolved in warm water are among the best 
deodorisers and disinfectants. 

To disinfect linen, or washing apparel, soak it in a mixture of one ounce of 
Chloride of Lime, in a gallon of water. 

"Woolen 1 , bedding, &o, which cannot be washed, are best disinfected by ex- 
posure for three or four hours in a chamber, heated to two hundred degrees. 

To disinfect rooms, wash the ceiliDgs and walls with quicklime water, and 
scrub the woodwork with brush, soap, and hotwafcer, and then wash with two 
ounces of Chloride of Lime, dissolved in a gallon of water. 

Scientific experiments seem to indicate that great good results in rooms, where 
there is small pox and other diseases giving out organic poisons, by put'ing 
some Iodine in a box with a lid full of holes, the fumes soon pervade the room, 
giving a violet tinge to some household implements. 

Glass and stoneware after being scrubbed with sand and soap are deprived of 
all ill odor by shaking dry charcoal powder in them. 

From the Boston Watchman and Reflector, by Dr. W.W, Hall, M.D. 



No physiological fact is more clearly established than that a night of good sleep 
rests the body and invigorates the brain ; henco, persons in ordinary health after 
sleeping soundly arise from their beds in the morning with an amount of bodily 
and mental power proportioned to the time and healthfulness of the sleep. Ex- 
tensive medical observation shows also that, whether in animals or men, sleep is 
most nutritious, most invigorating, when taken during the two or three hours be- 
fore and after midnight. No one denies that it is a clergyman's duty to use these 
indisputable facts practically. The first step, then to be taken by a faithful and 
earnest worker in the ministry, as a means of enabling him to make the most of 
every Sabbath day, is to go to bed about nine o'clock on Saturday evening, for he 
has no right to intrench on the hours of God's day in preparation for the active 
work of that day. He should not go to sleep after waking up in the morning, if 
it is day- light ; nor is it best to get up at once, but to remain in bed until there is 
a feeling of rest all over the body, and as if it would be a relief to get up and wash 
and dress. Having secured a good degree of vigor with which to begin the Sab- 
bath day's work, he should use it economically, wisely; he should husband his 
strength, by not putting it forth unnecessarily nor lavishly on the earlier service, 
but seek to distribute it over the whole work of the day. If all the "vim" is ex- 
hausted on the mornings discourse, both preacher and people will necessarily be 
over-sleepy in the afternoon, and half a Sabbath, with its glorious and fleeting 
privileges, is lost forever. 

Every word uttered,*every note sounded, even the crook of a finger or wink of 
the eye, is at the cost of power; a wink is not much, but a dozen or two winks 
in quick succession produces appreciable fatigue or tiredness. Hence a clergyman 
will speak easier, if, until he enters the pulpit, he does not speak a sentence, or 
sing a line, or make a nod. And even if he takes his breakfast alone and comes 
alone to church, power is husbanded, besides the very great advantage of a great- 
er mental concentration on the subject of the discourse, and those affections and 
feelings of responsibility which ought to reign dominant when a man feels that he 
may be delivering his high message for the last time, or that for the last time it 
will come to some hearer, and, if not improved, will allow his unchangeable 
doom to be sealed — forever ! 

Any conscientious hearer of the word will find by experiment, that if the time 
up to the morning service is spem in quietude of body and mind, he will sing the 
first hymn with more alacrity and will enjoy it more deeply than if he had sung 
several hymns before, or had been engaged in a way to require bodily or mental 

"When one, two or three hours only intervene between sermons, nothing should 
be eaten but some cold bread and butter, with a cup or two of any kind of hot 
drink ; the former not to feed, but to sustain ; the latter to impart the stimulus of 
warmth to the whole system. If a sermon is' to be preached soon after a hearty 
meal, both speaker and hearer will be sleepy, while the mental effort necessary 
to deliver the discourse, withdraws so much of nervous power from the stomach 
that the food cannot be properly digested ; and when repeated as a habit, chronic 
dyspepsia is engendered to burden the body and depress the mind for the re- 
mainder of life. These are not mere theories, but are from the experience of one 
who nearly a quarter of a century ago was able for two or three times a day, for 
months in succession, to speak extemporaneously, without apparent effort. 



On one occasion sickness prevailed in a family, which failed to obtain relief 
from any of the various remedies administered, but upon one of the panes of glass 
being broken and not repaired, an immediate improvement became apparent, re- 
sulting in ultimate good health. 

In a fishing town in Cornwall, England, some of the houses in the narrower 
streets were in such a filthy condition from the negligence of those who occupied 
them, that the sanitary inspector considered it necessary to require the inmates to 
move into an open field, many of whom were already sick of cholera; they im- 
mediately began to improve ; meanwhile the houses were cleaned out, swept, 
washed, and then thoroughly whitewashed; but no sooner had the families moved 
in, than the disease began to spread and assume a more malignant character ; the 
people were again removed to the field, to sleep and cook and eat in the open air, 
when the same prompt improvement in their condition was manifested. It seemed 
that although the houses were cleansed, the yards and gardens around had been 
the recipients of offal of various kinds so long, that the very earth was saturated 
with the elements of disease. 

Cases are recorded in standard medical books, where whole families have been 
stricken with disease in a few days ; and examination discovered that the house 
drains had given away, and emptied themselves partially into the well from 
which the family derived all its supplies of drinking and" cooking water. This 
was also the case in two English prisons, causing within a day or two, an epidemic 
dysentery throughout the establishment, which immediately ceased on a supply 
[ of better water. 

The difference between' cleanliness and the want of it, about a house, is demon- 
strated in some of the model lodging houses in London, standing in the midst of 
unhealthful surroundings ; for in these houses the number of deaths is just half as 
many as in the immediate neighborhood. 

It may be well to know what is an excess of sickness or death in any locality. 
In the Isle of Wight, one of the healthiest places on the globe, in a promis- 
cuous population, for every thousand persons, fourteen died in the course of 
a year, from the ordinary sicknesses of humanity. In the model lodging houses, 
above referred to, about thirteen die out of a thousand, annually ; while there are 
twenty-seven deaths among the surrounding inhabitants. In some portions of 
the British Army, where sanitary officers are scientific and conscientious men, 
only nine persons in a thousand, died annually; and in some of the best regulated 
prisons, in England, the death rate has been reduced to five in a thousand, a year, 
but in these last instances there are no children. In ordinary cases of soldier or 
prison-life, in what may be called "a standing army" or barrack life, not mire 
than twenty persons in a thousand should die in a year, because in one sense they 
have nothing to do, but to keep tbeir persons and habitations most perfectly clean. 
In England twenty-two persons die annually out of each thousand; in the United 
States twenty- four. For each person who dies twenty-eight are sick. It is 
estimated that each death is equivalent to one person being sick for two years. 
Two hundred years ago eighty persons died out of a thousand annually in London, 
one hundred years ago fifty; and now, twenty- two, showing clearly, that as 
the intelligence of a people increases, as to the laws of health, sickness and death 
proportionably abate. 

120 IialVs Journal of Health. 


To Subscribers. — We will cheerfully supply subscribers 
with the numbers which they do not receive, provided appli- 
cation is madeduring the month for which the missing number 
was issued, otherwise ten cents must be sent for any back 
number ; the reason for this is that sometimes the publisher is 
applied to for the back numbers for several months, when nine 
times out often it is the subscriber's fault in not giving specific 
and plain directions. 

All subscriptions must begin with the January number, as 
from January to December makes up the volume for the year. 

To Publishers. — The following is a sample of hundreds of 
similar letters : "March 16th, 1866. I have been endeavor- 
ing for some time past to find where and by whom ' Hall's 
Journal of Health 7 was published, but am still none the wise^r 
for my researches, and I write this note, thinking perhaps you 
are the publisher. If so, send me a number of your Journal. 
I want to subscribe for the same, and think a number of my 
neighbors would like to take it." Not long since a gentleman 
wrote that he just ascertained by accident that the Journal 
was published in New York city and that it had been upon 
his mind to take it for six or seven years. Not long ago an 
inquiry was made as to where that most excellent paper was 
published, "The Christian Watchman and Reflector." Those 
papers which have the name of the place of issue as part of 
their title have a considerable advantage, such as the New 
York Observer. There are three remedies : let publishers 
advertise more ; in copying from each other, let them state the 
place of publication ; this we have aimed to do for several 
years ; or let the periodicals at least, devote a page now and 
then to the time, character and price of their exchanges ; we 
did this several years, to the great help of others, but not a 
penny to ourself, yet it was pleasant to think we were helping 
others, both subscribers and brother editors ; for the same 
reason we have sent literally thousands of newspapers and 
magazines to country cousins and others, post paid, when we 
knew the number was a good one, thinking it might bring a 
subscriber ; and we have very many times wondered if any 

HalVs Journal of Health. 121 

exchange ever did in a single instance do the same by us. 
But whether done or not we shall pursue the old plan, for it is 
a good investment to have acted in such a way as to have the 
< consciousness of trying to help somebody. Make a note of this, 
brothers of the quill. 

Coffee and Tea are among the good things of this life 
when the use of them is not abused. By the ordinary means 
of preparation a portion of the flavor escapes and is lost, this 
is effectually retained by the Eureka Coffee and Tea Pot sold 
by George B. Morse, General Agent, 389 Broadway ; it is 
simple, cheap, convenient and economical. 

West Virginia. — Its Farms, Forests, Mines and Oil Wells 
with a glimpse of its scenery, a photograph of its population 
and an exhibition of its industrial statistics, by J. R. Dodge 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 276 pp., 12mo., pub- 
lished by J. B. Lippincot & Co. of Philadelphia, with a copious 
index. This admirably written volume will repay any reader 
for the time spent in its perusal and to men of intelligence and 
enterprise who are inclined to develope the resources of this 
rich domain, the book is invaluable ; the volume beautifully 
closes thus ; " with the added influence of churches and 
schools, rendering the moral atmosphere as pure as the physi- 
cal, and making the waters of life as pure as the perennial 
springs of the everlasting hills, the homes of West Virginia 
may equal in attraction the most favored upon this continent." 

Wilson's Presbyterian Historical Almanac, vol. seven, con- 
taining the annual chronicles of the Presbyterian Church, will 
soon be issued. To subscribers who send the money with 
their names $2.00. To those who prefer to pay on receiving 
it $2.25. After the Almanac is published the price to all will 
be $2.50. This enterprise, for securing the materials of the 
history pf the Presbyterian Church in permanent form has 
met with the highest commendation of the religious press 
while the most eminent ministers in the church, Professors in 
Theological Seminaries and the educated laity, have extended 
to it their hearty encouragement and patronage ; it well de- 
serves a place in the library of every intelligent Presbyterian 
family. Address, Joseph M. Wilson, Philadelphia,Penn 

122 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The American Tract Society, 150 Nassau street, have issued 
" Green Pastures for Christ's Little Ones," which is beauti- 
fully instructive and encouraging to the young who are " look- 
ing unto Jesus;" 182 pp. 16 mo. "Berthe Alston," or the 
good stepmother, a narration of great interest, abounding in 
the inculcation of Christian duties in various stations of do- 
mestic life. " Besie," or Honest Industry. Every boy will 
revel in the reading of this suggestive little volume, and will 
arise from its perusal with strong resolves against idleness 
and all wrong doing, and if made in the strength of Him who 
so much loved little children when he tabernacled among 
men, a long and happy and useful life will be the pretty sure 

Air Purifier, by A. S. Lyman, 212 2nd av., N.;Y. city. This 
is an apparatus for purifying the air of rooms and sleeping 
apartments; it is placed at the head of the bed, increasing its 
length but thirteen inches, and is so made as to seem to be an 
ornamental part of the bed ; it certainly accomplishes two 
things. 1st. It purifies the air. 2nd. It reduces the temper- 
ature of a room when required twenty degrees, at an expense 
of two cents per hour : when understood, the apparatus is 
simple, requires but little trouble, which bears no comparison 
to the comfort given, in reducing the temperature of a cham- 
ber twenty degrees on a June night, and giving to fevered 
patients a cool and pure air to breathe, which does more than 
all medicines to promote the convalescence of the sick from 
any disease. 

Farm House Milk, with all the cream, pure and sweet, is 
furnished daily at 12th street, near Broadway, and at corner 
of 37th street and Broadway, by the Eockland county and 
New Jersey Milk Association, under the vigilant superinten- 
dence of J. S. Canfield, Esq. It is the purest milk ever 
served by milkmen in the city of New York. Persons who 
are changing their residences cannot do better than to pa- 
tronize this company. 

The article on Ventilation is in reference to a new mode by 
I. Pitman, Esq. of Providence, Rhode Island. 

The Office of. Publication of HalFs Journal of Health here- 
after will be at 11 Bible House, E. 8th St., New- York. 


"We all seek health and comfort and yet are neglectful of the 
means to obtain them, and are willing oftentimes to substitute 
what is very imperfectly adapted to the purpose and continue 
its use from habit, rather than avail ourselves of a better way; 
there is no one thing in the routine of daily life which so 
much contributes to both health and comfort, as a thoroughly 
ventilated dwelling; it keeps the air of home fresh, gives a gen- 
ial tone to the spirits, keeps us wide awake, the muscular 
system in a healthy state of tension, imparts zest to an appetite, 
making the preparations of the table more palatable, protects 
the nervous system from all unpleasant and uncomfortable 
draughts of air and prevents taking cold, maintains a uni- 
form circulation of the blood, does not overtax the lungs, pro- 
motes ready and regular digestion, suggests a pleasant word 
instead of a fretful one, makes sleep sweet and refreshing, and 
even infuses into dreams an halo of peace, allows greater scope 
and activity to the imagination, a clearer action to our ideas, 
assists the judgment in matters pertaining to its exercise, in 
fact affects the well-being of body and mind in all their func- 
tions; all this will be found true upon careful thought on this 
matter, pure air is the very life of all things. The manner and 
ways by which we are affected by thorough ventilation, or no 
ventilation at all, are numberless; the latter, every year, sends 
more to the grave than the victims or their friends are aware 
of ; disease preys more actively on the constitution under this 
condition of bad air and may be easily communicated, where- 
as under good ventilation they would be checked ; more colds 
are brought on by bad air indoors, than are taken out-doors; a 
majority of the colds under which people suffer in winter can 
be traced directly to the condition of the air in-doors, and rarely 
can one be attributed to the state of the air out- doors, whether 
it be rain or shine, hot or cold; not that colds always originate 
by breathing impure or bad air, but such air frequently, yes 
always aggravates a cold, and often establishes a slight cold 
upon the system, which otherwise would not have become fixed, 
stubborn or fatal. With all the advantages on the side of thor- s 
ough ventilation and all the dangers and discomforts on the ] 

other, of non-ventilation, who would not choose that the former 
condition should be that of the house where he resides, instead 
of the latter. Many times there is afeeling of lassitude,sleepiness, 
dullness or stupidity, which is attributed to the state of health? 
when it is really the air we are breathing which lacks vitality; 
living in a house illy ventilated, always containing more or less 
of vitiated air, will more or less, sooner or later, affect the state 
of health, a too hearty dinner is made much more injurious by 
remaining in- doors where the air is not pure, than by going 
out of doors where the air is pure, although immediate exercise 
after dinner should be avoided. In the summer there is no 
difficulty in getting the best of ventilation, but in cold weather 
when fires are in request, then some system of ventilation be- 
comes imperatively necessary, if our health and comfort would 
be properly protected and cared for. In this climate many 
attempts have been made, and large sums expended, to attain 
to a thorough and perfect ventilation, but they have hereto- 
fore been only partial and very imperfect, and whenever ventila- 
tion has been accomplished it has been done in an imperfect 
.manner at best, and at a heavy additional cost for fuel, for the 
reason that the demands of a 'perfect and thorough ventilation 
have never been complied with. What is required for the complete 
and thorough ventilation of a dwelling house? We must go to 
nature herself, and enquire, and she will answer, three' things 
are requisite; the same which we find existing out of doors. In 
the open air there we find the air to be constantly in motion 
we also find it to be constantly changing, we also find it to be 
uniform in temperature whether it be warm or cold; make these 
the conditions of the air indoors and there must be perfect and 
thorough ventilation, no matter what may be the means by 
which these conditions are effected orproduced. In order then 
to have perfect and thorough ventilation indoors we must, 1st, 
keep the air in constant motion, 2d, make the air to be constant- 
ly changing, 3d, have the air equalized and made uniform in 
temperature. When these requirements are complied with then' 
we shall have our dwellings ventilated in the best and most 
perfect manner." 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasur- 
able and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever 
induces disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol, XIIL] JUNE, 1866. [No. 6. 


The radical cause of Asiatic Epidemic Cholera is a something 
added to the atmosphere which does not materially belong to 
it. That radical, originating cause cannot, of itself, bring on 
an attack of cholera any more than powder will explode with- 
out the application of a spark. This spark, as to cholera,, is 
any thing which debilitates the human body ; which depresses 
its vital power, the general health, below its natural standard. 
Cholera cannot attack a man when he is in good general 
health. No one single case of the kind has ever yet been 
brought to light in any part of the world, after a careful medi- 
cal and anatomical investigation by competent professional 
men. In every single case where the person attacked was 
reported by friends and neighbors to have been in perfect 
health up to the moment of attack, it has never failed to have 
been found, when calmly investigated, that some organ of the 
body had been out of order ; some function of the system had 
been suspended ; some unusual and unhealthful condition of 
the organism had been present, or some surroundings of the 
patient had been changed, so as to invite disease ; that is, some 
agent had been at work which was calculated to undermine the 
physical, moral or mental health of the patient, and thus de- 
bilitate the general system. 


Fear. — Sudden emotions of alarm or apprehension make 
some persons "as weak as water." Surgeon Phillips of the 
United States Army, relates in the November number of the 
Medical and Surgical Reporter, of Philadelphia, that a sentry 
who had to do duty in the passage of a cholera Ward, Was at 
his post quite well, but became alarmed as soon as he learned 
that there were cases of cholera in the rooms; although*' he 
could not see them he became very nervous, no assurance could 
quiet his apprehensions, so that he had to be relieved, and 
"died within two hours." It is, therefore, clear that fear so 
debilitates the body as to make it susceptible of an attack of 
malignant cholera in a cholera atmosphere. Physicians even 
of moderate experience, know that in the healthiest times, and 
among persons in good general health, diarrhoea is an immedi- 
ate result of any depressing excitement, and Asiatic cholera is 
only an exaggerated diarrhoea. 

Liquor of any kind makes a man stronger for the time being, 
but when it begins to die out, he is weaker than he was before 
he drank anything, and in that condition he is a fit subject for 
an attack of cholera when the disease is prevalent. A writer! 
in the Richmond Medical Journal for Februar}^ 1866, states 
from personal knowledge that when the cholera appeared in the 
lower part of Wheeling, a few cases here and there, every 
case died; every victim had been in the habit of "taking a 

Eating Heartily. — -A man is not as able to work, nor a 
horse to travel immediately after a full meal as he was before, 
or as he would be an hour or two later : there is a want of 
vigor, or animation, of strength ; hence, hearty feeding in chol- 
era times invites the disease. 

Cleanliness. — One fact has been observed all over the world. 
In all localities where fevers ordinarily prevail cholera feeds 
and becomes more unmanageable and malignant. AH know 
that fevers most abound in warm weather ; in marshy places ; 
in flat, low, wet, and filthy localities. New Orleans is a per- 
fect type of such a situation. Taking four years preceding the 
war ;and fours years during the war fewer persons died of yel- 
low fever in New Orleans, in all these four years, than died in 


a single year previously, simply because the United States 
authorities compelled universal cleanliness. The streets and 
yards of dwellings were kept clean and dry by judicious drain- 
ing and scrubbing ; and cleansing and whitewashing were the 
order of the day. 

The city of Worcester, England, has been twice ravaged by 
the cholera ; to prevent a third visit, the authorities inaugura- 
ted such a system of " cleansing" in every street and alley and 
dwelling that " not a house was entered" by the destroyer, 
while the most frightful desolation prevailed among the neigh- 
boring cities. 

In the "Metropolitan Buildings, " the great tenant house of 
London, in which "the health regulations were complete," and 
which contained five hundred occupants, there was not a single 
case of cholera ; and yet, in the same district, the epidemic 
was very fatal. In one of our .own large cities one ward was 
thoroughly inspected and cleaned, in anticipation of the advent 
of cholera ; it came, and only one house suffered. On a more 
minute inspection, a heap of noisome house offal of several 
years accumulation was found in a dark corner of the cellar, 
and which had been overlooked. 

The cholera fell fatally on a village fifty miles from Mon- 
treal, with which there was daily intercourse ; the disease did 
not spread around that village, not a single cage occurred in 
all that long highway af trade and travel ; but after a time 
it did appear in Montreal itself. 

Between Wheeling, Va., and Bridgeport, a distance of a half' 
a-mile, a ferry plies, an island and two branches of the river 
intervened j the cholera ravaged Wheeling five weeks, and 
then appeared for the first time and suddenly at Bridgeport, 
destroying nearly the entire population. 

Two emigrant vessels left Havre in October; 1848, one for 
New Orleans, the other for New York ; Havre was" unaffec- 
ted " at the time of their departure. Sixteen days out, the 
cholera appeared on board the New York vessel • and 37 days 
fout on the New Orleans ship ; the disease did not spread at 
New York, but it did in New Orleans. Several vessels and 
steamships have left affected European ports and arrived at 


our shores without a single case of the disease. The cholera 
6rst nestled several years about the mouths of the Ganges and 
then took a general north-westerly course which, in the main, 
it continued until it encircled the globe. 

In 1831, the cholera appeared in Berlin, spread north to the 
Baltic, thence west a thousand miles to London, thence south, 
over two hundred miles, to Paris at the end of six months. 
But Paris is some five hundred miles only from Berlin, be- 
tween which two places there was perhaps the most constant 
inland communication by travel and traffic in all Europe. 

In May, 1865, the Cholera appeared at Cairo, in June at 
Constantinople, near a thousand miles North; thence west, 
over a thousand miles /to Marseilles, and in five months, it 
appeared in Paris, over four hundred miles north, and yet 
there is an incessant stream of travel by land between these 
two places. In one month, it traveled a thousand miles from 
Cairo to Constantinople, and yet was five months in traveling 
from Marseilles to Paris, one-half the distance; these cases 
show that great lines of travel and trade do not always carry 
the Cholera along, and as natures laws are always uniform, 
under the same circumstances, some other theory for Cholera 
propagation is needed, one which will answer all the condi- 
tions; meanwhile we cannot do better than to fallback on the 
hypothesis already taken in this article, that two things are 
always essential to the presence of epidemic Cholera in any 
place, first, there must be a cholera atmosphere, and it must 
meet acting and generally prevalent causes of bodily or 
mental debility, which are fear and despondency as to the 
mind; and as to body, the exciting cause of epidemic fevers, 
which is miasm, an emanation from the earth, wherever there 
is heat of eighty degrees, and moisture and vegetable de- 
cay, such as . leaves, wood, grass, &c, in bottom or flat and 
made lands, and the great practical lesson is, that should the 
cholera appear in the United States during this present year 
of 1866, the fearful, the infirm, the debilitated should, as far 
as possible, and as soon as it can be done, remove to high 
land situations, and remain there until there have been several 
frosts at their own homes. 


As to all these facts, two things we do not as yet know. 
First, we do not know what that is, which added to an atmos- 
phere usually healthful makes it a cholera atmosphere. Sec- 
ond, we do not know the law of the spread of a cholera atmos- 
phere. But we do arrive at certain practical conclusions, 
which are of immense sanitary and commercial importance. 

First. A cholera atmosphere is not necessarily diffused by 
means of lines of travel and trade. Second. Cholera cannot be 
quarantined from our shores. Third. The fundamental cause 
of epidemic Asiatic Cholera, is a cholera atmosphere. Fourth. 
The immediate exciting cause of this disease is filth, or a de- 
bilitated condition of the system. Fifth. There can be no 
epidemic Asiatic Cholera unless the cholera atmosphere and 
the exciting causes are both present at the same time. Sixth. 
The ravages of the disease in any community is measured by 
the degree of the prevalence of the exciting causes ; where 
dampness, warmth and filth most prevail, there will the scourge 
be proportionably malignant. 

The facts in this article seem to authorize the conclusion 
that a cholera atmosphere spreads by an unknown law ; that 
as it does not always advance in the track of wind and tide and 
travel and traffic, those cases which are given as proofs of this 
are mere coincidences. Nature's laws are infallible in their 
action ; under the same circumstances they act in the same 
way ; and as, in some of the statements made, it did not go in 
the direction of wind and travel, inter-communication cannot 
be a law of the spread of cholera. Quarantine looses millions 
of money, and results in incalculable discomfort and inconven- 
ience. Instead of incurring these, when no one claims they 
can be always efficient, it would be wiser to adopt measures 
which all admit will ward off the disease, as facts given clearly 
show ; measures which do not cost a tithe as much as a quar- 
antine and which cannot but result in an incalculable amount 
of public good. The dictate of a true philanthropy and "of un- 
doubted wisdom is to direct attention to the securement of as 
perfect cleanliness as possible, in person, in clothing, in habita- 
tion, cellar, attic, street, alley, neighborhood. As the removal 
of filth, and cleanliness, and securing dryness by draining, have 



in so many cases been followed by an entire exemption from 
cholera, and as embargo and quarantine are at most doubtful, 
and in some cases have been clearly ..unavailing, it seems to be 
the dictate of a sound common sense to direct attention to the 
certain instead of the uncertain. 

In view of the above statements, a theory seems to present 
itself, which will meet all the facts detailed above. That a 
cholera atmosphere causes cholera only when it meets with 
filth or any of the causes of bodily debilitation ; and as all 
human means have failed to arrest the spread of a cholera at- 
mosphere, the removal of the causes of, or the condition of, 
bodily debilitation, is our only hope for the prevention of the 
disease in any specified locality ; and as such a removal is a 
specific, and is everywhere practicable, it is our own fault if we 
suffer from the scourge. 

The ships which left an " uninfected " port had the immedi- 
ate cause of cholera aboard ; want of cleanliness and vigorous 
health among a crowd of steerage emigrants, and meeting with 
a cholera current in their passage across the ocean, as the track 
of the gulf stream, or of a tornado is met, the disease mani- 
fested itself ; one ship found the cholera atmosphere in New 
Orleans and cholera material too, there it spread ; the writer 
was a resident of that city at the time ; the other ship found 
no cholera atmosphere in New York, and the scourge did not 
show itself. 

The ships which left infected ports, and crossed over with- 
out a case, were clean vessels, had few passengers, who felt 
the necessity of attendance to the laws of health, and escaped 
a visitation ; all going to show that epidemic Asiatic Cholera 
can only occur where a cholera atmosphere, the primary cause, 
meets with the immediately exciting cause, which is the want 
of cleanliness in person, habitation and neighborhood. Single 
occasional cases, called sporadic, are not taken into account ; 
the aim has been to establish great general principles, and the 
attention of scientific men and those of leisure and cultiva- 
tion is invited to a collection of well authenticated whole facts, 
and if they all are explainable on the sentiments we have ad- 
vanced, then a great advance is made, if they cannot be ex- 
plained they may lead eventually to the truth. 


CHOlifl! PftEWEPJTED 1 . 

There is no disease known to man, which is so easily, so certainly, and, 
so infallibly cured, as epidemic Asiatic Cholera ; nor is there any other im-! 
portant disease which can be so certainly and so soon discovered in any 
particular case. The great predominant symptom is a large, painless, 
weakening looseness of bowels ; this is not the premonitory symptom of 
cholera, it is cholera begun ! Quietude on a bed, composure of mind, and 
a plain, nutritious diet, will always arrest the disease, if these measures 
are adopted as soon as the bowels are observed to have acted two or 
three times within the previous twenty-four hours. 

Everything swallowed to prevent cholera, will infallibly increase the 
chances of an attack, because all such things are stimulant in their very 
nature; in this stimulated condition, the body is proof against an attack, 
but the moment the reaction begins to take place, the moment its effects 
begin to die out, that moment the system begins to go down towards the 
natural point, but it does not stop there, it goes just as far below that, as 
the stimulus raised it above, and it is at this lowered point, that the dis- 
ease invades, and with a malignity, intensified in the direct proportion to 
the amount of stimulation. 

It is everywhere known that cholera most prevails where, in common 
times, fevers most abound ; and it is just as certainly known, that the 
cause of epidemic fevers is most powerful at sunrise and sunset, there- 
fore, let persons remain in doors between those hours, which includes the 
time between supper and breakfast. 

Cholera never attacks the body, except in its time of weakness ; nence, 
as from the fast of the previous twelve or more hours, the body is 
weakened, breakfast should be taken before going outside the door in 
cholera times, especially as breakfast strengthens the stomach, and gives 
it a power of resistance against the poisonous qualities of an infected 
night air, and for the same reason, when the body is weak and tired by 
the labors of the day, it should not only be kept from the night air, but 
should be fortified by a warm and early supper. 

Exposure to the hot sun of a summer mid-day should be avoided, nor 
should any labor or occupation be continued until exhaustion. The time 
to stop work is svhen the feeling of tiredness first begins to force itself 
upon the attention. 

Eat only plain nourishing food, such as meat, bread, rice, the starches, 
with milk, eggs, oranges and lemons. As fruit and vegetables in cities 
are sure to be more or less stale before they can be used, it is better to 
discard them altogether. 

Personal cleanliness is imperative, and scarcely needs to be insisted on 
But all these things are useless against uncleaned houses and yards. Each- 
householder should make it a matter of conscience to keep his dwelling 
and place of business scrupulously clean from cellar to attic, and from the 
middle of the street to the rear line or his lot. 

Do not let the mind be perplexed by questions as to the contagiousness, 
or portability or in infectious nature of cholera, or as to the value of a 
quarantine, for none of these things will, of themselves, prevent an attack 
of cholera in any case ; but bear in mind always, that perfect and infallible ; 
exemption will be the result of personal and domiciliary cleanliness, of a ■ 
plain and regular mode of living, and of a composed, cofident and fearless 



There is something in the air we breathe, which makes the system 
susceptible of cholera. But as powder is susceptible of explosion, but 
cannot explode unless a spark of fire is applied, which spark is the im- 
mediate cause of the explosion, so a cholera atmosphere will not cause 
cholera in any case, unless an immediate cause is applied, capable of 
bringing out the actual disease, and which would not have been manifest- 
ed without such application. 

H. J. Phillips, Surgeon in the U. S. Army, relates in the Medical and 
Surgical Journal for November, 1865, that while he was stationed at the 
Military Hospital, at Valetta, on the Island of Malta, in 1855, a sentry was 
placed on duty, in the passage of a cholera ward, unexpectedly. As soon 
as he learned that some cholera patients had been brought into the build- 
ing, he became so alarmed that he was obliged to be relieved, nothing 
that could be said had any effect in quieting his fears, and he died of the 
disease within a few hours. 

An engineer who had seen persons in the- stage of collapse, when the 
skin is almost black, or of a dark leaden hue, bad, in working among the 
machinery in a dark room, unconsciously discolored his hands and arms ; 
on coming to the light he immediately perceived the discoloration, and 
immagining that it was the cholera, he died the same day. 

It has been stated that permission was given by a despotic government 
to take ten men condemned to death ; five were put in beds where cholera, 
patients had just died, and five in fresh beds; they were informed the re- 
verse of the facts ; the next day the men who had slept in fresh beds 
were attacked with cholera, and those who occupied the other beds 
escaped any attack. A wheeling Editor, with a view to testing the fact 
of the communicability of cholera, went on board a steamboat in the 
evening, wrapped himself in the bedding, in which a man had just died of 
cholera, and remained in it until next morning and was not attacked. 
These facts show that fear, when cholera is prevailing can excite an attack, 
because fear relaxes the whole nervous system, it has a most prostrating 
effect. Cholera is a universal relaxation. Cases are very common where 
under sudden depressing excitement diarrhoea takes place, and cholera is 
only an exaggerated diarrhoea. These things prove clearly that when 
cholera is prevailing in a community, the timid should be promptly re- 
moved to some locality where it is not prevailing, and this will be their 
safety. It does no good and is rather tantalizing to say to such, there is 
no danger ; they cannot help their fears, and as long as these exist, there is 
very iminent danger, and the sooner they are removed to some exempted 
place and thus regain their equanimity the safer and better. Let the re- 
moval be made cheerfully, without opposition, without impatience or 
moodiness, and the results will be that much more gratifying. The 
lesson of the article is, whatever depresses the mind, whatever un- 
pleasantly affects it, can excite the disease within the hour, while a calm 
courage and self-possession, can defy it. 

From the Boston Watchman and Reflector, by Dr. W.W. Hall, M.D. 



If any thing swallowed by mistake causes an intense burning in the 
throat, it is probably a tC corrosive " poison, that is, destroys the textures 
with which it comes in contact, send for a physician. Meanwhile swal- 
low instantly half a glass of sweet or of sperm oil ,or melted butter, or lard, 
whichever is most convenient to use, and then, within five minutes, half a 
pint of water in which has been stirred a tea spoonful each of common 
ground table mustard and salt. 

When a poison has been swallowed which has no special effect on the 
throat, but causes sickness at the stomach, faintness, drowsiness, stupor, 
or any other strikingly unusual or unnatural feeling, Swallow instantly 
the whites of two or three eggs, and, as quickly as can be prepared, half 
a pint of coffee made thus : On a tea-cupful of ground coffee pour half a 
pint of boiling water. Stir into it the white of an egg. After allowing 
it to rest a minute or two, pour the liquid into a cold cup, and when it is 
not too hot, drink it. Then, within five minutes, pour a glass of water on 
a tablespoonful each of ground mustard and table salt, stir and drink it at 
once, so as to prevent the mustard from settling on the bottom of the 
glass. The egg in the stomach more instantly antagonizes a large num- 
ber of poisons than any other known substance ; the coffee acts thus on 
the next largest number of poisons ; while the mustard mixture relieves the 
stomach of the whole of its contents by vomiting more instantly and safe- 
ty than any other familiar compound. This prescription has the incalcu- 
lable advantages of being always at hand ; its constituents are familiar 
to every one ; and are perfectly harmless in any quantity likely to be 

If a person faints, place him on his back and let him alone until he 
<{ comes to, v for the heart ceased to beat with force enough to carry puri- 
fied blood to the head, and when it begins to beat again, it requires less 
power to propel the blood there when the person is lying down than when 
he is in a sitting or standing posture. Cutting garments, dashing cold 
water, or pouring brandy down the throat are unnecessary interferences. 

If any part of the body is scalded or burned, put it instantly under cold 
water, and let it remain there until the physician arrives. The cessation 
from pain is nearly always instantaneous. If a physician cannot be obtained 
within an hour or two, apply a handful of dry flour to the burned part until 
it is covered a quarter of an inch or more deep, so as effectually to keep 
from it the air which causes the pain of a burn. Tie a piece of linen or 
cotton cloth lightly around, if it is possible to do so, and let the patient go 
to sleep. If the burn is very severe let him live wholly on coarse bread 
and fruits in any shape or form, but not sweetened. If the burn is not deep, 
there will be no suffering ; healing will commence in a few hours, and, as 
new skin forms, the flour will drop off, or may be moistened with warm 
water and carefully removed. This is the best, safest and least painful 
treatment for ordinary burns and scalds. 

From the Boston Watchman and Reflector, by Dr. W.W. Hall, M.D. 



Even young chidren should be taught how to act in some of 
the accidents of life which require surgical skill. The arteries 
of the body carry the life's blood from the heart. If one of 
these is ruptured from any cause, "and the blood is allowed to 
escape, the man will die within a few minutes sometimes, when 
with the aid of a stick and a string or handkerchief, either of 
which are almost always at hand, his life might be saved. If 
the severed artery is in the leg or arm, and there is no string 
at hand, tear a strip from any part of the clothing, tie it loose 
around the limb, pass the stick between the skin and the string 
and twist it round until the bleeding ceases. If a vein is 
wounded or cut, apply the dust from a tea canister or common 
cobweb ; or even without these, wrap a strip of cotton cloth 
around moderately tight, and then another piece around that ; 
if the bleeding does not cease, let cold water run on the wound 
until it does, or until a physician arrives. But it is of vital 
importance to remember that the artery sends out blood by 
spurts or jets, and of a bright red character. If the blood 
comes from a vein, it flows slowly and evenly, and is of a dark 
red. But these directions will do no good unless it is specially; 
noted that if the blood comes from an artery, the application- 
of the string must be made above the wound, that is, between :; 
the wound and the heart ; if a vein has been wounded, and the 
same appliances are needed they must be made below the 
wound, or between the wound and the extremities. 

If an artery is cut in a part of the body where a string can- 
not be applied, hard pressure with the thumb at a spot about 
where the string would have been applied may save life. 

If stung or bitten by insect, snake or animal, apply spirits 
of hartshorn very freely with a soft rag, because it is one of 
the strongest of alkalies, and is familiar to most persons. The 
substance which causes the so-called poison from bites or 
stings, is, as far as is ascertained, generally acid. Hence the 
hartshorn antagonizes it in proportion to the promptitude with 
which it is applied. If no hartshorn is at hand, pour a cup of 
hot water on a cup of cooking soda or saleratus, or even the ashes 
of wood just from the stove or fireplace, because all these are 
strong alkalies, and hartshorn is only best because it m the 
strongest; There is no conclusive evidence to believe that 
burning or cutting out a bite has ever done the slightest good. 
The proof adduced to show that they have been effectual is 
wholly of a negative character, and, therefore, not decisive. 

From the Boston Watchman and Reflector, by Dr. W. W. Hall, M. D. 



The taller men are, other things been equal, the more lungs they have 
and the greater number of cubic inches of air they can take in or deliver, 
at a single breath. It is generally thought that a man's lungs are sound 
and well developed, in proportion to his girth around the chest, yet obser- 
vation shows that slim men as a rule will run faster, and farther, with less 
fatigue having "more wind, " than stout men. If two persons are taken, in 
all respects alike except that one measures twelve inches more around the 
chest than the other, the one having the excess will not deliver more air 
at one full breath, by mathematical measurement, than the other. 

The more air a man receives into his lungs in ordinary breathing, the 
more healthy he is likely to be ; because an important object in breathing 
is to remove impurities from the blood. Each breath is drawn pure into 
the lungs ; on its outgoing the next instant it is so impure, so perfectly 
destitute of nourishment, that if rebreathed without any admixture of a 
purer atmosphere, the man would die. Hence, one of .the conditions neces- 
sary to secure a high state of health is, that the rooms in which we sleep 
should be constantly receiving new supplies of fresh air through open 
doors, windows or fireplaces. 

If a person's lungs are not well developed the health will be imper- 
fect, but the development may ba increased several inches in a few months 
by daily out-door runnings with the mouth closed, beginning with twenty 
yards and back, at a time, increasing ten yards every week, until a hun- 
dred are gone over, thrice a day. A substitute for ladies and persons in 
cities, is running up stairs with the mouth closed, which compels very deep 
inspirations, in a natural way, at the end of the journey. 

As consumptive people are declining, each week is witness to their 
inability to deliver as much air at a single out-breathing as the week be- 
fore, hence the best way to keep the fell disease at bay is to maintain 
lung development. 

It is known that in large towns, ten thousand feet above the level of the 
sea, the deaths by consumption are ten times less than in places nearly on 
a level with the sea. Twenty-five persons die of consumption in the city of 
New York, where only two die of that disease in the city of Mexico. All 
know that consumption does not greatly prevail in hilly countries and in 
high situations. One reason of this is because there is more ascending 
exercise, increasing deep breathing ; besides, the air being more rarified, 
larger quantities are instinctively taken into the lungs to answer the re- 
quirements of the system, thus at every breath keeping up a high devel- 
opment. Hence the hill should b% sought by consumptives, and not low 
flat situations. 



I suppose that in the course of my medical career I have received, liter* 
ally, thousands of letters similar to the following, which came to hand 
April 12th, 1866, from a gentleman of position, of a superior education, 
and of high culture. " On account of business pertaining to my profes- 
sion, I have been prevented from seeing you. for several months. I am 
happy to inform you that I am improving : I have felt better for the last 
three months than I have for two years. I cannot be thankful enough for 
the instructions received from you. I have been busy, very busy, all this 
winter. Can stand the cold nearly as well as ever. I have not taken a 
particle of medicine since last December, except what you gave me (half 
a dozen pills, Ed.) My throat is nearly well. I must again thank you for 
your treatment. You taught me how to live, which I never knew before . v 

It may be instructive to make some comments on this case ; this gen- 
tleman had made application six months before, had been heard from once, 
and not seen at all. He complained of 

1. Burning and dryness in the throat. 

2. On first rising in the morning his head was dull, with running from 
the nose and dizziness. 

3. Coughing for two hours after breakfast. 

4. Shifting pains in the body. 

5. Raw sensation in the stomach. 

6. Continued desire to eat. 
1. Pain on the right side. 

"8. Pains back of the neck, extending to the head ; when out of doors the 
wind seems to concentrate there. 
9. Constipation. 

10. Bilious. 

11. Headache. 

12. Belching. 

13- Pains in breast. 

The written opinion (always given) in this case was, " Tou have liver 
complaint, constipation and dyspeptia, reacting on one another, and you 
can get well, because your lungs are perfectly sound. There is no reason 
to doubt of your regaining your health, and living many years." 

The first important step in leading to this gentleman's restoration was 
relieving the mind of those depressing forebodings of a dreaded disease, by 
showing him that it could not exist. The second was not only in showing 
him the impolicy of abandoning his profession even temporarily, but that 
it was important for him to follow it with a new energy, to have his mind 
fully occupied with it, even to be a little driven. It is almost impossible 
for an active cultivated mind to get well of any serious ailment, if the 
patient is placed in a condition which allows him to lounge, and loll and 
mope about, hanging about the house, the mind all the time reverting to 
the bodily ailments, going round and round in the same track, as in a 

Third. The mode of a man's life as to eating, sleeping, clothing, exercise 
and employment of time. 

Fourth. A pill or two a month to relieve the system of what clogged the 
working of the machinery until it could get a fair start, and then to rely on 
general hygienic rules of life. 



There ought to be no cellars under any dwelling, because they are always 
more or less damp and musty ; and are the receptacle of every variety of 
substances subject to decay, decomposition and the promotion of un- 
heathful gases and odors ; not one cellar in a thousand, either in town or 
country, is clean or dry; and as any housekeeper may verify in ten 
minutes, cellars are usually cluttered up with old barrels, boxes, casks, 
bottles, cast-off boots, shoes, hats; with bones, ashes, and various remnants 
of wilted and rotting potatoes, turnips, apples and other varieties of fruits 
and vegetables ; it is the gases, the emanations, arising from these things, 
which cause the worst forms of typhoid and other malignant fevers. It is 
a benevolent arrangement of the wise and good Ruler of us all that pestif- 
erous gases are lighter than the common air, and rise with great rapidity 
in warm weather to the regions of the clouds, where they can injure no 
one, and are either purified or resolved into their elementary conditions. 
Thus the disease engendering atmosphere of the cellar, rises upwards, 
penetrates the crevices of the flooring, and would escape from the build- 
ing, but is confined to the parlors and chambers, especially on the highest 
floors. This is particularly the case in New York City, where the only 
entrance to the cellar is within the building, hence every time the cellar 
door is opened a crowd of foul emenations rush upward to impregnate the 
air of every apartment in the house. Very many of the ceilings of cellars 
are not even plastered ; when really they ought not only to be plastered, 
but the eight or ten inches between the floors and the plastering should be 
filled in with charcoal or ashes. We have seen water closets under the 
stores in Broadway, which, for conditions of filthiness, are an utter dis- 
grace to civilization. From considerations above named, the cellar should 
be the cleanest apartment in every dwelling ; and in this moving time of 
the beautiful May, when perhaps half the dwellings change occupants, it is 
peculiarly convenient, when a cellar has been emptied by the movers out, 
for those moving in, to have the cellar most completely emptied of every 
thing not fast attached to the building ; let every avenue of grating, door 
and window be left open day and night for at least a week ; the floor, walls 
and ceilings or joists should be swept several times ; the walls and ceil- 
ings whitewashed with two or three coats ; the floor well washed and then 
rinsed with water, and unslacked lime or powdered Charcoal should be 
liberally scattered wherever there is any appearance of dampness, so as to 
absorb all odors arising from moist and dark places. In a largo district in 
a city the cholera appeared in only one house, traced to a pile of kitchen 
offal in a dark corner of the cellar. 



If, on some cloud chariot in rosy June, the reader could be transported 
across continents and seas, and alight amidst one of the villages of the 
Ferroe Islands, off Scotland, he would find a condition of noisomeness and 
filth around the dwellings, which could not be equalled in any village 
community on the face of the globe ; yet, in all the wide world, there is not 
a people that enjoys such an exemption from sickness and death ; only 
twelve out of a thousand die in a year ; but twenty-four out of every thou- 
sand of the population, die in the United States, annually. 

^ Not long ago, a malignant disease appeared in a farmer's family ; every 
circumstance compelled the intelligent physician to believe that it had a 
local origen ; but trees, and lawn and garden, with whitened fences, 
showed that there was industry and thrift, and elevation in that old home- 
stead ; but upon a vigilant inspection, a depression was found not far from 
the kitchen door, into which every basin of water, whether from washing 
the hands, the dishe3 or milk pans, found its way, after it wag dashed out 
from the kitchen door ; the soil was saturated with it, but no odor was 
observed to arise from it. 

When the Paris authorities ordered a grave yard to be dug up, many 
bodies were found to have been converted into what was called Adipocre. 
The stench was such that some of the workmen fainted, and but few could 
keep their places more than half an hour at a time, when they had to rush 
into the pure air ; yet not a single case of disease occurred during the 
several weeks the operations were continued. 

When we lived in New Orleans many years ago, we knew, if any epi- 
demic was prevailing, whether cholera, or yellow or congestive fevers, 
and the atmosphere of sundown and early morning was peculiarly balmy, 
and seemed as pure and sweet as angel zephyrs, that the disease would 
become more malignant for several days afterwards ; proving the before 
known fact, that the cause of fever in the air — marsh miasm — was not per- 
ceptible to the senses. The beautiful consistency of these apparently most 
contradictory facts, shows at once the goodness and wisdom of our com- 
mon Father in Heaven ; the very sight of filth and accumulations of house 
and kitchen offal is demoralizing, hence such an offensive odor is connected 
with it, as to compel a greater or less attention to its removal or abate- 
ment. The destruction of all vegetable products is necessary, as a ferti- 
lizer; the gas of these, marsh miasm, is free from smell, and man's 
higher powers of reason are brought into requisition to search out and 
counteract these disease engendering influences. The Ferroe Islanders 
live by fishing ; from May to November their villages are entirely deserted, 
and they live upon the sea, inhaling day and night its pure and luscious 
air. In winter, avery thing is frozen stiff and remains so, hence there are 
no odors and no decay. As to the infected farm house, the prevailing wind 
was from the filth-saturated depression towards the house, and this air was 
breathed day and night. Heat rarifies all noxious gases and odors, and 
sends them to the clouds j these are most pernicious at sunrise and sun- 
set, hence building fires in the family sitting room at those hours, will, 
other things being equal, exempt families from epidemics, chills and fevers 
and perhaps even cholera itself. 



Convenient for sick and well and domestic purposes. If a dose of 
medicine for a man is sixty grains, then a one year old requires five ; 2 
years, eight ; 3 years, ten ; 4 years, fifteen ; 7 years, twenty ; 14 years, 
thirty ; 20 years, 40. 

Sixty drops make one teaspoonful, or one dram ; four teaspoonfuls 
make one tablespoon ; two tablespoons, an ounce ; two ounces a wine- 
glass ; four ounces a teacup or gill, or quarter of a pint ; sixteen ounces, 
one pint. 

A French metre or measure of length, is in round numbers, thirty-nine 
inches ; the Litre, the measure of capacity in cubic inches, sixty-one. 
The gramme, the measure of weight, is sixteen and a half Troy grains 
The killogramme is two pounds. 

A box four inches long, four inches broad, and two and a quarter inches 
deep, holds one quart ; if four by four, and four and one eighth inches 
deep, it holds half a gallon ; if 8 by 8§ and eight inches deep, it holds one 
bushel; if 24 by 16 and twenty-two inches deep, it holds one barrel. A 
convenient half bushel box is one foot square, and seven and a half inches 
high. As 2 150 \ cubic inches make a cubic foot ; any three dimensions 
of a box multiplied together and making 21501 inches, measures a cubic 
foot. A box, a foot square and nearly fifteen inches deep (14 934-1000) 
holds one bushel. The solid contents of a bin, multiplied by four and di. 
vided by five, gives the number of bushels contained. A bushel lacks ten 
cubic inches, or one third of a gill, of being one and a half cubic feet. 

A Decoction in medicine, is an ingredient boiled in water. 

An Infusion is a medicinal leaf, bark, root, or wood, soaked in water hot 
or cold. 

A Mixture is several liquid ingredients made into one. 

A Solution is a solid, dissolved in a liquid, as sugar in water. 

A Saturated Solution is when the liquid will dissolve no more -of that 
solid, and the uodissolved part falls to the bottom. 

A Tincture is the strength of any substance withdrawn from it, by 
being soaked in alcohol or any other spirit. Alcohol is the foundation of 
all spirits, it is the principle which causes drunkenness ; its constituents 
are found in all vegetable substances, and has different names according 
to the substance out of which it is made, thus, when made from grain, as 
wheat, rye, or corn, it is called whiskey ; if from grapes, it is Brandy ; 
if from sugar cane, it is rum. Gin is whiskey flavored with the juniper 
berry. Bourbon whiskey is made from corn, or rye, in copper stills, but it 
is said that the same materials, managed in the same way will not make the 
same article, except in or near Bourbon County. 

All wiaes are radically alike, made of different materials, but causing 
intoxication according to the amount of alcohol in them, and without 
which principle they would all fall into disuse. 

A cubic foot of water weighs 82% lbs.; of seasoned wood 40 lbs.; of coke 
50 lbs.; of coal 75 lbs.; of brick work 95 lbs.; of sandstone 140 lbs.; of granite 
130 lbs.; of cast iron 450 lbs.; of wrought iron 480 lbs. 



Anodynes, cause sleep, as opium, hops &c. 

Astringents, bind, close up, contract, as vinegar and the persimmon. 

Cathartics empty the bowels by purging, as salts and castor oil. 

Diaphoretics cause perspiration, as hot herb tea. 

Emetics empty the stomach, as tartar, Ipecac, tobacco, &c. 

Expectorants loosen the phlegm in the lungs. 

Irritants draw the blood to the part away from the painful spot,andthus 
relieve, as a mustard plaster ; thus giving the ailing part time to heal. 

Liniments are irritant, in a liquid form. 

Lotions are washes to cleanse or soothe. 

Refrigerants are to cool in fevers, as acids, lemonades, &c. 

Tonics are intended to give strength, as bitters, made of vegetable 

The practice of medicine consists in knowing what is the matter, what 
is needed, and what will accomplish the object The fh*3t requires obser- 
vation, the second judgment, the third experience, and he who possesses 
these in the greatest measure will always be the most successful physician, 
however great may be the intelligence or ignorance in other directions. 
The physician who is master of his profession, knows what part of the 
body is affected, how it is affected and what will remove the affection, all 
that is uncertain is, " Will the ship answer to the helm V Will the consti- 
tution in a specific case, be capable of being acted on by a remedy and 
have the power to rise, after such action? If a mustard plaster is ap- 
plied in an external case to the ankles, and there is life enough for it to 
draw, the man is saved ; if not, all the vitality is gone and he dies. 

A physician learns by appearances or feelings what is the matter with a 
man, what part of the body is affected, and knowing what medicine 
usually acts on that part, he gives it, and the man is saved. He cannot 
tell why a certain remedy affects a certain part, but he knows that it does 
and that is sufficient. Spirits " act ■ on ,? the brain ; fumes on the lungs ; 
ipecac, on the stomach ; rhubarb on the upper bowels; aloes on the lower; 
mercury on the liver ; watermelons on the kidneys ; strychnyne, on the 
nerves ; ergot, on the womb. 

Brandy makes a man as funny as a fool. Opium makes him as stupid as 
an ass. A hop infusion will put him to sleep. Tea keeps him wide awake. 
It is on these facts, and principles, that the whole science of medicine is 
founded ; principles on solid as the Cordilleras, and as lasting as the 
ages ; hence, those whose prejudices prevent them from taking medicine 
in case of sickness are constructive suicides, and he who derides the 
healing power of physic is a fool. 



Is a greater amount of bile in the blood, than is natural ; the result of 
which is, the eyes and the skin begin to wear a yellow appearance, while 
various . other symptoms manifest themselves according to the tempera- 
ment, habits and peculiarities of the individual ; one has sick headache ; 
another complains of a want of appetite, sometimes loathing the very 
appearance of food ; a third has cold feet and hands ; a fourth has chilly 
sensations, involving the whole body, or running up and down the back ; 
a fifth is costive, women become hysterical and laugh, cry, or talk, while 
men are moody, pevish, or morose. Bile is naturally of a bright yellow 
color, but as a man becomes more bilious, it grows darker and is at length 
as black as tar, causing a state of mind, which the old Romans called atra- 
bility, " atra" meaning " black' 7 ; a scowl is on the countenance, and the 
person is ilnatured and fretful, finding fault with everybody and every- 
thing ; hence when a man is cross, he is bilious, and ought to be pitied* 
and at the same time, be made to take an emetic. The ilnatured are never 
well, they are " bilious,' 7 the system is clogged, the machinery does not 
work well, and both mind and body are disordered. The safest and best 
method of getting rid of biliousness is feteady work in the open air, for 
six or eight hours every day, working or exercising to the extent of 
keeping up a gentle moisture on the skin, this moisture conveys the bile 
away out of the system, the same result will be accomplished, but not so 
well, by a good steam bath, or by wrapping up in bed, drinking hot teas, 
thus " getting up a perspiration/ 7 but the atmosphere of the room should 
be pure, and the diet for several days should consist of coarse bread and 
fruits. Medicines which " act on the liver" will do the same thing, but 
they should be advised by the physician, when other means have failed. 

The office of the liver is to withdraw the bile from the blood ; it is the 
largest workshop of the body, and is at the right side, about the lower 
edge of the ribs. When it does not do its work, it is said to be " torpid, 7 ' 
asleep, and medicines are given to stimulate it, wake it up, make it act, 
work faster than common, so as to throw off the excess of bile. When it 
does not withdraw or separate the bile from the blood, the skin grows 
yellow, also the whites of the eyes, and the man has the "Yellow 
Jaundice.' 7 When it separates the bile from the blood, but retains it 
within itself, constipation ensues, appetite is lost, spirits become despon- 
dent, and the person is languid, lazy, fretful, and irritable. The liver is 
in a sense like a sponge, and the bile may be pressed out of it, as water 
out of a sponge, by pressing the ball of the hand over the region of the 
liver downwards, from hip to " pit of stomach," two or three minutes at a 
time, several times a day; this is a good remedy in dyspeptia, and also 
relieves the stomach of wind, giving immediate and grateful relief some- 



All hatless and shoeless, with foxy hair and shirt sleeves shivering in the 
■wind, a countryman gallopped into New Haven, exclaiming at the top of his 
voice " The Oliver Ellsworth has boiled his buster ! The Oliver Ellsworth 
has boiled his buster '' !! the steamboat of that name having exploded a few 
miles from town causing great havoc of life and limb, and this messenger 
was sent for aid for the wounded and dying ! So with newspaper writers 
about the " pork disease," in the tumult of their minds they have run away, 
and not knowing what they say, have wrought consternations dire in ner- 
vous wives in the city ; while thrifty dames in the country have 
emptied their snow-white lard pots into the river, and thrown their de- 
lightful smoked hams to the dogs. It always breeds mischief to run away 
with half a fact, especially if it is a practical one. A parcel of thick head- 
ed Dutchmen in the father-land, too lazy to cook their sausages, have im- 
pregnated their blood with myriads of animalcules, which imbedding them- 
selves in the flesh, propagate with amazing fecundity and the body is eaten 
up piecemeal and alive, by worms, scarcely larger than a human hair, the 
person dying in excruciating torture ; whereupon these hair-brained 
youngsters of the press under the pressure of lager and gin slings would 
persuade the people that " Death is in the pot ' ; of pork, inevitably and 
under all circumstances ; completely ignoring two important facts, that 

1st. Not a dozen authenticated cases have ever occured in the U. States. 

2d. Only those who eat raw pork suffer from the disease. 

Any one who is too lazy to cook his pork sausages ought to be wormy ; 
he ought to be imbedded in fleas for the compulsive exercise of 
vigorous scratching. 

It argues a brain all void of thought,to suppose that a microscopic insect 
could survive a two or three hours boiling^ or exist in a frying pan, hot 
enough to blister an elephant. 

No doubt the water cure people are in rhapsodies with a " Told you 
so, ; ' as they have been insisting with all the power of demonstrative, bare 
assertion, reiterated the millionth time, that pork was poison ; that it bred 
all the scrofula in the world, and that if its consumption as food were per- 
sisted in, the race would, at no distant day become extinct, all but them- 
selves. As pork has been the main stay of the nation for hundreds of 
years, and statistics tell us, the average duration of human is life steadily in. 
creasing, we would advise the people to eat as much 7 ham and eggs ' ; as 
heretofore, not to discard " Pork and Beans," to revel in sausages in their 
proper season, to supply themselves with a good store of hogs lard, 
every autumn for the years' use, and dismiss all apprehension of being eaten 
up alive by pig-worms ; but always cook these articles most thoroughly. 



Many of the most brutal murders, and greatest crimes perpetrated in the 
city of New York, are committed by persons under twenty-five years of 
age ; this shows a very early corruption of morals and as an eminent 
jurist once said, is easily traceable to the habit of being from home after 
dark. Lord Shaftsbury statod fron the bench, that in nearly all the cases 
of great crimes which came before him the evidence showed that the 
moral character became vitiated between the ages of eight and sixteen ; 
these two terrible facts put together should make every city parent especi- 
ally, tremble ; and if it should lead to the adoption of the following sug- 
gestions, it will save many a heart from going down in sorrow to the grave, 
from an embittered old age. 

Do not allow your children to form the habit of " going home/' to 
spend the night with their companions, no not once in a year. 

Keep them out of the street after sun down, unless you are with 

Do all that is possible to have a loving, cheerful and happy fireside, as 
a means of winning them from the street. Much can be done in this 
direction by providing amusements, and having the children occupied in 
something which is interesting, profitable or new. 

j Keep the birthdays ; let them be occasions of harmless festivities : ar- 
range that all the holidays too,shall be observed appropriately. Little parties 
given now and then to those of their own age, is a source of much delight 
to children, and they may be so conducted as to be of great benefit mor- 
ally, socially and physically. 

Let the father and mother remember that the exhibition before their 
children of a loving, affectionate and quiet deportment towards one another 
in the home eircle, is a powerful bond of union in a family ; the very 
sight of it wakes up affectionate sympathies in the hearts of children, and 
cherishes the same delightful feelings in themselves ; and soon the house 
becomes a home of love and quiet delight ; within half a mile of us, there 
are quite a number of families of this sort, some of them among the wealth- 
iest in the city, but it is singular to observe that in almost Qvery case it is 
in consequence of the mother's all pervading influence, mothers who are 
quiet, gentle, lady like, but firm in the right always. Many homes are 
made distasteful to children by incessant restrictions and criticisms ; by 
innumerable rules and regulations. A household is better regulated bv 
an affectionate pliancy, than by an inflexible rigidity; yielding in non-essen- 
tials, but firm as a rock in all questions of right and wrong. The night 
work from eight to sixteen determines the life character of millions. 



Sickness and death generally come in the night ; it is then, when the 
body is in a state of weariness from the labors of the day ; when, in addi- 
tion the heavy night-damp has its depressing influences, and the bright sun- 
shine and the light balmy air of all out doors is not present to invigorate 
and enliven, it is then that the human organism is most susceptible to 
adverse influences, and is less capable of resisting and warding oft the ap- 
proaches of disease and decay and death. It is the out doors and the sun- 
shine which so oxygenates the blood, and imparts to it a sparkle and a 
life as it courses through artery and vein; every step becomes a pleasure, 
every thought a happiness, and it is delicious even to breathe. Now what 
is it that gives to the out-door air of a clear sunshiny day all these soul 
thrilling qualities ? it is the greater amount of oxygen with which the sun 
loads every breath we take, which makes all the difference between the 
joy of the out-door sunshine and the chamber of midnight ; and if we could 
but breathe this highly oxygenated air all the time, men would, other 
things being equal, double the time of life and be still young in heart and 
feeling at the age of a hundred years. But, most unfortunately, and not 
necessarily either, one clear third of our entire existence is spent in 
breathing a vitiated air, an atmosphere so full of heaviness and dust and 
odors of a close confined bedroom, as to exclude the more aerial oxygen, 
hence so many of us, and so often, wake up in the morning with a feeling 
of tiredness or unrest, that is absolutely distressing, instead of waking up 
to mirth and laughter and song ; a very large part of domestic bickering s 
which poisons the peace of families arises from the fact, that the parents 
having slept in an ill- ventilated apartment, have not been refreshed, their 
sleep has not rested them ; every breath taken into the lungs was so im- 
pregnated with grosser impurities that it could not take in the more ethe- 
rial oxygen, whose office it is to absorb the impurities from the blood and 
carry them out of the system ; hence both brain and body are depressed, 
the moral nature imbibes the evil influence, and both husband and wife 
wake up to carp, and complain and scold, dampening the spirits of the 
children, irritating the servants, making a veritable hell in a household 
which ought to have been a heaven. The importance then of sleeping in 
an air as pure as possible, socially, physically and morally, can scarcely be 
over-rated ; hence sleep in the highest, largest, best-lighted rooms in the 
house with open fireplaces and a little fire burning during winter nights* 
no standing liquids, and with as little carpeting and furniture as possible, 
in short an almost empty room, unpapered walls, hung with beautiful 
pictures, paintiBgs and engravings, calculated to elevate the mind, to pur- 
ify the moral affections, and to giv a direction to thoughts iii the beginn- 
ing of the day, which shall pervade the whole character and conduct, for 
good, until the pillow 's reached again in the early evening. 


Our Daughter's Schooling. — The sisters Bucknall have retired from the 
more arduous labors of a large school for young ladies in New York city, 
and have removed to their beautiful country seat near New Brunswick ; 
where, not abandoning a field altogether, in which for so many years they 
successfully labored, they will still continue to give instruction to a select 
few ; this will be interesting intelligence to their patrons and scholars, 
which latter, after entering married life, have repeatedly come to their 
former teachers for the express purpose of assuring them how much they 
appreciated their fidelity and conscientious and untiring efforts to make 
their moral and literary education what it ought to be, and which they 
more highly valued now, than when they stood in the relation of pupils 
and teachers ; this simple fact of itself tells volumes in just praise of these 
admirable and able instructors of so many of the daughters of New York. 

The Boston American Tract Society, fully alive to the importance of the 
subject, have issued " The Freedman's Header ;? and " The Freedman's 
Spelling Book" which are admirably adapted ' to the purpose for which 
they were intended. Also the " Beloved Disciple," by J. W. Kimball, 
treating of Faith, Love, Purity, Gravity, Humility, Courage, Honesty, 
Benevolence and other practical christian virtues ; these books are to be 
had at 28 Cornhill, Boston and at 13 Bible House, New York city. 

Every Saturday. — This Weekly is, in our opinion, precisely what it 
claims to be, — a journal of choice reading selected from current literature. 
The editor has the range of all the English and Continental Reviews, Mag- 
azines, and first-class Weeklies, which press into their service the ablest, 
wisest, and wittiest writers of Europe. From this almost immense store- 
house, he selects that which he judges best adapted to suit the taste and 
intelligence of the American people. 

The selections in the numbers already issued have embraced a wide 
variety of topics, — all of interest to cultivated minds, and nearly all of a 
character to be highly attractive to the majority of American readers. 
There have been excellent short stories, thrilling adventures, exquisite 
poems, graphic historical sketches, popular scientific articles such as ap- 
pear originally only in English and French periodicals, racy essays in bi- 
ography, criticism, and anecdote. In fact, it contains the cream of for- 
eign current literature, and is offered at a reasonable price. 

Each number being complete in itself, it is just the thing for travellers ; 
and each number is of such sterling merit that it is just the thing for those 
who stay at home. Whoever wishes the freshest and choicest foreign 
periodical literaturo, must get " Every Saturday.'' It is published by 
Ticknore & Fields, Boston. 

S. Y. S. Wilder, The Life of, 404 pp. 12 mo., published by the Amer- 
ican Tract Society, 150 Nassau St., New- York. Mr. Wilder was born in 
Lancaster, Mass., in 1780, and died in 1865, in the bosom of his family, 
surrounded by children and grand-children. It is the record of a good 
man, who in all his intercourse with men of distinction and influence at 
home and abroad, never failed to let his light so shine, that all took know- 
ledge of him that he was a christian. He was intimately associated with 
such men as Fulton, Madison, Monroe, Jackson, Morse, and others ; the 
book is full of incidents of life in France, Paris, court life, &c; it is highly 
instructive, and is well worthy of a very general perusal ; in many por- 
tions of it, it is stranger than fiction. 

The Bankers of the World. — " The Merchants and Bank- 
ers' Almanac for 1866," one volume octavo, pubished at the 
Bankers 7 Magazine office, N. Y., contains lists of 1620 National 
Banks, (with names of the President and Cashier and N. 
Y. Correspondent of each), 400 State Banks ; 1100 Private 
Bankers in the U. S. • Banks and Bankers in London, Liver- 
pool, Dublin, Edinburgh, Leeds, Manchester, Birmingham, &c. ; 
600 Bankers in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, the West Indies, 
South America, New Zealand, Mexico, Canada, &c. ; Alpha- 
betical list of 2000 Cashiers in the U. S. ; list of 300 Savings 
Banks in New England and New York, with the deposits of 
each 5 Bank Statistics of the U. S. ; list of Standard Works 
for Bankers ; prices of Iron, Copper, Coal, monthly at N. Y. 
40 years ; Daily price of Gold for four years, 1862-1865 ; and 
six engravings, viz. : 1. The New York Stock Exchange, 
(erected 1865) ; 2. The Paris Stock Exchange, (1808-1826) ; 
8. The Bank of England ; 4. Banking Houses, Wall Street ; 
5. New Insurance Buildings, Broadway, N. Y. ; 6. The Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company of N. Y. Price $2.00 

'Stonewall Jackson/' A minute account of his last moments and death, 
by Hunter McGuire, M. D., Prof, of Surgery, and Medical Director &c. 
It 6eems that General Jacksons' death resulted, not from wounds received 
in battle, but from having fallen while being carried from the field. His 
last words were, "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of 
the trees." He refused to take brandy. " I want to preserve my mind, if 
possible, to the last" The whole narration is intensly interesting, as 
found in the Richmond, Va., Medical Journal for May, 1866, $5 a year, 
single Nos. post-paid, Fifty cents ; this number contains also interesting 
articles on Hip Deformities, Progress of Surgery, Gun-shot Wounds, Mili- 
tary Hospital experiences &c.; it is a most valuable number. 

Deformities and blemishes of the faoe, eye, nose &c. are treated with 
singular skill and success by Dr. Daniels at his rooms on Union Square, 
New York city, corner of 14th St. & Fourth Avenue, as also all ailments 
requiring the clear sight and steady hand of a practical surgeon. 

One thousand acres of fertile land, with a dwelling, in Cumberland 
Co., East Tennessee, on the direct road from Nashville to Knoxville and 
from Cincinnati to Chattanooga and Charleston, S. C. can be purchased 
for Five Thousand dollars cash ; part timbered, part prairie ; or would 
be exchanged for productive real estate in New York city or Brooklyn, 
apply to P. C. Godfrey, 823 Broadway, New York. 

Comparative Physiognomy, or resemblence between man and animals, 
by James W. Redfield, M. D., 330 engravings, W. J. Widdleton, New York 
Publisher. The New York Observer of May 17th, says : '< The reader 
cannot fail to be entertained with this book, aiming to show that there 
are strong points of facial resemblence between men and animals, and that 
this outward resemblence is indicative of a character similar to that of the 
animal whose likeness is seen in the human face. The argument is not 
less ingenious than the illustration, and its aim seems to be to discredit i 
phrenology, and establish physiognomy as a more reliable index of oharac- j 
ter. Sent post-paid for Three Dollars. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasur- 
able and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever 
induces disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 




Vol, XIII.] JULY, 1866. [No. 7. 


Is the relation between the state of the mind and the condi- 
tion of the body. There are some who can say things which 
" hurt the feelings " of others with perfect indifference, with- 
out any compunctions whatever ; these have rude natures 
always, and are just as low bred as a certain kindred class who 
seem to pride themselves on their "bluntness," which they are 
wont to dignify by the term of " frankness f a proper analysis 
of such minds will show that they are wan ting in the finer 
feelings of our common nature and in that delicacy and refine- 
ment which makes all the difference between the courtier and 
the clown. A gentleman or a lady may inadvertently " hurt 
the feelings " of another, but to do so deliberately, is as impos- 
sible for them, as it would be for a christian to commit a sin 
intentionally. It may not seem much to wound another's feel- 
ings, but who does not know that both men and women have 
been " mortified to death " literally ; have committed suicide 
while laboring under the influence of wounded sensibilities. 
Many a delicate nature has been pained to the quick by being 
passed on the street, without recognition from a friend or an 
acquaintance, especially if superior in social position. Many 
a worthy heart has pined in oppressive sadness for weary 
weeks, at not having been invited to a party given by some 
associate. One of these " woundings " may not be much, but 
repetitions may be ruinous. One slight scratch of a pin may 

146 hall's journal op health. 

be a trifling matter, but its repetition in the same spot -will soon 
induce fearful convulsions ; a drop of water on the head from 
the height of a yard or two is not much, but if repeated for a 
time, it is said to induce insanity. There are at all times per- 
sons pining away into the grave from the influence of mental 
states, as remorse, wounded vanity, mortified pride and mis- 
placed affection. If then the preservation of life, and the 
maintenance and promotion of health are duties incumbent on 
all, as none will deny, then do we owe it to ourselves, to our 
neighbors, friends and kindred, to do all that is practicable to 
promote in one another pleasant, agreeable and profitable 
states of mind ; and on the other hand to avoid scrupulously 
and studiously doing or saying anything which would wrong- 
fully, uselessly or unjustly cause an unpleasant frame of mind 
in another, and thus, in the expressive phrase of Holy Scrip- 
ture, be " void of offence." 


Is benevolence personified, it is the practice of kindness. 
There is virtue even in the form of politeness ; it may be 
merely mechanical, still, like an air cushion, although there is 
nothing in it, it is very comfortable in use. "Why not cultivate 
a pleasant mode of recognition for every one we meet on the 
street, however slight the acquaintance ? it would many a time 
lighten the load of some sorrowing heart, or cause some new 
resolve to " try again " when on the very verge of utter hope- 
lessness, by the inspiration of the feeling " there's somebody 
at least cares a little for me." It elevates the lowly to have 
their superiors greet them courteously ; it unwittingly to 
themselves, begets a resolution to act more worthy of such 
recognition ; to earn it by a better behavior, a more tidy 
dress, a more dignified deportment. 


* A hearty laugh is known the world over to be a health pro 
moter ; it elevates the spirits, enlivens the circulation, and is 
marvelausly contagious in a good sense. A poor, miserable 
and vulgar-minded croaker may by a single ill-tempered remark 


beer that lias even a trace of nutriment. It is true that beer 
is made out of grain, but the grain must be thoroughly rotted: 
before it yields beer ; hence it is that beer gives no real 
strength, the alcohol in it gives apparent strength for a time, 
but soon the same amount of stimulus ceases to stimulate ; 
meanwhile they wake up to the fact and express it in this wise, 
" my friends say I look better and am fleshing up,but somehow 
or other I don't gain strength," and very soon after, in multi- 
tudes of cases, the system, to use a sailor's expression, "goes 
down with a run." 

Animal Food. — Different nations instinctively fall into the 
habit of using the kind of food adapted to their latitude, habits 
and localities; The Frenchman luxuriates on bread and wine 
in his sunny clime : the Englishman in everlasting fog and 
dreariness, leans heavily on beef and beer ; the Dutch delight 
in sour krout and sausage ; pork and beans, clams and pump- 
kin pies always delight the lean Yankee ; while Western 
men know no heaven where there is not hog and homminy ; 
John Chinaman makes rice the god of his idolatry ; Italians 
feast the year round on maccaroni • the Cuban is happy 
amid his plantain trees, while G-reenlanders believe in blubber 
as the summum bonum of human good ; what would a Paddy 
be without his potatoe, or Sandy without his luxurious oat 
meal ; and his hunting ground is the heaven of the Indian. 
The cannibals of a thousand years ago, are the same lovers of 
human flesh to-day : and none of these nations have ever died 
out, all of them seem to live and thrive on the aliment which 
a munificent Providence has strewn so abundantly around 
them. The fishermen of the Ferroe Isles live mainly on the 
yield of their nets, as their fathers did before them, and are 
the healthiest people on the globe. These facts seem to show 
the absurdity of the vagaries of many who set themselves up 
as reformers and would be saviors of the race, closing their 
eyes against the glaring fact that the food of the individual 
must be adapted to his temperament, his locality and his occu- 
pation; But in all this, the great truth stands out with un- 
mistakable prominence that God is good, in that intending 
man to habitate the globe he has adapted him, with reasonable 

160 hall's journal of health. 

restrictions to live any where and on any thing. And while 
witless hosts are ranging themselves in hostile fronts as meat- 
ers and anti-meaters, vegetarians and grapeites, (for a book has 
been really written to prove that to live, long and healthfully 
we must eat grapes all day), sensible people will eat in mode- 
ration what they like best according to nature's instincts/taking 
their food in moderation, taking care that the fruits should be 
ripe and perfect, the vegetables fresh, the meat taken from 
w T ell fed and healthy carcasses and all cleanlily prepared, 
thoroughly cooked, served in simple style, and eaten in con- 
tentment, thankfulness and joviality. Paddy at borne seldom 
smells meat except at Christmas and Easter ; when he comes 
to America he eats meat three times a day, and, if he lets 
liquor alone, accumulates money and becomes a steady, useful 
citizen. After seventeen years of observation, the overseer of 
the Devon Estates in Ireland makes the suggestive statement : 
" there are 6,680 persons on the estate. They are energetic, 
moral and well behaved. I do not remember a crime in seven- 
teen years, not even so much as stealing a chicken. They are 
a contented, grateful people — grateful even for fair play. Out 
ol six hundred farmers, deduct fifty, and the rest do not see a 
wheaten loaf, or smell meat, except at Christmas and Easter. 
They have been brought up to this custom. One tenant on the 
Devon estate I have seen sit down to potatoes, buttermilk and 
Indian meal who purchased at a recent sale $50,000 worth of 
property, and did not have to borrow a shilling to pay for it. 
I believe this to be the usual, mode of living in Limerick." 


It would prevent much of human suffering and save many 
a life if editors would steadily refuse to admit into their col- 
umns any medical receipt or suggestion, unless the name of 
the writer was appended to it, and better still, to exclude 
every prescription without it had the name of some physician 
of character and eminence. Recently an item was going the 
round of the agricultural journals that petroleum would des- 
troy vermin infecting cattle ; a farmer saw the article and 
found it certainly a very efficient remedy, it killed the vermin 


and the cattle too. It has been before stated that a promin- 
ent citizen was advised to apply a bit of candle grease to a 
pimple on his child's shoulder, he did so, and the child died 
in convulsions the next day, most likely the result of some 
chemical change arising from the contact of hot tallow with a 
brass candlestick. Many are carried away with "simple" rem- 
edies, that is, remedies composed of things with which they 
are familiar, and which at first sight would seem to be inert. 
The remedies for cough, cold and consumption, are innumer- 
able, the combinations of ingredients are infinite ; but if the 
reader is observant, not one in a hundred will there be which 
has not opium in the form of paregoric, laudnum, or morphia, 
giving water on the brain every year to multitudes of children 
and apoplexies or ruinous results to the digestive organs of 
adults. The life of Washington Irving was cut short by the 
injudicious recommendation of a simple cougfy-mixture by 
some pestiferous busybody. In any company of a dozen per- 
sons if one complains of anything from the scratch of a pin to 
a cancer, enough remedies will be volunteered in five minutes 
to kill a regiment of common men,advised too, with all the con- 
fidence that it is possible for ignorance to possess, for these 
two characteristics always exist in identical proportions ; 
the greater the ignorance, the greater the certainty. The 
man who insures a cure of any thing under all circumstances 
is an ignoramus or a knave. 


There can be no doubt that growing persons are often over- 
worked, especially boys on a farm from twelve to eighteen ; 
the danger is increased in proportion to the rapidity of the 
growth. Persons who work hard, under twenty years of age, 
should be allowed ten hours rest in bed. The health of girls 
is sometimes ruined by over pushing mothers. The desire of 
some constitutions to remain in bed awhile after waking up 
is inappeasible, and to have to get up is literally dreadful, 
and involves an amount of self-denial and sacrifice almost in- 
conceivable. There is no merit whatever in simple early 
rising and a great deal of nonsense has been written on the 

162 hall's journal of health. 

subject ; it is always a cruelty and a crime to the young, and 
to a great extent to all unless it be preoeeded by an early re- 
tiring. One of the most criminal of robberies is that which 
abridges the hours of necessary sleep. But as to the work- 
ing only eight hours a day for grown people, the great mass 
of mechanics, it is the vagary of an impracticable noodle. If 
a man working by the job can earn as much money as will 
support him, and is satisfied with that, let him do it, but to 
demand for the labor of eight hours the compensation due to 
ten or twelve hours, is a theft in disguise. Once establish 
such a principle, and before we are aware of it we would find 
the poor, the shiftless and improvident demanding of the fru- 
gal and care-taking classes five dollars a day for the trouble 
of spending it. This banding together of one class of men to 
compel them to give them what they ask for their commodi- 
ties, whether labor, time or goods, is that excess of democra- 
cy, which if anything will, will destroy this government, and 
one of two things only can prevent it, either an educated 
religious sentiment or a property qualification to the native 
born only, as voters. 

There is one thing in this connection highly discreditable 
to a class of persons of whom we have a right to expect better 
things. Printers in this city and some of the editors, contrib- 
uted their money and influence, last winter, towards en- 
couraging men to demand more money for their labor than 
that labor was worth. These men not only refused to work 
themselves, but by threats and actual violence prevented 
others from working who would gladly have accepted the 
vacated positions. Nothing in a long time has so signally 
developed the worthlessness of the city press as a guide for 
what is legal, just and right. Some of the papers took openly 
the side of the strikers, others in more covert ways, threw 
their influence in the wrong direction. The fact is the leading 
newspapers of large cities know but seven principles, the five 
loaves and the two fishes ; whatever side promises the most 
gain, that side for the time being they advocate, and that 
leads to a question of very extensive application, whether it 
is not the duty of the friends of religion throughout the 
country to patronize the secular press less and the religious 


press more. There are but one or two secular papers in the) 
whole city of New- York whose abiding, fundamental influence 
is not against evangelical religion • favorable to it generally 
as far as the expression of sentiment is concerned, but greedy 
always of facts which can be used against the clergy, the 
Bible and the Sabbath day. 

For any man in a free country to dictate to his employer how 
much he shall pay a workman for a day's work and then turn 
round and dictate how many hours shall constitute that day's 
work argues an impudence, an effrontery, and a despotism 
not permissable in any aristocracy on earth; and yet the 
chief papers in New- York city, in a manner more or less 
direct, have countenanced this same thing. 

As to the practical effect in these disjointed days of less time 
and more money for workmen, men all over the city who em- 
ploy many hands say, and the mechanics admit workmen 
have less money now than in the good old times before 
the war ; while work is not done so well, and the number 
of good workmen is steadily decreasing, because making so 
much more money they take more holidays during which the 
money is squandered in drinking, carousing and various ex- 
travagances, while the really good men who still work hard 
and save are tempted by the unusual amount of money they 
handle to embark in more remunerative forms of business, 
this makes hands scarce and brings them in brisk demand; so 
much is this the case that mechanics have got to believe they 
are doing employers a favor to work for them: this generates 
a feeling of independence, and then follows a carelessness in 
work and an insubordination expressing itself often in words, 
" I can get work and wages elsewhere/ 7 and off they go. 

The truth is a day's work should be measured " from the 
rising of the sun to the going down of the same," at least in 
in our latitudes, whether it be winter or summer ; one good 
result would certainly flow from it during a larger portion of 
the year: when night came the workman would be glad 
enough to go to bed, instead of wandering around to drinking 
houses, billiard rooms, theatres, dance houses, and waiter-girl 

164 hall's journal op health. 

The most just and rational eight hour system is that adopt- 
ed by an editor, who says that he goes to work at eight o'clk. 
in the morning and knocks off at eight at night. 

Laboring men ought to be able to see that these combina- 
tions and strikes will always in the end affect them more in- 
juriously than the persons who employ them. They must eat, 
dress and have houses to live in ; if they charge as much for 
eight hours work as for twelve, whether on the farm or in the 
shop, the owner will place just that much greater price on the 
thing produced, and the poor man can't get that article, 
whether it be a coat, a ton of coal, or a house to live in, with- 
out paying that greater price ; the capitalist will manage, in 
some way or another, to make the poor man pay for the 
whistle, for capital is king and will be while time endures. 

It seems to be clear then that all strikes and combinations 
for less time-work and greater compensation are contrary to 
the very first principles of true republican liberty, are moral- 
ly pernicious, physically destructive, socially a curse, and 
financially a loss ; in short, an " evil, only evil, and that 

Fruits All the Year Round. — We hope the time is not far distant 
when every three or four farmers adjoining each other will build fruit 
houses which will preserve berries and grapes and fruits for another year, 
and at the end of that time be as hard, crisp and not fully ripened up as 
when just put in. The comfort, the luxury and the advantage of this, to 
eay nothing of the increased healthfulness which would be insured to any 
family which would consume fruits, berries and grapes largely every day 
in the year, would be incalculable. Professor Bryce has patented a struc- 
ture for this purpose, in full operation at Trenton, New Jersey. Samuel 
H. Rebbins, of Bristol, Penn., is agent for the Patentee. The structure 
of a large house costs about one dollar for every bushel it holds. A house 
with a room 15 feet square and eight feet high, being 23 feet square on the 
outside, holding 500 bushels, would cost about eight hundred dollars. "We 
are not acquainted with the parties, but give this notice for the benefit of 
our readers as a public good ; the principles involved are the maintenance 
of a dry temperature just above the freezing point, or thirty-four degrees, 
by means of a small expenditure of ice, and the absorption of the damp- 
ness in the atmosphere. 



To Southern Subscribers in the good old times of light taxes, cheap 
living and universal and uninterrupted prosperity we give notice, that mail 
facilities ceased just after the July number of 1861 was distributed ; we 
kept the subsequent numbers from August to December, both included, 
bound in one cover ; they will be sent to each subscriber who will send us 
their present address. 

The contents of the Journal of Health from January 1866 to July inclusive 
are : 

What is Cholera ? Surprise Parties. 

Its very first Symptoms. ' Shams. 

What to do. Potatoes as Food. 

Signs of Kecovery. To stop Coughing. 

Danger of Stimulants. Foul Odors. 

Danger of Self medications. Preaching Easily. 

Homoeopathic Treatment. Domestic Cleanliness. 

Farmer's Houses. Ventilation. 

Where to Build. Laws of Cholera. 

Miasma and its Laws. Quarantine. 

Cellars in Dwellings. Cholera Prevented. 

Smoky Chimneys. F6ar of Cholera. 

Water conveniences. Emergencies. 

Water Closets. * Extemporaneous Surgery. 

Ice Houses. Curiosities of Breathing. 

Stables. Symptoms. 

Kitchens. Cellars. 

Chambers. Filth and Purity. 

Shade Trees. Weights and Measures. 

Bares. Medical Terms. 

Water Pipes. Biliousness. 

Crazy Farmers, Why. Trichiniasa. 

Wives Overworked. Night Work. 

Daughters ill Health. Night and Disease. 

All new subscribers must begin with the January number. The January 
and February numbers are taken up with the subject of the Cholera, and 
will be sent post paid for 30 cents ; the object of the article is to teach 
the reader to know what are always the first far off symptoms of Cholera ; 
when he will be in reality cured, without any medicine whatever if these 
symptoms are first attended to ; what are the more advanced symptoms ; 
and what is considered the most infallible, remedy at this state, applicable 
to all cases, as a means of arresting the disease until a physician can be 
called ; the folly of taking anything as a preventive of Cholera ; the reason 
why a so-called preventive will certainly increase the chances of an 
attack; the certain sign of commencing recovery ; the absolute importance 
of securing the services of a physician in all cases, where attention was 
not given to the first symptoms ; how easy it is to know these first symp- 
toms ; the importance of remembering that, as the Cholera, if it comes this 
year, may assume a different phase, from that of former times, it is not safe 
to rely on any old remedy, nor to rely on any one's advice but that ot a 


practising physician, and that no confidence whatever ought to be placed 
on any newspaper receipt, because what might be appropriate in former 
years, and other places, cannot be relied on for this year in this locality, as 
the disease is known to present different different types in different places 
and different seasons. 

Persons who fail to receive their numbers must apply for them during 
the month for which it is published, otherwise send twelve cents for a 
duplicate ; remembering, however, that it is always supplied as a courtesy, 
and not as a right, for the Publisher's responsibility ends with depositing 
the Journal in the New York Post Office. It is curious to observe that 
nine persons out of ten who do not receive their number take it for granted 
that the reason is the neglect of the Publisher in not mailing it. In mailing 
the Journal, all the numbers of each State are sent in one package to the 
distributing post office of that State, and that a failure to receive a number 
is owing to the Postmaster at the distributing office, or to the Postmaster 
at the office where the Journal is received, and it is next to impossible to 
be the fault of the New York Post Office, for if one copy of the Journal is 
received in any one State, all the copies must have been sent to that State; 
and if one copy is received at any one office where four or more are due,, 
all the copies must have gone there, as all were sent to that post office in 
one package. So when your copy is missing, go to your own Postmaster 
before writing to the Publisher, " If I can't receive my paper regular, I 
don't want it sent any more.'' Whenever a letter comes indicating a little 
temper the Publisher lays it aside with a smile, saying, " ! he's young ; 
don't know much.'' Persons sending subscriptions or for missing numbers 
must address simply, 

"Hall's Journal op Health, 

New York." 
and the publisher will get it ; those wanting medical advice must address 
the editor thus : 

" Du. W. W. Hall, New York." 

The Editor's office is at No. 2 West 43d St., New York, where he may be 
quite surely found any day until 2 P. M. ; no one need come a minute after 
nine o'clock at night, because he is then in bed ; and often he gets sleepy 
es soon it is dark, and it is never safe to take advice of a sleepy Doctor, 
and even when we are wide awake how little do we know I The biggest 
fool on this planet is the man who thinks he knows much of anything ex- 
cept himself, and that is a knowledge which most people are not particularly 
anxious to communicate ; but such knowledge as we have we are willing 
to impart for a liberal consideration, for unless we charge pretty well for 
the small stock on hand, we would soon run out of provender. We wish 
everybody had as good an opinion of us as a correspondent, writing June 1st., 
1866 : " You have done for me more than all the physicians I ever saw 
put together." And after getting well he wants to show himself, most, 
people would better prefer showing themselves first. 


"WANTED TO GIVE To whomsoever will procure thirty-six paying 
subscribers to Hall's Journal of Health for 1866, a Wheeler and Wilson 
Sewing Machine, costing cash $56. This Machine will sew all kinds of 
fabrics, and is the cheapest and best manufactured of its kind. Specimen 
numbers will be sent post paid for 10 Cents. 

Sleep. — A correspondent two thousand miles away, writes thus enthusi- 
astically about our book on "sleep'' sent pp. for $1.60. u Allow me to 
express my everlasting obligations to you for having saved me from the 
dark gulf of perdition and despair, through the means of your book 
entitled Sleep. I followed your common sense rules and directions, and 
to-day can hold up my head like a man/' 

Pork Worms. — The eminent medical professors who were sent to 
Germany to investigate the subject, state that Trichiniasis is everywhere 
either extinct or dying out ; that the epidemic at Herdensleben was the 
result of a remarkable concourse of unfortunate circumstances, and that a 
heat of one hundred and sixty-six degrees is fatal to the worm. 

The Little Corporal, says the Chicago Journal, has a circulation of 
thirty thousand copies, and is the best child's paper, at one dollar a year. 

The Nation, published twice a week, five dollars a year, by. J. H, 
Richards, 130 Nassau St. Each number contains topics of the day, pro- 
ceedings of Congress, literary notes and notices, scientific articles , with 
much in addition of othe* matter. No. 48, for example, has iC The Usury 
Laws, Paris Gossip, Moral of Memphis Riots, Our System of Legislation, 
Popular Influence of Moral Censorship, Influence of Towns over Counties 
at Home and Abroad; every number contains a large amount of well 
written articles on practical and suggestive subjects. 

Merry's Museum fcr June, 172 William St., New York— Contains : 
Silverstone and Slate, by Kruna ; Harry and his Dog, by Pearl Peveril; 
Wild Oats, by Sophie May; Uncle Godfrey's Lectures ; Short Sermons to 
News Boys, by Rev. Charles L. Brace ; Catching Rats vs. Study, by Uncle 
Tim ; A Story whose end is in a Picture Gallery, by the author of Philip 
Snow's War ; Who made the Flowers ? Merry's Monthly Chat and Fleta 
Forrester's Puzzle Drawer. 

Temperance. — The New York and Brooklyn Temperance Alliance is to 
promote entire abstinence from all intoxicating drinks, by lectures, visita- 
tions, tracts, and special efforts to save the young, by the formation of 
juvenile Temperance Societies in Sabbath and day schools. President 
Hon. S. Booth, Mayor of Brooklyn, Miss Thos. Davis and George Thompson 
are employed as Temperance Missionaries, and are indefatigable in their 
labor of love, extending to the generous sailor their personal efforts in 
distributing tracts, holding meetings and talking personally with our Jack 
Tars. The Society is in need of funds, which can be sent to William E. 
Dodge, Esq.,— the liberal friend of all good measures— or T. B. Wells, 
Treasurer, 389 Broadway, New York. Religious newspapers for distribu- 
tion on board ships, for sailors to read on their long voyages will be 
thankfully received at the same place, or will be called for at the residence 
of our citizens who will send their address. 



Furnace Heat Dispensed With. 

" A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor, warming the feet delightfully, with an oval fire-place nearly three 
feet across, with no visible blower, very little dust, and absolutely no gas; 
the ashes need removing but once a year, while by the extra heat, pure 
air direct from out-doors, is conveyed to an upper room, without the possi- 
bility of meeting with any red-hot metallic surface, or with any corrupting 
surface whatever — it is simply pure air warmed. A Philadelphia corre- 
spondent who has used one of these low-down grates in a room eighteen 
feet square, for six years, says : ' I have never known a day that a fire 
made in the morning was not equal to the day, no matter what the temper- 
ature was outsi-de. ' 

" To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least one 
room in the house where there are absolutely ail the advantages of a wood 
fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from the cellar, 
and not from the room itself— this open, low down, air-tight, easily regu- 
lated grate, or rather fireplace, with its large broad bed of burning coals, 
or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, will be a great desideratum. No 
one who has a wise regard for the comfort, cheerfulness, and health of a 
family of children, should be without one for a single day. One can be 
put in at any season of the year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty 
to fifty dollars, according to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes 
about the same amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out, how- 
ever, as is supposed, near one third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of 
an old-fashioned wood-fire, (the oxygen being supplied from without.) It is 
equally adapted to burning soft coal, hard coal, or wood." — HalVs Journal 
of Health, for December, 1859. 




References given when required. 

Address, T. S. BIXOW, 

No. 1324 CJiestnut Street, JPIiiladelphia, Pa. t 

(OPPOSITE the u. s. mint,) 

Op his Agents, Messrs. MEAD & WOODWARD, 37 Park Row, New-York. 




Thtcre is no necessary reason why men should not generally live to the full age of three 
score years and ten, in health and comfort ; that they do not do so, is because 
They consume too much food, and too little pure air; 
They take too much medicine, and too little exercise: 
.and when, by inattention to these things, they become diseased, they die chiefly, not be- 
cause such disease is necessarily fatal, but because the symptoms which nature designs to 
admonish of its presence, are disregarded, until too late for remedy. And in no class of 
ailments are delays so uniformly attended with fatal results, as in affections of the Throat 
and Lungs. Taking England and the United States together, twenty per cent, of the 
mortality is every year from diseases of the lungs alone ; amid such a fearful fatality, 
no one dares say he shall certainly escape, while every one, without exception, will most 
assuredly suffer, either in his own person, or in that of some one near and dear to 
him, by this same universal scourge. No man, then, can take up these pages, who is not 
interested to the extent of life and death, in the important inquiry, What can be done to 
mitigate this great evil? The first great essential step, is to impress upon the common 
mind, in language adapted to common readers, a proper understanding of the first symp- 
toms of these ruthless diseases. 

THRO AT- AIL, or Laryngitis, pronounced Lare4n-Gmi-tis, is an affection of the top of 
the windpipe, where the voice making organs are, answering to the parts familiarly called 
"Adams Apple." When these organs are diseased, the voice is impaired, or " there is 
something wrong about the swallow." 

BRONCHITIS, pronounced Bron-KEK-tis is an affection of the branches of the windpipe, 
and in its first stages is called a common cold. 

CONSUMPTION is an affection, not of the top or root of the windpipe, for that is 
Throat- Ail ; not of the body of the windpipe, for that is Croup ; not of the branches of the 
windpipe, for that is Bronchitis ; but it is an affection of the lungs themselves, which are 
millions of little air cells or bladders, of various sizes, from that of a pea downwards, and 
are at the extremities of the branches of the windpipe, as the buds or leaves of a tree are 
at the extremity of its branches. 

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF THRO AT- AIL ?•— The most universal symptom 
is an impairment of the voice, which is more or less hoarse or weak. If there is no actual 
want of clearness of the sounds, there is an instinctive clearing of the throat, by swallow- 
ing, hawking, or hemming; or a summoning up of strength to enunciate words. When 
this is continued for some time, there is a sensation of tiredness about the throat, a dull 
heavy aching, or a general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, coming on in the afternoon 
or evening. In the early part of the day, there is nothing of the kind perceptible, as the 
voice-muscles have had time for rest and the recovery of their powers during the night. 
In the beginning of this disease, no inconvenience of this kind is felt, except some unusual 
effort has been made, such as speaking or singing in public ; but as it progresses, these 
symptoms manifest themselves every evening ; then earlier and earlier in the day, until 
the voice is clear only for a short time soon in the morning ; next, there is a constant 
hoarseness or huskiness from week to month, when the case is most generally incurable, 
and the patient die3 of the common symptoms of Consumptive disease. 

In some cases, the patient expresses himself as having a sensation as if a piece of wool 
or blanket were in the throat, or an aching or sore feeling, running up the sides of the 
neck towards the ears. Some have a burning or raw sensation at the little hollow at the 
bottom of the neck ; others, about Adam's Apple ; while a third class speak of such a 
feeling or a pricking at a spot along the sides of the neck. Among others, the first symptoms' 
are a dryness in the throat after speaking or singing, or while in a crowded room, or when 
waking up in the morning. Some feel as if there were some unusual thickness or a lumpy 
sensation in the throat, at the upper part, removed at once by swallowing it away ; but 
soon it comes back again, giving precisely the feelings which some persons have after 
swallowing a pill. 

Sometimes, this frequent swallowing is most troublesome after meals. Throat-Ail 
is not like many other diseases, often getting well of itself by being let alone. I 
do not believe that one case in ten ever does so, but oh the contrary, gradually grows 
worse, until the voice is permanently husky or subdued ; and soon the swallow- 
ing of solids or fluids becomes painful, food or drink returns through the nose, 
causing a feeling ol strangulation or great pain. When Throat- Ail symptoms 



have been allowed to progress to this stage, death is 
almost inevitable in a very few weeks. Now and then 
a case may be saved, but restoration here is almost in 
the nature of a miracle. 

Bronchitis is a bad cold, and the experience of every 
one teaches what its symptoms are. The medical 
name for a cold is Acute Bronchitis ; called acute, be- 
cause it comes on at onoe, and lasts but a short time — 
a week or two generally. The ailment that is com- 
monly denominated Bronchitis, is what physicians 
term Chronic Bronchitis ; called chronic, because it is 
a long time in coming on, and lasts for months and 
years instead of days and weeks. It is not like 
Throat-Ail, or Consumption, which have a great 
many symptoms, almost any one of which may be ab- 
sent, and still the case be one of Throat-Ail, 
or Consumption ; but Bronchitis has three symp- 
toms, every one of which are present every day, 
nd together, and all the time, in all ages, sexes, con- 
titutions, and temperaments. These three universal 
and essential symptoms are — 

1st. A feeling of fullness, or binding, or cord-like sen- 
sation about the breast. 

2d. A most harassing cough, liable to come on at any 
hour of the day or night. 
3d. A large expectoration of a tough, stringy, tena- 
ious, sticky, pearly or greyish-like substance, from a 
tablespoon to a pint or more a day. As the disease pro- 
gresses, this becomes darkish, greenish, or yellowish in 
appearance ; sometimes all three colors may be seen 
together, until at last it is uniformly yellow, and comes 
up without much effort, in mouthfuls, that fall hea- 
vily, without saliva or mucus. When this is the case, 
death comes in a very few weeks or — days. 


A gradual wasting of breath, flesh, and strength are 
he three symptoms, progressing steadily through days 
nd weeks and months, which are never absent in any 
iase of true, active, confirmed Consumptive disease 
hat I have ever seen. A man may have a daily 
ough for fifty years, and not have Consumption. 
A woman may spit blood for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and not have Consumption. A young lady 
may breathe forty times a minute, and have a 
pulse of a hundred and forty beats a minute t day after 
day, for weeks and months together, and not have Con- 
sumption ; and men and women and young ladies may 
have pains in the breast, and sides, and shoulders, 
and flushes in the cheeks, and night sweats, and 
swollen ankles, and yet have not an atom of Con- 
sumptive decay in the lungs. But where there is a 
slow, steady, painless decline of flesh and strength and 
breath, extending through weeks and months of time, 
Consumption exists in all persons, ages, and climes, 
although at the same time sleep, bowels, appetite, 
spirits, may be represented as good. Such, at least, 
are the results of my own observation. 

The great, general, common symptoms of Consump- 
tion of the Lungs are night and morning cough, pains 
about the breast, easily tired in walking, except on 
level ground, shortness of breath on slight exercise, 
and general weakness. These are the symptoms of 
which Consumptive persons complain, and as they ap- 
proach the grave, these symptoms gradually increase. 


A woman walked in the Park, in early spring, until 
a little heated and tired ; then sat down on a cold 
stone. Next day, she had hoarseness and a raw burn- 
ng feeling in the throat, and died within the year. 

A man had suffered a great deal from sick headache ; 
ne was advised to have cold water poured on the too of 
his head : he did so; he had headache no more. The 
hroat became affected; had frequent swallowing, 
Clearing of throat, falling of palate, voice soon failed 
n singing, large red splotches on the back part of the 
'.hroat, and white lumps at either side ; but the falling 
Of the palate and interminable swallowing were the 
reat symptoms, making and keepina him nervous, 
writable, debilitated, and wretched. He was advised 
■o take off the uvula, but would not do it. Had the 
titrate of silver applied constantly for three months. 
Tried homoeopathy. After suffering thus two years, 
<,e came to me, and on a subsequent visit, said, " It is 
/cnderful, that for two years I have been troubled 

with this throat, and nothing would relieve it, and now 
it is removed in two days." That was four month 
ago. I saw him in the street yesterday. He said his 
throat gave him no more trouble ; that he had no more 
chilliness, and had never taken a cold since he came 
under my care, although formerly " it was the easiest 
thing in the world to take cold." 

- A merchant (1002) slept in a steamboat state-room in 
December, with a glass broken out; woke up next 
morning with a hoarseness and sore throat ; for severa 
months did nothing, then applied to a physician 
Counter-irritants were employed without any perma- 
nent effect. At the end of four years, he came to me 
with " a sort of uneasy feeling about the throat, more 
at times than others; not painful; sometimes a little 
hoarseness, with frequent inclination to swallow, or 
clear the throat. At the little hollow at the bottom of 
the neck, just above the top of the breast-bone, there 
was a feeling of pressure, stricture, or enlargement- 
no pain, but an unpleasant sensation, sometimes worse 
than at others. It is absent for days at a time, and then 
lasts for several hours a day." This case is under 

A Clergyman (1012) Has a hoarse, cracked, weak 
voice, easily tired in speaking ; a raw sensation in the 
throat; and in swallowing has " a fish-bony feeling." 
He had become over-heated in a public address, and 
immediately after its close started to ride across a 
prairie in a damp, cold wind in February. Had to 
abandon preaching altogether, and become a schooi 
teacher." This gentleman wrote to me for advice, and 
having followed it closely for eighteen days, reported 
himself as almost entirely well. 

I greatly desire it to be remembered here, that in this, 
as in other cases of Throat- Ail, however perfectly a 
person may be cured, the disease will return as often 
as exposure to the causes of it in the first place is per- 
mitted to occur. No cure, however perfect, will allow 
a man to commit with impunity such a thoughtless 
and inexcusable act as above named, that of riding 
across a prairie in February, in a damp, cold wind, 
within a few minutes after having delivered an excited 
address in a warm room. None of us are made out of 
India rubber or iron, but of flesh and blood and a 
reasonable soul, subject to wise and benevolent con- 
ditions and restrictions ; and it is not to the discredit of 
physic or physicians, that being once cured, the disease 
should return as often as the indiscretion that origin 
ated it in the first instance is re-committed. 

Three weeks ago, one of our merchants came to mo 
with a troublesome tickling in the throat. At first it 
was only a tickling ; but for some weeks the tickling 
compels a frequent clearing of the throat ; and with- 
out a cough, each clearing or hemming brings up 
half a teaspoon-ful of yellow matter, with some sal- 
iva. On looking into his throat, the whole back part 
of it was red, with still redder splotches here and 
there— epiglottis almost scarlet. On inquiry, I found 
he had for years been a chewer of tobacco ; then 
began to smoke ; would day after day smoke after 
each meal, but especially after tea would consume 
half a dozen cigars. In time, the other naturally con- 
sequent steps would have been taken— Consump- 
tion and the grave. Among other things, I advised 
him to abandon tobacco absolutely and at once. In 
two weeks he came again. Throat decidedly better ; 
in every respect better, except that he, in his own 
opinion, " had taken a little cold," and had a constant 
slight cough— not by any means a trifling symptom. 
Let the reader learn a valuable lesson from this case. 
This gentleman had the causes of cough before, ; he 
found that smoking modified the tickling, and taking 
this as an indication of cure, he smoked more vigor- 
ously, and thus suppressed the cough, while the cause 
of it was still burrowing in the system and widening. 
its ravages. It will require months of steady effort to 
arrest the progress of the disease, and he may consider 
himself fortunate— more so than in any mercantile 
speculation he ever made — if he gets well at all. If 
he does get well, and returns to the use of tobacco, the 
disease will as certainly return as that the same cause 
originated it, for the following reason, as was stated 
in the First Part :— Throat-Ail is inflammation ; that 
is, too much heat in the parts. Tobacco smoke being 
warm, or even hot, is drawn directly back against the 
parts already too much heated, and very naturally in- 
creasing the heat, aggravates the disease. Again, any 
kind of smoke— that of common wood— is irritating, 
much more that of such a powerful poison as tobacco 

"—soothing, indeed, in its first transient effects, like 
many other poisons, but leaving behind it consequences 
more remote, but more destructive and enduring. 

A gentleman, just married, with a salary for his 
services as secretary to a Southern house, applied 
to me to be cured of a sore throat. He was per- 
manently hoarse ; swallowing food was often unen- 
durably painful, besides causing violent paroxysms 
of cough. He said he knew no cause for his com- 
plaint, except that he had smoked very freely. On in- 
quiry, I found that for the last two years he had used, 
on an average, about " a dozen cigars every day ; per- 
haps more." He died in six weeks. 

In several instances, persons have applied to me who 
had been advised to take brandy freely for a throat 
affection. Such advice is warranted by no one prin- 
ciple in medicine, reason, or common sense. Were -I to 
give it, I should feel myself justly liable to the charge 
of being an ignorant man or a drunkard. The throat 
is inflamed ; inflammation is excitement ; brandy and 
tobacco both excite, inflame the whole body ; that is 
why they are used at all. The throat partakes of its 
portion of the excitement, when the throat, body, and 
the man, all the more speedily go to ruin together. I 
have in my mind, while writing these lines, the me- 
lancholy history of two young men — one from Ken- 
tucky, the other from Missouri— who were advised " to 
drink brandy freely, three times a day, for throat com- 
plaint." One of these became a drunkard, and lost his 
property, and within another year he will leave an in- 
teresting family in penury, disgrace, and want The 
other was one of the most high-minded, honorable 
young men I have lately known. He was the only son 
of a widow, and she was rich. He came to see me 
three or four times, and then stated that he had con- 
eluded to try the effects of a little brandy at each meal. 
A few weeks afterwards he informed me, that as he 
was constantly improving, he thought that the brandy 
would certainly effect a cure. Within seven months 
after his application to me, he had become a regular 
toper ; that is, he had increased the original quantity 
allowed, of a tablespoon at each meal, to such an 
amount, that he was all the time under the influence 
of liquor. His business declined; he spent all his 
money ; and secretly left for California, many thousand 
dollars in debt, and soon after died. The person who 
advised him is also now a confirmed drunkard ; but in 
his wreck and ruin, still a great man. 

A gentleman from a distant State wrote to me some 
months ago for advice as to a throat affection. He is a 
lawyer of note already, and of still higher promise, not 
yet having reached the prime of life. By earnest 
efforts as a temperance advocate, in addition to being 
a popular pleader at the bar, his voice became impaired 
with cough, spitting of blood, matter expectoration, 
diarrhoea, debility, and general wasting. He was in- 
duced to drink brandy with iron, but soon left off the 
iron and took the brandy pure. The habit grew upon 
him; he sometimes stimulated to excess, according 
to his own acknowledgment; his friends thought 
there was no interval, and gave him up as a lost man 
to themselves, his family, and his country ; but in time 
the virulence of the disease rose above the stimulus of 
the brandy, and in occasional desperation he resorted 
to opium. He subsequently visited the water cure, 
gained in flesh and strength, and was hopeful of a 
speedy restoration ; but he took " an occasional cigar" 
—the dryness in the throat, hoarseness, pain or pres- 
sure, and soreness still remained ! He left the water 
cure, and in a few months wrote to me, having, in ad- 
dition to the above throat symptoms, a recent hEemorr- 
hage, constipation, pains in the breast, nervousness, 
debility, variable appetite, and daily cough. Within 
two months, he has become an almost entirely new 
man, requiring no further advice. 

Further illustrations of the manner in which persons 
get Throat- Ail, may be more conveniently given in the 
letters of some who have applied to me, with the ad- 
ditional advantage of having the symptoms described 
In language not professional, consequently more gener- 
ally understood. 

(1059.) " I have had for three years past a troublesome 
affection of the thorax, which manifests itself by fre- 
quent and prolonged hemming or clearing the throat, and 
swelling : both more frequent in damp weather, or after 
slight cold. General health very feeble, sleeplessness, 
'i of flesh, low spirits. Visited a water cure, remain- 

ed two months, but my hemming and swallowing wore 
not a whit improved. Touching with the nitrate of silver 
slightly makes the larynx sore. I have been always 
able to preach. It has never affected my voice until 
very recently. Two weeks ago I preached two long 
sermons, in a loud and excited voice, in one day 
During the last discourse my voice became hoarse, and 
my hemming has become very bad ; and there has been 
a slight break in my voice ever since. Hem, hem, hem, 
is the order of the day ; clearing the throat is inces- 
sant, swallowing often, and a slight soreness of the 
larynx, particularly after a slight cold, or after several 
days' use of nitrate of silver, with a scarce percep- 
tible break in the voice. These are my principal symp- 
This case is under treatment. 


(1016) " aged thirty-seven. Have been liable, for 
several years past, in the fall, winter, and spring, to 
severe attacks of fever, accompanied with great debil- 
ity, loss of flesh, appearing to myself and friends to 
be in the last stages of Consumption ; in fact, the dread 
of it has been an incubus on me, paralyzing my ener 
gies and weighing down my spirits. In the summers, 
too, I have been subject to attacks of bilious fever and 
bilious colic. A year ago, I attended court soca after 
one of these attacks, and exerted myself a great deal. 
My throat became very sore, and I had hemorrhage — 
two teaspoons of blood and matter. My health con- 
tinued feeble. I went last summer to a water cure, and 
regained my flesh and strength, but the weakness in 
my throat and occasional hoarseness continued all the 
time. Afterwards, by cold and exposure, I became 
worse, continued to have chills and fever and night 
sweats, accompanied by violent cough and soreness of 
the throat. I got worse; was 'reduced to a perfect 
skeleton, and had another haemorrhage. Mucus would 
collect in the top oi» the throat, and was expectorated 
freely. I am still liable to colds. The seat of the dis- 
ease seems to be at the little hollow in front at the bot- 
tom of the neck, just above the top of the breast-bone. 
At my last bleeding, the pain seemed to be in the re- 
gion of Adam's-apple. The principal present symp- 
toms are soreness in throat, dryness, pain on pressing 
it, and hoarseness ; pulse from eighty to ninety in a 
minute; irregular appetite. These symptoms, to- 
gether with my fear of Consumption, serve to keep mo 
unhappy. I find myself constantly liable to attacks of 
cold, sneezing, running at the nose even in the summer 
time. My mother and sister have died of Consump- 
tion, as also two of my mother's sisters. Feet always 
cold; daily cough." 


There is no Consumptive disease ■ it is impossible 
No personal examination is needed to tell that. The 
foundation of all your ailments is a torpid liver and a 
weak stomach. If you are not cured, it will be your 
own fault. 

The treatment of this case was conducted by corres- 
pondence, as he lived six hundred miles away, and 
therefore I had not the opportunity of a personal exami- 
nation. Within a month he writes :—" I am gradually 
improving ; feet warm ; all pain has disappeared from 
the breast; appetite strong, regular, and good: pulse 
seventy-two; breathing eighteen; all cough has dis- 
appeared." At the end of two and a half months, ho 
further advice was needed, as he wrote—" I have not 
written to you for a month, being absent on the circuit. 
I have not enjoyed better health for years than I have 
for the month. Weight increasing ; no uneasiness or 
pain about my breast ; pulse seventy -five ; less in the 
morning. The only trouble I have is costiveness, from 
being so confined in court, and being away from home 
deprived of my regular diet. We were two weeks 
holding court, last of November, in a miserable room, 
the court-house having been recently burned ; kept 
over- heated all the time. I made four or five speeches, 
and suffered no inconvenience whatever. I have no 


(1034) called over two months ago, having had at first 
an ailment at the top of the throat, apparently above 
or near the palate. It soon descended to the region of 
Adam's-apple, and within a month it seemed to have 
located Itself lower down the neck, giving a feeling as 

tt there were an ulcer there, with a sense of fullness 
about the throat, hoarse after public speaking, lasting a 
day or two, with attacks every few weeks of distressing 
sick headache. As the disease seemed to be rapidly 
descending towards the lungs, a rigid, energetic treat- 
ment was proposed, and at the end of ten weeks he 
writes — " I take pleasure in introducing my friend, 

t to you. He has suffered many things, from many 

advisers, with small benefit. I have desired him to 
consult with you, hoping that he may have the same 
occasion to ke grateful for the providence which leads 
hirn to you, which I feel that I myself have for that 
which guided me to your counsels. I suffer but little, 
very little from my throat, and confidently anticipate 
entire relief at no distant day, for all which I feel 
myself under great obligation both to your skill and to 
your kindness," &c. 


is a distressing malady, as those who are subject to it 
know full well, by sad experience. In this case, this 
troublesome affection had to be permanently removed 
before the throat ailment could be properly treated; 
when that was done, the throat itself was compara 
tively of easy management. 


(947) wrote to me from the South, complaining chiefly of 

Bad cough, sometimes giving a croupy sound ; 

Throat has a raw, choking, dry, rasping feeling ; 

Soon as he goes to sleep, there is a noise or motion, as 

if he were going to cough ; 
Startled in sleep, by mouth filling with phlegm ; 
Expectoration tough, white, and sticky ; darkish par- 
ticles sometimes ; 
Flashes or flushes pass over him sometimes ; 
Sick stomach sometimes, acid often, wind on stomach 

oppresses him greatly ; 
A lumpy feeling in the throat ; 
On entering his house, sometimes falls asleep in his 

chair, almost instantly ; 
In walking home, at sundown, half a mile from his 

store, is completely exhausted ; 
Slightest thing brings on a cough ; never eats without 

coughing ; 
If he swallows honey, it stings the throat ; 
Got a cold a month ago, which left the palate and throat 

very much inflamed ; 
Throat and tongue both sore ; 
A hooping, suffocative cough; can hear the phlegm 

rattle just before the cough begins ; 
A dry, rough feeling from the little hollow at the bot- 
tom of the neck up to the top of the throat. 
One night after going to bed, began to cough, choke, 
suffocate ; could not get breath, jumped out of bed, 
ran accross the room, struggled, and at length got 
breath, but was perfectly exhausted ; could not speak 
for half an hour, without great difficulty. 
In addition to his own description of the case, his 
wife writes—" Ten o'clock at Night.— I am no physi- 
cian, nor physician's wife, but am his wife and nurse, 
and an anxious observer of his symptoms, and can see 
his throat inflamed behind the uvula. He says there is 
a lump somewhere, but he cannot tell where. Some- 
times he thinks it is in the little hollow at the bottom 
of the neck, sometimes just above, and sometimes in 
or about the swallow. A recent cold has aggravated 
his symptoms. His cough to-day has been very fre- 
quent and loose. He has emaciated rapidly within a 
month, and is now a good deal despondent. As for 
myself, I feel as one who sees some fair prospect sud- 
denly fading away. I had fondly hoped— oh! how 
ardently !— that he might be restored. If a knowledge 
of the fact would give any additional interest to the 
case, I will only say, he is one of the loveliest charac- 
ters on earth. None in this community has a larger 
share of the respect and confidence of their acquain- 

The opinion sent, for I have not seen this case, was 
as follows :—" The whole breathing apparatus, from 
the top of the windpipe to the extremity of its branches, 
is diseased ; the lungs themselves are not at all affected 
by decay. Your whole constitution is diseased ; and 
yet there is good ground for hope of life and reason- 
able health." 
In three months this patient writes—" I am glad to 
yoa that I think I am still improving in health 

and strength. My bdwels are sometimes disordered 
by eating melons and fruits ; hut I felt so much bettc* 
that I thought I might indulge. Pulse sixty-five to 
seventy; an almost ravenous appetite." A month 
later he writes— "My health and strength are still im- 
proving ; cough not very troublesome ; increasing in 
flesh," &c. I believe this gentleman now enjoys good 

(948) teacher of vocal music, writes— " There is a pecu- 
liar sensation in my throat for the last two months 
Whenever I attempt to swallow, it feels as if some- 
thing were in the way ; a swelling under the jaws, a 
soreness on the sides of the throat, extending to the 
ears, and occasioning throbbing painfully. I have a 
dull aching at the top of my collar-bone, and an un- 
pleasant sensation of weakness and heaviness in my 
chest; a bad taste in my mouth frequently. Have 
been regular, but have been afflicted for a few years 
past with sickness at the stomach and vomiting, at- 
tended occasionally with great pain for a few hours. 
During these attacks, the complexion changes to a livid 
hue. I havakbeen very much troubled with dyspepsia. 
On recovering from the attacks above mentioned, I have 
experienced a feeling of weakness almost insupportable. 
Am very costive ; and my spirits are greatly depressed. 
Within a day or two I have taken a violent cold, which 
has affected me with sneezing, running from the eyes 
and nose, together with a slight hoarseness. I was ad- 
vised to apply caustic to the throat, and Cro^on oil to 
my neck, chest, and throat. I have since discon- 
tinued these, not having received any permanent bene- 
fit from them. On two occasions, from over-exertion at 
concerts and examinations, I was unable to speak a 
loud word, from hoarseness, for several days. I am 
extremely anxious to learn your opinion. In about two 
months my public concerts take place, and it is abso- 
lutely necessary that something should be done for me." 


Yours is general constitutional disease. There is no 
special cause of alarm. A weakened stomach, a torpid 
liver, a want of sufficient air and exercise, are the foun- 
dations of all your ailments, and by the proper regula- 
tion of these, you may expect to have good health and 
a stronger voice. You must have energy and patient 
perseverance in carrying out the prescriptions sent to 

In one month this lady writes, and the letter is given 
to encourage others who may come under my care, to 
engage with determination and energy in carrying out 
the directions which may be given them. The reader 
may also see what great good a little medicine m»y do 
when combined with the judicious employment of ra- 
tional means, which do not involve the taking of med- 
icine or the use of painful and scarifying agencies and 
patent contrivances : — 

" I began your prescriptions at once. Having followed 
them for some time, I was obliged to intermit them for 
a few days, in consequence of having to conduct a 
concert, besides having to travel by stage and railroad 
seventy or eighty miles. During this time, I was up 
every night until twelve o'clock, and was much ex- 
posed to the night air. On returning home, I re-com- 
menced your directions, have made it a point to attend 
to them strictly, and have very seldom failed of doing 
so. In consequence of^two omissions in diet, I suffered 
from headache, which disappeared when I ooserved 
your directions. My appetite is good ; my food agrees 
with me. I sometimes feel dull and sleepy after dinner, 
drop to sleep immediately. Seldom wake in the night. 
Sleep about seven hours, and generally feel bright and 
strong in the morning, when I take a brisk walk of two 
miles and a half; the same after six, p.m. My walks 
at first fatigued me considerably ; generally, however, 
" have felt better and better from their commencement 
to their end, and have perspired very freely. The ex- 
ercise I take seems rather to increase than diminish 
my strength. I have not been prevented from taking 
exercise from any dampness in the atmosphere. I have 
sometimes been exposed to the night air in going to 
church and other places, but without any perceptible 
injury. The means you advised produce a general 
glow, and invariably remove headache, which I some- 
times have to a slight degree after dinner. I think my 
throat is better. There is no unpleasant feeling about 
it at present, except the difficulty in swallowing, end 
even that is better. Pulse sixty-seven." 

I bad foi some time ceased to regard this energetic 
young lady as a patient, when she announces a new 
ailment, a difficulty at periodic times :— " 1 walked two 
miles every day, and every thing was going, on well, 
until one evening after walking very fast, I sat awhile 
with a friend, in a room without fire, in November. 
The weather was chilly and damp ; was unwell, sup- 
pressed ; had a chill and incessant cough for several 
hours, ending in something like inflammation of the 
lungs." • 

These things were remedied, and she is now engaged 
in the active discharge of her duties. This last inci- 
dent is introduced here to warn every reader, especially 
women, against all such exposures at all times, most 
especially during particular seasons. Such exposures, 
as sitting in rooms without fire, in the fall and spring, 
after active walking, have thrown stout strong men 
into a fatal consumption ; and it is not at all to be 
wondered at that delicate women should lay the foun- 
dation of incurable disease in the same manner. I will 
feel well repaid for writing these lines, if but here and 
there a reader may be found to guard against such ex- 
posures. Our parlors and drawing-rooms are kept 
closed to the air and light for a great portion of the 
twenty-four hours, and unless the weather is quite cool 
there is no fire in them; Thus they necessarily ac- 
quire a cold, clammy dampness, very perceptible on 
first entering. A fire is not thought necessary, as 
visitors usually remain but a few minutes ; but when 
the blood is warmed by walking in the pure air and the 
clear sunshine, it is chilled in a very short space of 
time, if the person is at rest, in the cold and gloom of 
a modern parlor, especially as a contemplated call of a 
minute is often unconsciously extended to half an 
hour, under the excitement of friendly greetings and 
neighborly gossip. There can be no doubt that thou- 
sands every year catch their death of cold, to use a 
homely but expressive phrase, in fee manner above 
named. Young women, especially, cannot act thus 
with impunity. Men perish by multitudes every year 
by exposures of a similar character ; walking or work- 
ing until they become warm, then sitting in a hall or 
entry or a cold counting-room ; or standing still at the 
wharf or at a street corner ; or running to reach a ferry- 
boat until they begin to perspire, and then sitting still 
in the wind while the boat is crossing. It is by inat- 
tention to what may be considered such trifling little 
things that thousands of valuable fives are sacrificed 
every year. 


(950) from Washington City, complained of 

Uneasiness at throat, caused by repeated colds ; late 
hours, hot rooms ; 

Cough most of mornings — dry, tickling, hollow ; 

Expectoration a little yellow ; 

Bloody, streaked expectoration, six months ago ; 

Breathing oppressed, if sit or stoop long ; 

Take cold easy, in every way ; 

Throat has various feelings, tickling, heavy aching, raw, 
dry, from palate to depression ; 

Swallowing a little difficult at times ; 

Voice not much affected ; 

Headache, costive bowels, piles occasionally ; 

Pain about shoulder-blades and at their points ; 

Soreness under both fibs sometimes ; 

Pains in the breast — more of a soreness from the top 
of the breast-bone to the pit of the stomach ; 

Bave been ailing fifteen months ; 

Father, mother, sister, uncle, aunt died of Consump- 


You cannot have Consumption now : you are de- 
eidedly threatened with it. With proper attention, 
persevering and prompt, you may ward it off effectually, 
and live to the ordinary term of human life to those of 
your occupation. It is my opinion, that without this 
tare, you will fall into settled disease within a year. 

In two months, this gentleman called to see me for 
the first time. His lungs were working freely and 
fully, over tho natural standard; pulse seventy-two; 
appetite good ; bowels regular. I did not think he re- 
quired any particular medical advice ; and it is my 
present belief, that with proper attention to diet, exer- 
*iae, and regular habits of life, his health will become 
permanently good. 


Took a severe cold last winter, which left a severo 
cough. Every morning the breast feels sore, until stir* 
about some. Pain in the left side, running through te 
the left shoulder blade, and between the shoulders ; 
pain in the breast-bone, and in the centre of the left 
breast. Chief complaint is pain in the chest, left side, 
and a constant raising of frothy, thick, tough, and yel- 
low matter, with frequent hawking, hemming, and 
clearing of the throat. Age 22. 


Your aiiments are all removeable by diligent atten 
tion to the directions I may give you. I very much 
hope you will spare no pains in carrying them ont most 
thoroughly. You certainly have not Consumptive dis- 

He called upon me some months afterwards, when 1 
saw him for the first time. He had nothing to complain 
of; pulse sixty; his lungs working freely and fully, 
being considerably above the natural standard ; and as 
far as I know, he continues well to this day. 

" Am officer in a bank. Was at a fire during Christ- 
mas, seven months ago. Used my voice a great deal ; 
began to be hoarse ; very much so by morning. This 
lasted a week, and went off; but in three weeks there 
appeared to be something about the palate which 
wanted to come away. Throat seemed inflamed, and 
ever since then have had a clogging feeling in the 
throat, that does not affect my voice, unless I read 
aloud, when I soon become hoarse. Two days ago, 
spit up a spoonful of dark blood ; never before or since. 
I have a binding sensation across the top of the breast, 
and three months since had a pain up and down the 
breas.t-bone. Have used iodide of potash ; have had 
the throat pencilled, and then sponged with nitrate of 
silver, without benefit — pulse, one hundred and ten." 


Yours is a throat ailment, at the entrance of the 
windpipe — not as low down as the voice organs. There 
is very considerable active inflammation there. Your 
lungs are a little weakened, nothing more ; the pains 
in the breast are not serious at all, and I see no ob 
stacle to your entire recovery. 

I received letter aftor letter from this young gentle 
man, stating that no perceptible benefit seemed to fol 
low what I advised. He was encouraged to persevere, 
and finally his symptoms began to change, and then 
disappeared ; and in two months from his first consul- 
tation he wrote me to say that he had steadily im- 
proved; pulse, permanently at sixty-five; expressing 
his obligations, &c. This case shows strikingly the ad 
vantage of perseverance. 

(844) wrote to me for advice in reference to a throat 
complaint I prescribed, and had entirely forgotten 
the circumstance, when the following letter was 
received : — 

" I began to follow your directions on the 4th day of 
May, not quite three months ago, and have adhered to 
them strictly ever since. I am evidently a great deal 
better. I have lost no flesh ; although it is summer, 
my weight has not varied three pounds since I wrote 
to you ; it is now one hundred and forty-nine uounds. 
My tonsils are diminished, and give me no uneasiness, 
except in damp weather. From my, throat, which is 
now generally perfectly comfortable, I am continually 
bringing up a pearly substance. Sometimes it is per- 
fectly clear, and like the pure white of an egg. Bui 
this is a mighty change. At first, I could not talk five 
minutes in the family circle. My throat was constantly 
tickling and burning ; so that a mustard plaster, which 
took all the skin off my neck in front, was a comfort ; 
but now I can talk as much as I wish, read a page or 
so aloud, and am almost tempted to sing a little." 

In the same manner as a common cold, for Bronchitis 
is a common cold protracted, settling not on the lungs, 
but on the branches of the windpipe, clogging them tu 
with a secretion thicker than U natural ; this adhere* 

to the inside of the tube-like branches, and to a certain 
extent closes them : hence, but a small portion of air 
gets into the lungs. Nature soon begins to feel the de- 
ficiency, and instinctively makes extra effbrtsto obtain 
the necessary quantity, in causing the patient to draw 
in air forcibly instead of doing it naturally and without 
an effort. This forcible inspiration of external air 
drives before it the accumulating phlegm, and wedges 
it more compactly in a constantly-diminishing tube, 
until the passage is entirely plugged up. The pa- 
tient makes greater efforts to draw in the air, but 
these plugs of mucus arrest it, and there is a feeling as 
If the air did not get down to its proper place, or as if 
it were stopped short, causing a painful stricture, or 
cord-like sensation, or as some express it, a stoppage of 
breath. If relief is not given in such cases, either by 
medicine judiciously administered, or by a convulsive 
nature of effort at a cough, which is a sudden and for- 
cible expulsion of such air as happened to be on the 
other side of the plug, the patient would die ; and they 
often do feel as if they could not possibly live an 
hour. This is more particularly a description of an 
attack of Acute Bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis is but 
a milder form ef the same thing, very closely allied in 
the sensations produced, if not indeed in the very 
nature of the thing, to what may be considered a 
kind of 

which may in most cases be removed and warded off 
for an indefinite time by the use of very little medicine, 
if the patient could be' induced to have a reasonable 
degree of self-denial and careful perseverance. 


As they do most other diseases, by inattention, neglect, 
imposition on nature. Many persons have this dis- 
ease hereditarily, but the same means which perma- 
nently arrest the progress of accidental Consumption 
will as often and as uniformly ward off, indefinitely, 
the effects and symptoms of the hereditary form, the 
essential nature of accidental and hereditary Consump 
tion being the same. The treatment is also the same, 
except that in the accidental form it must be more 
prompt, more energetic ; in the hereditary form it must 
be more mild, more persevering. I consider the latter, 
the less speedily and critically dangerous of the two. 

•' A youth, aged nineteen, indulged freely for some 
time, and at length began to experience pains about 
the throat. The voice was altered ; shrill at first, then 
entirely lost. Swallowing liquids became impossible. 
He spit up large quantities of matter, and died after a 
year's illness. The lungs, on examination, were en- 
tirely sound, but the whole throat was ulcerated." 

Throat-Ail and Consumption are diseases of debility, 
and it may be easily supposed that no progress can be 
made towards a cure while causes of debility are in 
operation. This statement is made here to save the 
necessity, in all cases, of more direct inquiries. If, 
however, there is no personal control, parents may ap- 
ply for their children, and permanent relief be obtained 
without wounding the feelings or self-respect of the 
ailing party, who indeed may be blameless. 


<851. Sept. 2.) Your lungs are unimpaired ; they 
are in full working order. There is no tendency at this 
time to Consumptive disease. Your ailment is dyspep- 
tic laryngitis, complicated with a slight pleuritic affec- 
tion, and with proper attention you will get well. At 
the same time, it is important for you to know, that 
these throat affections are among the most incurable of 
all diseases when once fully established. This con- 
sideration should induce you to commence at once a 
proper course of treatment, and to persevere in it until 
you are perfectly restored to health. 

Note. — His principal ailment was an uneasy feeling 
in the throat, a frequent Clearing of it, and an almost 
constant pain in the leflt breast. He wrote me in three 
weeks, that my prescriptions were acting admirably, 
and that ho was getting well. 

(852. Sep. 2.) Your ailmenf is common tubercular 
disease, mainly tending to fix itself on the lungs, and 
next on the bowels. Decay of the lungs has not yet 
to take place ; they are becoming inactive .. about 

one-tenth of them doing you no efficient good. Then 
is a reasonable probability that the disease may be ar- 
rested at this stage. A return to good health is by no 
means impossible; it is doubtful. The throat ailment 
is nothing more than what may arise from a dyspeptic 
condition of the stomach, liable to end in tubercular 
ulceration in your case, your lungs being already tubcr- 
culated to some extent ; the right side slightly more 
than the other. 

Note.— He complained chiefly of spitting blood, cough 
and debility ; had "been using cod liver oil for several 
months to no purpose. I have not heard from him 
since giving the opinion. 

(853. Sept. 2.) You have chronic laryngitis, torpid 
liver, lungs acting imperfectly. There is no decaying 
process, no Consumptive disease, and I see no special 
reason why you may not, with judicious treatment, 
recover your health. 

He complained chiefly of husky voice (had to aban- 
don preaching), constipation, and variable appetite. In 
five months he wrote me that he " was able to enter 
npon his pastoral duties," and had been discharging 
them three months. 

(854. Sept. 12.) Your lungs are not in a safe condi- 
tion ; one-third of them are now useless to you. It 
will be necessary for you to use diligent efforts to arrest 
the progress of your disease, and spare no pains in 
doing so. 

Note.— Complains chiefly of spitting blood, cough, 
sore throat, debility. He appears to be getting well 

(855. Sept. 7.) Your disease is common consump- 
tion of the lungs ; one-fourth of them are doing you 
no good ; a part of them are irrecoverably gone ; there- 
fore, under no circumstances can you be as stout and 
strong as you once were. The decay of your lungs is 
progressing every hour. If that decay is not arrested, 
you cannot live until spring. Whether that decay can 
be arrested I cannot tell. It is possible that it may be 
done. It is not my opinion that it can be done. 

Note.— Chief symptoms harassing cough, drenching 
night-sweats, daily expectoration of blood, constipa- 
tion, irregular appejite, great emaciation and debility, 
could scarcely walk around one square. In three 
weeks he could walk twenty squares in a day without 
special fatigue. Here he ceased very unexpectedly to 
call upon me. Being a favorite child of his father, I 
took great interest in his case. Whether he suddenly 
relapsed and died, or thought, he could get along now 
without farther aid from a physician, I do not know. 


" At this time the lungs are untouched by disease ; 
they do not work as free and full as they ought to do, 
but it is impossible that there should be any decay, or 
that they should be tuberculated to any extent. If 
your present weak state of health continues, the sys- 
tem will become so debilitated by winter, and so sus- 
ceptible to. impressions from cold, that you will in all 
probability fall into an eventual decline. At this time, 
nothing is the matter with you but symptoms arising 
from a torpid liver and impaired digestion. Your health 
can be certainly restored." 

Note. — A^ed thirty; he had spitting of blood, pains 
in the breast, and other symptoms which greatly 
alarmed himself and friends, as pointing to settled Con- 
sumption. He got perfectly well with little or no med- 
icine, and remains so to this day. 

On the same day, September 18, a young woman 
came for examination, having walked several squares. 

Opinion. — " You are in the last stages of Consump- 
tion. A large portion of the lungs is utterly gone ; the 
decay is rapidly progressing, and nothing can arrest it. 
Death is inevitable before the close of the year." 

Note.— She had a hoarse, loud cough, cold feet, chills, 
no appetite, irregular bowels, difficult breathing on 
slight exercise. I did not prescribe. She died in a 
short time. 

(714.) J. S., married, aged 40, an officer in the Mexi- 
can war, and severely wounded at Cerro Gordo, com- 
plained most of cough, weakness, sweating at night, 
and shortness of breath. Any sudden movement of 
the body or mental emotion produced almost entire 
prostration. Had lost one-ninth of his weight. 

Opinion.—" Your lungs are in good working order ; 
no decay, not an atom ; the yellow matter expectorated 
is a morbid secretion from the windpipe and its 
branches. Your heart is affected ; the calibre of its 
Wood vessels is too small to transmit the blood with 

sufficient rapidity , hence the fluttering and great debil- 
ity on any sudden motion or protracted exercise, for 
these but increase the quantity of blood to be conveyed 
away. Your ailments depend on constitutional causes 
to a great extent, and in proportion are capable of re- 

I heard of this gentleman no more for one year, 
when he came into my office a well man in every 
respect, saying that he began to get well in three days 
after taking the first weekly pill, and thought as he 
was doing so well, there was no necessity of writing. 

A case (988) similar, in some respects, is now under 
treatment : great throbbing of heart and weakness on 
slight exercise ; a violent beating in the temples the 
moment he lays his head on a pillow at night. This 
does not occur when he lies on his back. Frequent 
numbness and pricking sensation in left arm and leg ; 
tosses and tumbles in bed for hours every night before 
he can get to sleep ; great general weakness, and total 
inability to walk; riding in any kind of a carriage 
over a rough road, often but not always, brings on sick 
headache ; has frequent distress at stomach ; pulse 
oae hundred; much dispirited, and has fallen away 
more than one-sixth. 

Opinion. — " Your ailment is a symptomatic heart af- 
fection, depending now, mainly, on constitutional 
causes, originating in over efforts of mind and body, 
The lungs are sound and well." 

In three weeks he writes, each of the two weekly 
pills brought away large quantities of stuff, yellow as 
yolk of egg, with masses of a colorless, stringy sub 
stance, and left my bowels regular. I now sleep as 
well as I could wish ; very little pain in the side ; 
stomach no longer distresses me. I have gained 
strength, but no flesh, and some throbbing yet remains. 

Note.— This man will probably get well if he con- 
tinues to follow the directions as well as at the be- 
ginning. He had been advised to exercise his arms 
and the muscles of his chest a great deal, and was told 
that he must work, and thinking he could accomplish 
both at the same time, and being naturally industrious, 
he began to saw wood for family use during the coming 
winter ; but every day he became weaker and worse, 
until he could scarcely stand up. This being a heart 
affection, every moment of such exercise necessarily 
aggravated the malady. 

This shows the mischievous effects of taking a 
wrong view of a case and of following the advice of 
every person one meets with. Many persons are ad- 
vised to death. Over-confident advice is the attendant 
of inexperience and ignorance. It is forgotten that un- 
paid advisers, being well themselves, do not endanger 
their own lives, in case their recommendations are in- 
efficient, if, indeed, not positively hurtful. Many are 
infatuated with vegetable remedies, taking it for granted 
that they can do no harm, even if they do no good ; 
forgetting that in many cases a loss of time is equiva- 
lent to a loss of life, and that the most virulent poisons 
to all nature — those which produce almost instan- 
taneous death— are of vegetable origin, such as nico- 
tine, prussic acid, and the like. 

I. Q,. H., married, aged forty-eight ; had a distress- 
ing cough, which, with a severe pain below the point 
of the right shoulder-blade, prevented any refreshing 
sleep. He arose every morning sweaty, haggard, and 
weary ; no appetite, and daily expectoration of large 
quantities of matter. He had fallen off forty-two 
pounds, and was greatly depressed. I informed him 
that his lungs were not diseased, and that there was 
no necessary obstacle to his recovery. His friends 
thought he became worse under my treatment, for at 
the end of four weeks he was confined to his bed day 
and night, with frequent rigors and flushes. The pain 
steadily increased, at times aggravated almost beyond 
endurance by a cough, which I thought nothing could 
safely control, and hence gave nothing for it. He 
thought he could not live unless speedily relieved ; his 
relative, a physician, came to remonstrate against my 
"holding out hopes of recovery to a man who was 
evidently sinking with Consumption." I informed the 
patient he was better ; that he would probably need no 
more medicine, and explained to him the reasons for 
such an opinion. In a few days his strength began to 
increase, and he walked out. He left the city soon 
afterwards, and now, at the end of three years, he is 
a hearty, healthy man, weighing upwards of two hun- 
dred pounds, having taken no medicine since he saw 
me. I considered his case to be one of great torpidity 
<Jf the fiver, with abscess, and treated it accordingly. 

The reader may see by this, how Important it is 
times to know that a case is not Consumption, and 
also the value of a steady resistance against ignorant 

(^July 23.) "Your lungs are not diseased, nor are 
they even impaired in their action. There is not only 
no Consumption in your case, but there is a less ten- 
dency that way than in most persons. You have hot 
merely lungs enough for the ordinary wants of the sys- 
tem, but a large amount in reserve. Your whole ali- 
ment is a dyspeptic condition, and there is no reason 
why a rational habit of life should not restore you to 
as good health as you have ever enjoyed, without any 
medicine whatever." 

He complained of pain in the breast, large expectora 
tion, voice sometimes husky, and a tightness across the 

(July 23.) " Your lungs at this time are not in a 
satisfactory condition, more than one-sixth of them 
being valueless to you. A portion at the top of the 
right breast has decayed away. Your case is one pre- 
senting all the ordinary symptoms of common Con- 
sumption. It will be altogether impossible for you to 
arrest the progress of your disease if you continue your 
present habits of business (printer). If you pursue an 
out-door calling, and acquire judicious habits of life, it 
is probable that your disease may be arrested, and that 
you may be restored to renewed health." 

J\Tote.-rA& he had a good appetite, was working daily 
at his trade, and did not feel very bad, he thought it 
not advisable to abandon his calling, and died in three 

(Nov. 8.) "Your lungs are whole, sound, and in 
full working order. There is at present no appearance 
of Consumptive disease. Your ailmehts arise wholly 
from general constitutional causes, and may be re- 
moved by proper and rational habits of life and con- 

Note. — He was not satisfied with my opinion ; was 
fully impressed with a belief that he was falling into 
decline,' and insisted upon repeated examination. H£ 
was a man of wealth, of fortunate social relation^ 
and very naturally dreaded death — too much so'for a 
man. He observed faithfully the directions given, no 
medicine was advised, and wrote in three months that 
he was as well as he ever was in his life ; his chief 
complaint was an " uneasy sensation about the"heart," 
and some ""trouble in the throat." 

(Nov. 9.) " Your lungs are not diseased materially 
at this time. They do not work fully, but there is no 
decay. Your ailment is Chronic Laryngitis, of a very 
dangerous and aggravated character. It is very doubt- 
ful whether you will get well. Something may be done 
for you by a rigid attention to all the directions given." 

Note.— He could not speak above a whisper ; swal- 
lowed food with great difficulty and pain. He re- 
mained under the treatment of his family physician, 
and died in seven weeks." 

(849.) " You are suffering under the combined in- 
fluence of dyspepsia and consumptive disease, and 
they mutually aggravate each other. One-fifth of 
your lungs are now useless to you. This is a very 
serious deficiency. The extent to which you may be 
benefited, can only be ascertained by attention to 
directions given. Your case is not hopeless, yet it is 
critical and of a very grave character." He died in 
five weeks. He could not or would not control his ap- 
petite, and the author ceased to prescribe, as is his 
practice when instructions are not implicitly followed. 

(Aug. 30.) " All your ailments arise from a want of 
natural proportion between exercise and eating. If 
these were properly regulated, you would get well 
without any other means, as the lungs are sound, 
healthy, and entire. You are too full of blood, and it 
is not healthful ; hence it does not flow freely, but 
gathers about the internal organs, oppressing them and 
giving rise to any number of ailments, constantly 
varying as to character and locality. Make less blood, 
and take more exercise, according to the printed in 
structions given you, and your return to good health 
will be speedy and permanent." 

She complained of pains and oppressions, particularly 
about the chest, tickling cough, &x. I heard no more 
of her for six months, when her husband, a Southern 
planter, called to express his satisfaction, and to say 
that she was in good health, and had been for some 

(Sep. 30.) " Your disease is common consumption of 
the lungs. It began at the top of the right breast, aad 


after making some ravages there, it ceased and attacked 
the left, which i» now in a state of continued decay. 
It may spontaneously cease on the left side, as it did on 
the right ; in that event, life would be preserved for the 
present. Without such an occurrence as just named, 
one-half of the lungs being useless to you, the consti- 
tution usually fails in six or eight weeks, and some 
times much sooner." She died in six weeks. 

Frail and feeble persons often outlive by half a 
lifetime the robust and the strong, because they 
feel compelled to take care of themselves, that is, 
to observe the causes of all their ill-feelings, and hab- 
itually and strenuously avoid them. Our climate is 
changeable, and in proportion unhealthful. In New 
York City, for example, during one week in December 
last, in which the thermometer ranged from five de- 
grees above Zero to fifty-five, there were forty-one 
deaths from inflammation of the lungs, while the 
ordinary number is about fifteen. The healthy 
disregard these changes to a great extent, and perish 
within a few days. The feeble are more sensitive to 
these changes ; they increase their clothing and their 
bedding with the cold, and with equal care diminish 
both, with the amount eaten, as the weather grows 
warmer, and thus long outlive their hardier neighbors. 
These precautions, with others, must all observe, 
through LiFfe, who have been cured of an affection 
of the throat or lungs. Let this never be forgotten, for 
the oftener you are re-attacked, the less recuperative 
energy is there in the system, and the less efficient will 
be the remedial means which once cured you, unless 
by months of continued attention and wise observances 
you give the parts a power and a strength they never 
had before. This can be done in many cases. 

But once cured, avoid the causes which first injured 
you. If you put your hand in the fire, you may re- 
store it, but however magical may be the remedy, that 
hand will be burned as often as it is placed in the fire, 
without any disparagement of the virtues of the resto- 
rative. No cure of your throat or lungs will render you 
invulnerable. What caused the disease in the first in- 
stance will continue to cause it as long as you are ex- 
posed to them. No promise is given you of perma- 
nence of cure longer than you are careful of your 
health. The safer plan by far will be to consider your- 
self peculiarly liable to the disease which once an- 
noyed you, and make proportionate endeavors. to guard 
yourself habitually against its advances. AH assu- 
rances that any mode of cure will afford you a 
guarantee against subsequent attacks, are deceptive. 
No medicine that any man can take in health will pro- 
tect him from disease There is no greater falsity than 
this, that if you are well, a particular remedy, or drink, 
or medicine, will fortify the system against any speci- 
fied disease, whether cholera, yellow fever, or any 
other malady. So far from this being so, it is precisely 
the reverse. Doubly so , you are thrown off your 
guard, and in addition you make the body more liable 
to the prevalent malady by poisoning the blood; for 
whatever is not wholesome food, is a poison to the sys- 
tem, pure water excepted. Nothing, therefore, will 
protect a healthy man from disease but a rational at- 
tention to diet, exercise, cleanliness, and a quiet mind ; 
all else will but the more predispose him to it. But 
when once diseased and then cured, these things are 
not sufficient to keep him well ; he must avoid what 
first made him an invalid, otherwise permanent health 
is not possible, but a speedy relapse and death are in- 
evitable, as to Throat-Ail, Bronchitis, and Consump- 


M. Landouville removed an enlarged tonsil in a 
woman, aged 21. In eight days she had uncontrollable 
spitting of blood, which was constant, besides vomiting 
a large quantity. Small pulse ; extremities cold. The 
danger was imminent. Various means had already 
been adopted in vain ; such as ice externally, styptics 
internally; then pressure with lint dipped in lemon 
/uice ; but it was at length controlled by pressing ice 
against the spot with forceps. (See Hays' Med. Jour., 
October, 1851.) Other cases are given in medical pub- 
lications ; they are not of frequent occurrence, but each 
one operated upon is liable to experience disagreeable 
results. An operation is seldom necessary— not one 
case in twenty. And as in the case above, the 
danger was Hot over for a week after the operation had 
been performed, others who ha** the tonsils taken out 

have cause for a lengthened and most unpleasant on* 

It must not be forgotten that Throat-Ail is in very 
many instances wholly unmanageable, and ends fatally, 
simply from its being thought lightly of, until it has 
produced such a state of general irritation throughout 
the system, that the constitutional stamina is exhaust- 
ed, and the pulse is habitually a fourth, or third, or 
even more, above the natural standard. Most gener- 
ally, such cases go on to a fatal termination, in spite of 
all modes of treatment. This is so uniformly the re- 
sult, that any certain benefit in such cases cannot be 
promised ; nor is it just that the general principles of 
treatment should suffer discredit from failure here ; 
they are admirably and uniformly successful when 
ever they are applied in the early stages of the disease 
It is to invoke prompt attention to the first and earliest 
symptoms of Throat-Ail, that pains have been taken 
in these pages to describe them plainly, clearly, and 

Notice. — The book from which the above 
is taken, entitled "Bronchitis and Kindred Dis- 
eases," 39*7 pages, 12mo, will be sent post-paid 
for $1.60. Also " Consumption," " Health 
and Disease," and "Sleep," all at the same 
price, by addressing as below. 






Colds cured, 
" avoided, 
" prevented, 

Corns cured, 



Coal fires, 













Feet Cold, 



Health essential, 

Health Preserved, 







Private Things, 



Sick headache, 

Sour Stomach, 





The above, with nearly two hundred and 
fifty health tracts in all, are comprised in the 
bound volume of Hall's Journal of Health. 
being volume twelve, sent post-paid for $2. 
Hall's Journal of Health for 1866 is issued 
monthly, for $1.50 a year, at No. 2 West Forty- 
third street, New- York, immediately in the 
rear of 464 Fifth avenue. All the Fifth ave- 
nue stages stop at the door ten minutes, and 
return down-town. Any person sending the 
names of five persons, who have never taken 
the Journal before, will have five copies sent 
to one address for $5. The Journal for 1866 
will be sent to any clergyman or student of 
divinity, at any theological seminary, for $1. 
The postage is twelve cents a year, to be paid 
to the postmaster who delivers it. Address, 
with name, town, county, and state, in plain 
Roman letters, 

No. 2 West 43d Street, Mew- York. 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. XIIL] AUGUST, 1866. [No. 8. 


Or " Falling Sickness," is the sudden loss of all consciousness, 
with, convulsions, foaming at the mouth, or livid face, with 
utter prostration of power and sense ; in a few minutes, the 
patient recovers, but without the slightest recollection of what 
has taken place. These attacks come on, apparently, as sudden 
and as unanticipated as a stroke of lightning in a clear sky. 
The original word means "to seize upon" — as at any time, in 
conversing with a friend, or seated at the table, or riding in a 
carriage, or sitting by the fire, and with every external appear- 
ance of perfect health, these "fits" come on with fearful 
contortions, with grinding of teeth, and uncontrollable action 
of every limb and muscle of the body. It is most generally 
an incurable disease of the brain, as a result of a scrofulous 
constitution. This epileptic condition, or susceptibility, may 
be in a person, but may never be brought out, never developed, 
because an exciting cause may never be applied — -just as powder 
will never explode unless a spark is applied. The object of 
this article is mainly to state some of the exciting causes of 
epilepsy, and thus prevent the development of so unfortunate a 
habit of body ; for its nature is such, that if it occurs but a few 
times, the habit is formed for a lifetime, or an exemption is pur- 
chased only at the price of an eternal and painful vigilance. 

The epileptic habit is nearly always set up in early child- 
hood, the most common causes being terror or sudden fright — 

174 HalVs Journal of Health. 

such as may be occasioned by some sudden noise, or the pre- 
sentation of some terrifying object. It is not always that the 
child survives the first fit, and pity is it that it ever should, for 
it is nothing short of a living crucifixion to a parent's heart to 
witness the terrible contortions which seem to rack, with unen- 
durable agony, every fibre of the innocent and uncomplaining 
sufferer — we say "seem," with an emphasis, for every circum- 
stance connected with an epileptic attack indicates, most unmis- 
takably, an utter unconsciousness of any bodily suffering. A 
child under three years of age was left in charge of a nurse, 
while the mother attended an evening party. On repairing to 
its little crib, on her return, to see that all was well — after the 
assurance of the maid, that it had been sleeping soundly, not 
having made " the slightest bit of a noise " — the eyes were 
glaring widely open, the whole features were stamped with an 
expression of vague and indescribable horror, and life was 
extinct. At the feet of the child had been placed a human 
skull, taken from a doctor's office table. 

Parents sometimes frighten their children for the. amusement 
of witnessing their gestures and exclamations : as to its repre- 
hensibility, we need make no remark. 

When an epileptic attack is repeated two, three, or four times, 
there is seldom any refuge short of the grave, the end being 
fatuity, or sudden death. Our greatest anxiety in this article 
is, to attract parental attention to the first attack; so that, by exer- 
cising a most untiring vigilance against the causes which may 
repeat it, they may prevent the establishment of the terrible 
habit, for a few years ; for after children enter their teens, the 
susceptibility of an attack is almost nothing. The cause next 
in frequency to terror and sudden alarm, is connected with the 
stomach, as eating some unaccustomed or indigestible article 
of food in large quantities. We once knew a beautiful boy of 
promise, under ten, who having, with some companions, got 
hold of some eggs, boiled them hard, and ate several, without 
anything else ; he died in convulsions, in a few hours. Often 
are our children on the verge of such results, by the inattention 
of parents to their feeding ; but they are relieved by spontaneous 
vomiting, bringing up a mass of sour, undigested food, perfectly 
nauseating — thus preventing fatal fever, or the more terrible 

Epilepsy. 175 

Bathing a child in cold water, soon after a hearty meal, is 
quite sufficient to bring on an epileptic attack in a scrofulous 

We were once called to an only child, about nine years old, 
in alarming convulsions, with incoherent utterances. He had 
eaten a hearty dinner, and from some childish freak, had followed 
it up with an enormous amount of table-salt. Nature would 
not vomit, but art gave instantaneous relief to an outraged 
stomach, and little Eichard was himself again. 

Eating largely of soggy bread, or of the sodden undercrust 
of a pie, or of pudding a little soured, may bring on an attack. 
When an epileptic habit is once established, our main attention 
must be directed to avoiding the causes of attack, and to the 
prevention of a threatened attack— waiting the meanwhile for 
one of those periods of life which are generally believed to make 
radical changes of constitution, either for better or worse ; the 
most decided of which are the few years including fourteen 
and forty-two. 

One man represents that he prevents attacks in his own case 
by an iron wedge, which he always carries about him : we 
should think a wooden one would answer the purpose, with 
greater convenience. As soon as he perceives a premonitory- 
symptom — different in different persons, but present in all, and 
which a close observation will soon learn — he introduces it into 
his mouth, so as to stretch it open to the utmost possible extent. 
The forcible distention, or extension, of any other muscle of the 
body would do the same thing — the pulling of a leg or arm, for 
example, but this requires the aid of another person; but as 
everybody is often alone, necessarily, it is important to have a 
remedy which the patient can apply himself promptly, and at 
all times. Let any reader, who is exempt from this affliction, 
stop a moment in affectionate gratitude to Him who ruleth over 
all, that such a lot is not his own. 

It has been said that a black silk handkerchief, thrown over 
the face while the fit is on, will bring the person " to " instantly. 
No person subject to these attacks should ever be allowed to be 
alone, or on horseback, or to walk along the banks of rivers, or 
in crowded streets, for obvious reasons. The attacks are some- 
times indefinitely postponed by the most vigilant attention to 

176 Hall's Journal of Health. 

diet. We personally know that this was the case with the great 
author of The Cause and Cure of Infidelity. 

While medicine has no power to cure epilepsy, it is very 
certain that grown persons can keep it in abeyance by the 
exercise of a close observation and a sound judgment — can, in 
other words, ward off an attack for a lifetime, by attention to 
two things : First, by avoiding, as to quantity and quality, the 
food which causes any kind of discomfort. Second, by regu- 
lating the system so as to have one full free action of the bowels 
every twenty-four hours. To look for restoration in any other 
direction is utterly hopeless. 

A gentleman who was afflicted for some time with epilepsy, 
and who writes, " I am now entirely recovered," adds : " While 
under the crushing effects of this disorder, I was nearly a worth- 
less specimen of humanity ; now, I am cured, and understand 
how to stay cured. I am as vigorous, energetic, and competent, 
as at any period of my life ; and the difference between the two 
conditions, upon the nervous and mental powers, is wonderful." 
Restoration was effected, in this case, by the application of the 
principles already suggested. 


The great mind and the vigorous constitution are so often 
united in the same person, that we are compelled to the conclu- 
sion that high physical health in earlier life is, as a general rule, 
the ground- work of mental power. Some of the most eminent 
men of the present century are men who, in earlier life, were 
exposed to great physical hardships, had to endure a great deal 
of hard work, and to pass through many trying self-denials. 
Thus it is that out of the " West "—that very " West " which, in 
the estimation of multitudes of Eastern minds, is the abode of 
people, who, in morals and manners, are at no very great remove 
from savageism — stars have arisen, and are rising, which so 
beautify the mental sky above us, as to cause us to inquire, 
What will the end of these things be? 

A correspondent of the Philadelphia Bulletin, writes of Rev. 
N. L. Rice, D. D. 

Menta I Developments. 177 

" He is, unquestionably, one of the ablest of living American 
divines. His preaching is compact and argumentative, yet 
singularly lucid and simple. His manner is easy and unassum- 
ing, yet remarkably earnest and impressive. As a debater, ho 
has few, if any, superiors in the land, as his celebrated discus- 
sions with Alexander Campbell, and various religious error- 
ists, have clearly shown." 

What the " Home Missionaries " had to encounter near 
half a century ago, is illustrated in the life of one who is now 
no more, as to the visible world around us : 

"In the western part of Yirginia was situated a log cabin, 
the chinks of which were daubed and filled with yellow mud. 
It had, perhaps, half a second story, where you could study 
astronomy without leaving bed, and adopt hydropathy without 
the aid of any doctor ; the kitchen serves as a breakfast and 
dining, a dressing and preaching-room. A number of hens 
with their chickens are taken in for safe-keeping. Amid the 
barking of dogs and noise, and after midnight, when all had 
retired to rest, stretched on his stomach, before the embers of 
the fire, which served for his midnight oil, he not only acquired 
a sufficient knowledge to prosecute his calling, but became 
master of several languages. He preached in one year four 
hundred times, travelled five thousand miles ; and at the end of 
that time his salary amounted to twelve dollars and ten cents ! 
That man was Henry B. Bascom, who was since raised to the 
Methodist Episcopacy, in which position he was an ornament 
to the Church." 

Not all the elegance of manner and high-bred courtesy in the 
world is found in the East ; for the most perfect pattern of a 
Christian gentleman within the last fifty years, was found in the 
person of the Eev. John C. Breckenridge, D. D., the uncle 
of Ex Vice-President of the United States, and the brother of 
the Modern John Knox, whose name, like that of Henry 
Clay, needs neither prefix nor affix to give it note, and whose 
fellow-citizen, and neighbor, and friend he was, Eobert J. 
Breckenridge ; and all these were il Western " men. 

Never in the history of the old " Tabernacle " of Broadway, 
did so many hundreds of disappointed men and women go 
away from its doors, for want of room, for many nights in 
succession, as when Nelson and Gallaher riveted the atten- 
tion of the motionless thousands who hung upon their lips — 
men these were, as giant in body as- in intellect, raised mainly 

178 HalVs Journal of Health. 

on corn, potatoes, and wild meats, in the mountain fastnesses of 
East Tennessee. 

And then there is another man, the playmate of our earliest 
youth, whose father wore the hunting-shirt of Daniel Boone, 
and walked in the moccasin of the wild Indian ; hardy as a pine- 
knot is he, and one of the most efficient clergyman of his faith. 
The " Presbyterian Quarterly Review" has an article by Dr. 
"Wilson, of Newark, which says of one of his sermons: " We 
sannot forbear to quote the noble peroration, it reminds one of 
the swell and march of Dr. Mason's Sermon on the Mediatorial 
Reign : he was born and lived in the West, until his heart is in 
sympathy with its vastness." But the East could not as well 
do without this Western man ; so the Eev. Thoenton A. Mills, 
D. D., conducts, in New York, one of the most important offices 
in his church. 

We write these things to show, that to be great, and to 
accomplish great things, to fill efficiently the most important 
places in the church and nation, vigorous bodily health seems 
almost indispensable. To all young men, then, who aim to 
do good on a large scale, we say most earnestly : Nurse your 
constitution with pious care, invigorate it; study to he well, as the 
necessary means of doing well, in the highest sense of the term. 


" December 1. 

"Dear Sir: — Will you be so generous as to send a specimen 
number of The Journal to one who, besides having been, for 
the last five years, the unfortunate victim of chronic rheumatism, 
has recently suffered with evident premonitions of a pulmonary 
character. I have long desired to avail myself of the valuable 
information furnished by The Journal, and indigence (being 
perpetually dependent upon the charity of my friends) has 
alone debarred me from that privilege. With a specimen num- 
ber, I think I shall be able to extend its circulation among the 
host of visitors (physicians included) who are constantly drawn 
to my bedside by a desire to witness my (perhaps) unparalleled 
condition. For several years, I have been stretched perfectly 
helpless upon my couch, every joint within me as rigid as 

Hair Specifics. 179 

though I were a mass of stone. My digestive organs are, how- 
ever, unimpaired, and my intellectual faculties as vigorous as 
ever ; and I am thus enabled, with the aid of a young sister as 
amanuensis, to instruct a small class of pupils, and to examine 
such medical works as I am enabled to procure, with a hope 
of gaining some information which may benefit my health. 

" Your reputation for philanthropy encourages me to make 
this request. Yery truly yours." 

* Chronic Eheumatism, as above, is always the result of the 
too sudden or long-continued cooling of the body, the fruit 
of ignorance or foolhardiness. While we admire the philoso- 
phical and uncomplaining spirit of our correspondent, and while 
we extend to him our high respect and warmest sympathies, 
and while we earnestly call upon the many who have a so much 
happier lot, because more healthful, to be duly grateful for that 
happier lot, we cannot but raise a high note of warning to all 
who can profit by it : Take care of your health while you 
are young! And further, to all parents who have any solicitude 
for the happiness of their offspring, when they themselves have 
passed away — Compel your children to take care of their health! 


Let them alone. The whole of them are a cheat. There is 
not one single exception under the sun. A "specific" in medi- 
cine, is a term which implies certainty of effect. Hair falls out 
from the want of nutriment. It dies, just as a blade of grass 
dies in a soil where there is no moisture. This want of nutri- 
ment is functional or organic. The mechanism which supplies 
it, the apparatus, is there to make it ; but it is out of order, and 
makes it imperfectly : so the hair being imperfectly nourished, is 
dry, scant, or a mere furze, according to the degree of the defec- 
tive nourishment — that is " Functional Baldness" and can be 
remedied radically and permanently in only one way, and that 
is, by taking means to improve the general health. 

''Organic" Baldness is when the defect of nutriment arises 
from the destruction of the apparatus which made it: there is 
no machine there. Under such circumstances, nothing short 
of the power which made man first, can make that hair grow 

180 HalVs Journal of Health. 

When the scalp is in any part bare of hair, and shiny, or 
glistening, that is organic baldness, and there is no remedy. If 
there is not that shining^glistening appearance, but a multitude 
of very small hairs, causing a "furziness" over the scalp, that 
is " functional " baldness ; and two things are to be done. Keep 
the scalp clean with soap-suds — that is a " balm of a thousand 
flowers," flavored ; and more specially, and principally, seek to 
improve your general health, by eating plain, substantial food, 
at three regular times a day, and by spending three or four 
hours, between meals, in moderate exercise in the open air, in 
some engrossing employment. 

As to men, we say, when the hair begins to fall out, the best 
plan is, to have it cut short, give it a good brushing with a 
moderately stiff brush, while the hair is dry, then wash it well 
with warm soap-suds, then rub into the scalp, about the roots 
of the hair, a little bay rum, or brandy, or camphor- water. Do 
these things twice a month, but the brushing of the scalp may 
be profitably done twice a week. Dampen the hair with water 
every time the toilet is made. Nothing ever made is better for 
the hair than pure soft water, if the scalp is kept clean in the 
way we have named. 

The use of oils, or pomatums, or grease of bears, pigs, geese, 
or anything else, is ruinous to the hair of man or woman. We 
consider it a filthy practice, almost universal though it be, for 
it gathers dust and dirt, and soils whatever it touches. Nothing 
but pure soft water should ever be allowed on the heads of our 
children. It is a different practice that robs our women of their 
most beautiful ornament, long before their prime. The hair 
of our daughters should be kept within two inches, until their 
twelfth year. 


About as many people kill themselves in England as in 
France, according to the population — three or four thousand a 
year. In a previous number, it was stated, that crime most 
abounded in summer-time in England ; and the same is the case 
as to suicide ; it is oftenest resorted to, not during the fogs of 
November and the piercing cold of mid-winter; it is in the 

Suicide. 181 

merry month of May> in flowering June, and in the glad sun- 
shine of July. Largely over three hundred court death in a 
summer month, while chill December does not give two hun- 
dred. It is one of the rarest of all occurrences to hear of a 
man's drowning himself in midwinter ; the very idea of being 
frozen to an icicle is repulsive ! 

It is a matter of considerable practical importance to ascertain 
the cause of the increase of crime and suicide at a season of the 
year when all Nature is so full of flowers, and sunshine, and 
gladness, for we would naturally suppose these were circum- 
stances calculated to increase our love of life. 

We believe that the question is fully and philosophically 
answered in one word: " Idleness." 

" For Satan finds some mischief still 
For idle hands to do," 

is as true now as when first sung by the immortal Isaac 

Men who have half a dozen irons in the fire, are not the ones 
to go crazy. It is the man of voluntary or compelled leisure 
who mopes, and pines, and thinks himself into the madhouse, 
or the grave. Motion is all Nature's law. Action is man's 
salvation, physical and mental. And yet, nine out of ten are 
wistfully looking forward to the coveted hour, when they shall 
have leisure to do nothing, or something, only if they feel like 
it — the very Siren that has lured to death many a " success- 
ful" man. 

He only is truly wise who lays himself out to work till life's 
latest hour, and that is the man who will live the longest, and 
will live to most purpose. 

As to the body, the summer heats relax, invite to physical 
inactivity and ease ; locomotion is an effort ; the mind itself 
participates in the inertia of the body, and both stagnate toge- 
ther. On the contrary, the sparkling frosts of winter rouse up 
our activities, the pulses bound with the fire of life, and we are 
ready, at a moment's notice, to do or dare anything ; we can 
scarce keep the body still ; motion is a luxury, while in summer- 
time it was a drag. The great practical lesson is, in proportion 
as you would avoid crime and madness, aim to hs fully employed, 
whether in summer or winter, in doing something which com- 
bines, in its highest extent, the useful and the good. 

182 HalVs Journal of Health. 


From Dixon's Scalpel. 

"A celebrated impostor, whom you have appropriately 
designated a vulture and a jackal, professes to cure consumption 
by inhalation, and boasts, through the New York press, that 
the deaths by consumption have materially decreased in that 
city, since he began to minister to the consumptives. Place no 
confidence in his vaunted magic. Search for the true cause. 
Find out what hygiene has done ; what a different course of 
treatment, generally, has effected ; what honest newspapers and 
health magazines have done, to assist in this diminution of 
death from consumption. Inquire whether the increased use 
of exercise and good food, and the decreasing fashion of cram- 
ming the sick with medicines, have not lent their aid. Tempo- 
rary relief is not a cure, though all such cases are counted cures 
by this unscrupulous character. The winds grow keen : do not 
let them drive you into the house. Dress warm. Take exer- 
cise, even at the risk of getting your nose frozen. Subscribe to 
some good Journal of Health, and follow its dictates, if you find 
them good ; expose any errors in their advice, if you find them, 
and trust to natural remedies above all quack and patent medi- 

From the Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, Ohio, for May. 

" The impostor referred to in the above lately made a visit to 
Cincinnati. He had a fine run, which lasted for several days. He 
succeeded in making some money, and, for a few days, in mak- 
ing his dupes believe that they were improving in health ; but 
suddenly, the effects of the powerful anodynes which he used 
subsided, and his patients could realize their true situation. 
Some complained, some demanded the return of their money 
others proclaimed publicly, and at the hotel, to all others who 
proposed to consult this celebrated impostor, that he was such. 
Then he received an important telegraphic dispatch, that -he 
must return to New York. So one morning, at the usual hour 
for opening his office, his patients found that he had gone." 

From HalVs Journal of Health, for 1856. 

" You want air, not physic ; you want pure air, not medicated 

Advice to Consumptives. 183 

air ; you want nutrition, such as plenty of meat and bread will 
give, and they alone. Physic has no nutriment. Gaspings for 
air cannot cure you. Monkey capers in a gymnasium cannot 
cure you. Stimulants cannot cure you. If you want to get 
well, go in for beef and out-door air, and do not be deluded into 
the grave by advertisements and unreliable certificates." 

We do not know who are the persons referred to in the papers 
above-named, and rather think that the " Eclectic " is mistaken 
in stating that any New Yorker has performed the part charged. 
It is so easy to get hold of the wrong end of a story in the papers, 
that we pay the slightest attention possible to such narrations ; 
the great practical fact to which we desire to direct the special 
attention of the reader is, that schools of medicine so wide apart 
as Allopathy and Eclecticism unite so cordially in sentiment as 
to the only efficient means of successfully treating consumptive 
disease, and that their theory of to-day, is identical with our 
own views, as published in our Journal ten years ago, and in 
our books, ten years before that. But the great difficulty is, not 
that consumption cannot be prevented, or permanently arrested, 
if already in progress ; it is rather found in the fact, that in this 
fast age, men want to get well in a minute, and patronize those 
-who most pander to their desires, and who blow their brazen 
trumpet with the loudest blast. Any practice that makes a 
man feel better soonest, is caught up with avidity and lauded to 
the skies, before time has been given to test the permanqncy of 
effect ; so by the time the falsehood is on its feet, and often before 
the ink is dry which recorded it, the victim is in the grave, and 
can never give the contradiction. 

But better, because more truthful sentiments, begin to prevail : 
human health is more a study ; and we trust the time is not far 
distant, when some publication, in the nature of this Journal, 
will be taken by every family in the land, as ought to have 
been the case long, long ago. 

Multitudes there are, especially of young people, who squan- 
der their money, and their more precious time, in the purchase 
of trashy reading, and mere animal indulgences, to end in pre- 
mature death ; whereas a dollar or two a year for this Journal 
and (The Scalpel, its profanities excepted, with a few hours a 
month spent in reading them, and putting their teachings in 
practice, would result in a healthful and genial old age. 

1S4 Hall's Journal of Health. 


" I thank you very much for the valuable counsel and im- 
proved health you have given me. I feel confident that most 
of the diseases to which clergymen are subject arise from their 
own imprudence, or perhaps ignorance. We attribute many 
of our ailings to the visitation of God's Providence, when we 
had better call them the visitations of our own folly. We pray 
for vigor and strength of body when we pursue a course of 
conduct which sets all the known and unknown laws of health 
at defiance. I believe that a vast amount of disease, save that 
which is hereditary, is. as much the fault of the patient as deli- 
rium tremens is the fault of the drunkard. I like your Jouknal 
and its motto. You ' labor for the good time coming/ you will 
die before it comes ; but your words, your principles, and influ- 
ence will work on, in unforgotten power. I feel so much better, 
I see no reason why I should not say perfectly well. I labor 
and study with delight — think I am the happiest man alive." 

It may add to the interest and value of this case, to observe 
further, that the writer was the efficient minister of an influen- 
tial people — was on the point of giving up his charge, either 
permanently, or for a tour to the continent of Europe; but writ- 
ing for our advice, we encouraged him to hold on, work hard, 
and get well, under the circumstances under which he expected 
to remain. The result of a month's treatment tells its own 
story. This is a good advertisement of our skill thus far,. but 
we choose to tell the whole story. We thought he was more 
scared than hurt, rather more desponding than the circum- 
stances of the case warranted ; for beyond a pill or two — whether 
of bread, assafcetida, or solidified aqua fortis, the deponent sayeth 
not — we sent him nothing but some good advice, which, in 
divers similar cases, did no good at all ; the difference being 
simply this, he had intelligence, self-denial, and decision. He 
had sense enough to be instructed as to the nature of his case, 
to appreciate the adaptation of the means proposed, and the 
moral courage to compel himself to the observance of those 
means ; hence he staid at home, stood his ground, worked hard, 
and got well. In our branch of medicine, we never could cure 
a soul, not a single soul, of that class of persons who know every 

Food Items. 185 

thing and more too. To get well of any chronic disease, of a 
serious character, and to remain cured, a man must be led to 
see the nature of his own case, the needs and requirements of 
his own constitution, and must have that force of character 
which compels compliance with those requisitions. As long as 
the world stands, the ignoramus and the animal will die before 
his time. Intelligent self-denial is the price of health and long 
life the world over : it never will be otherwise. 


Every hour's exposure to the light, after an Irish potato 
has been dug from where it grew, deteriorates its quality. 

Eggs, when put in water, will, if good, invariably swim with 
the large end upwards ; if not, they are bad. 

Mrs. Horace Mann has. written a book, entitled, Christianity 
in the Kitchen. 

Glass ware will be bright and clear if washed in cold water. 

White Beans, at a dollar a bushel, are a more profitable 
crop than wheat, at a dollar and a quarter a bushel ; and, at the 
same time, make one of the cheapest and most nutritious articles 
of food we can use. 

For preparing Pickles, cold vinegar should be used ; a small 
piece of alum in each jar makes them firm and crisp. 

Hominy, plain, cheap, healthful, and savory, if boiled one 
hour, and then enveloped with a blanket until cool, is said to 
be cooked as thoroughly as if boiled as usual, all day. 

Turnips are among the least nutritious of all food, nearly 
S ninety per cent being waste ; this bulk in the stomach satisfies 
hunger, while it affords very little nutriment ; and as an over- 
supply of nutriment, eating too much, kills three out of four 
prematurely, turnips are an advisable article of diet to those 
who like them, and experience no discomfort after eating them 
in moderation ; while the large amount of waste, by the disten- 
sion which it occasions, stimulates intestinal action, and thus 
tends to remove constipation. For these reasons, boiled turnips 
and brown bread should be largely used, if they agree with 
them, by invalids and sedentary persons. 

186 HalVs Journal of Health. 


" He is happy that finds a true friend in extremity ; but he 
is much more so, who finds not extremity whereby" to try his 

Many things read well, and, at first glance, strike us as 
beautifully true; but, on more mature reflection, we cannot 
but pronounce them to be as false as they are fair. Of these, 
the quotation above is one, for a higher than mortal authority 
says: "It is good for me that I have been afflicted." It is 
ordained that exaltation and humility, alternate joy and sorrow, 
shall checker as well as fructify the field of Christian life. And 
as to pecuniary reverses, high authority, as well as a correct 
observation, show us, " It is good for man that he bear the yoke 
in his youth." 

It is not less true in matters pertaining to human health. We 
read many things written by so-called " Reformers," which ap- 
pear " very reasonable ;" but their rationality vanishes into thin 
air, when put to the test of a severe scrutiny. The best advice 
we can give to our readers is: " Be shy of everything new." 
Stick to the old paths. But be sure that they are the old ones. 
The experience of ages is not to be slightly disregarded. We 
should be slow to abandon what our fathers before us have uni- 
formly found safe and good. If we do change at all, let it not 
be on the spur of the moment, but only after mature delibera- 
tion. The customs of a nation are the practical results of the 
combined observation of that nation in the course of generations, 
and, to a considerable extent, are founded on common-sense 
principles, are the best under the circumstances. Hence every 
man, however intelligent, should oppose a custom of the coun- 
try with great diffidence, and not without long and deep inves- 
tigation. It is for the lack of this, nine-tenths of our " Reform " 
movements pass to their original nothingness in a very brief 
space of time. One or two, especially, are en route to that 
destination, which it would not he proper now to mention. 

Games of Skill 187 


A correspondent asks : " What do you think of Games of 
Skill, as Chess, Draughts, or Chequers?" Not understanding 
such games, our opinion may be of little worth ; but we think 
that human life is too short, its true work too large, and its 
real object too momentous, to be frittered away with such 
tom-fooleries. So much for the moral of the subject. As 
to the mental effects of such employments, they certainly 
promote habits of deliberation and thoughtfulness, and very 
important characteristics are they, in this hurry-skurry, helter- 
skelter, neck-or-nothing age. But far higher purposes would 
be attained by an equal time spent in the demonstration of some 
of the problems of Euclid, because they compel the mind to 
attention, to thoughtfulness, and to habits of legitimate deduc- 
tions, the want of which is one of the most radical defects of 
modern education, and one of the most constant causes of mak- 
ing life a failure. 

As to the physical tendency of spending hours together, 
bending over the table, with that insufficient and imperfect 
breathing which attends an interested mind, any one's common 
sense will give the answer, that such pastimes are full of mis- 
chief, are worse than useless. To all we say, and to invalids 
and sedentary people especially, when not engaged in the actual 
and serious business of life, be out and about; sing, whistle, 
laugh, romp, run, jump, swim, row, ride, do anything, rather 
than sit still within any four walls, or lounge on a sofa, or doze 
in a chair, or sleep over a dull book. Moderate and continuous 
exercise in the open air is without a second, as a means of 
health, both to the well and to the sick. 

A lady subscriber, from the sunny South, with forty years 5 
housekeeping experience, says, that the best vinegar is made by 
allowing a barrel of cider to remain in a cool place for a year 
or two, and that, after that time, it grows stronger with age. 
But to a New Yorker, who would have to give a dollar a gallon 
for real cider, when he can get a gallon of good vinegar for 
twenty cents, this would be a losing transaction — to say nothing 
of the "interest on his money:" and not to get that, would kill a 
Gothamite sooner than the dyspepsia. 

188 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Many a man has confessed under the gallows, that his down- 
ward progress began with misspent Sabbaths. Upon investiga- 
tion, it will be often found, that the first steps taken were in what 
many call "innocent recreations," taking a drive, wandering in 
fields, loiterings by the river side, or visiting neighbors. 

At home, or at church, are the places for spending the hours 
of the sacred day ; especially is it the way of safety for young 
people — safety from the grog-shop, the engine-house, and the 
chambers of her whose ways go down to death : and how much 
of bodily disease are traceable directly to these three places, to 
say nothing of moral corruptions, any city physician, of even 
moderate practice, has daily cognizance. 

One of the ways of saving persons from these calamities is, to 
offer facilities for spending at least some of the hours of the 
Sabbath in religious worship. To make this practical in a 
single point of view, we state an experience of our own within 
a month : The afternoon service by our own minister being 
necessarily omitted, we went to the next church in the same 
street at the usual hour of half past three o'clock. The bell 
was ringing, the church doors were open, but beyond one old 
lady taking her seat, there was not a living creature to be seen. 
The bell tolled on. In the course of a quarter of an hour single 
individuals began to drop in. We made inquiries of several as 
to the hour of service ; we had asked near a dozen persons, not 
one of whom knew anything. The questions came pouring in 
upon us : Who preaches here ? Is there any service this after- 
noon? What time does church call? Is this an Episcopal 
Church? Soon there was a crowd of well-dressed men and 
women standing about the door, looking in, and looking around. 
At last, persons began to come, who, by their direct passing on, 
seemed to be at home ; but neither volunteering information or 
a seat to any of the standing company ; the crowd increased, 
and the bell tolled on. As near half an hour is a long time for 
a professional man in a large city to stand with his finger in his 
mouth, we concluded we would pass onto some more hospitable 
vestibule, and visited two churches in succession, both of -which 
were closed, to wit, on the third day of May. 

Sabbath Days. 189 

The derelict church occupied a frontage of some two hundred 
feet on Fifth Avenue. 

The practical thought occurred to us as the people came and 
went away, that for the sum of two dollars, a neat frame might 
have been placed against the wall in the vestibule, stating, first, 
the hours of service, and then designating some portion of the 
building where strangers might seat themselves, without waiting 
for the sexton to get through his half hour's bell-tolling. 

We might further suggest, that a "lot " be sold off, the interest 
on the proceeds of which should be appropriated annually to 
the hire of two active young men, whose business it should be, 
while the sexton was tugging at the bell-rope, to answer the 
inquiries of strangers, and courteously show seats to such as 
wanted them. We may also add, and that too from our own 
experience as a world's traveller, our conviction of the great 
convenience it would be to travellers to see in the hotels a 
kind of church directory, in a neat frame, near the clerk's desk 
or registry-book, stating where, and at what hours and days, 
religious worship was held. Each of the half dozen principal 
denominations could have a separate column, all in a frame of 
a single square foot. We once walked the streets of London 
for a full hour on a beautiful Sunday morning in search of a 
Methodist or Presbyterian congregation, asked every police- 
officer we saw, without accomplishing our object. 

We know very well, that in any of our large cities, there is 
not a night or a Sabbath day which does not find many strangers 
who would very gladly avail themselves of the opportunity of 
listening to some favorite or celebrated clergyman, if they knew 
where and when to go. Inexperienced persons may say: "It is 
easy to ask the clerk." That might answer in a small town; but 
in a city, it would be a hopeless work. In our large hotels, espe- 
cially in Broadway, there is only one question that is either defi- 
nitely, courteously, or correctly answered ; and that is, the amount 
of your bill. New York physicians know, by experience, the 
difficulty of finding a person who has sent for them profession- 
ally. The flash hotel of Broadway, where people from the 
country will " put up " at, for the sake of " having it said " they 
stopped there, is notorious for this inattention. We have no 
idea that there is any malice in it, but simply indifference ; they 
know nobody, except by the number of the room occupied ; 

190 HalVs Journal of Health. 

General Scott is number " twenty," and Tom Thumb is number 
" twenty-two," and he is most regarded who has the most 
extras. These things ought not to be, but they are ; and we 
adduce them as illustrations of the policy of having a church 
directory in an ornamental frame, hung up in each of the pro- 
minent hotels of our cities. We believe its practical effect 
would be to save many persons, in the course of a year, from 
falling into temptation and a snare, and disreputable disease. 


Walking along the streets with the point of an umbrella 
sticking out behind, under the arm, or over the shoulder. By 
suddenly stopping to speak to a friend, or other cause, a person 
walking in the rear had his brain penetrated through the eye, 
in one of our streets, and died in a few days. 

Stepping into a church aisle, after dismission, and standing 
to converse with others, or to allow occupants of the same pew 
to pass out and before, for the courtesy of precedence, at the 
expense of a greater boorishness to those behind. 

To carry a long pencil in vest or outside coat-pocket ; not 
long since, a clerk in New York fell, and the long cedar pencil 
so pierced an important artery, that it had to be cut down upon 
from the top of the shoulder, to prevent his bleeding to death, 
with a three-months' illness. 

To take exercise or walk for the health, when every step is 
a drag, and instinct urges to repose. 

To guzzle down glass after glass of cold water, on getting up 
in the morning, without any feeling of thirst, under the impression 
of the health-giving nature of its washing-out qualities. 

To sit down to a table and "force" yourself to eat when 
there is not only no appetite, but a positive aversion to food. 

To take a glass of soda, or toddy, or sangaree, or mint drops, 
on a summer day, under the belief that it is safer and better 
than a glass of cold water. 

-To economize time, by robbing yourself of necessary sleep, 
on the ground that an hour saved from sleep is an hour gained 
for life, when in reality it is two hours actually lost, and half a 
dozen other hours actually spoiled. 

Comfort 191 

To persuade yourself that you are destroying one unpleasant 
odor by introducing a stronger one, that is, attempting to 
sweeten your own unwashed garments and person, by envelop- 
ing yourself in the fumes of musk, eau de cologne, or rose- 
water : the best perfume being, a clean skin and well-washed 


The great end and aim of the mass of mankind is, to get 
money enough ahead to make them ''comfortable;" and yet, a 
moment's reflection will convince us that money can never 
purchase "comfort" — only the means of it. A man maybe 
11 comfortable" without a dollar; but to be so, he must have the 
right disposition, that is, a heart and a mind in the right place. 
There are some persons who are lively, and cheerful, and good- 
natured, kind and forbearing in a state of poverty, which leans 
upon the toil of to-day for to-night's supper, and the morning's 
breakfast. Such a disposition would exhibit the same loving 
qualities in a palace, or on a throne. 

Every day we meet with persons, who in their families are 
cross, ill-natured, dissatisfied, finding fault with everybody and 
everything, whose first greeting in the breakfast-room is a 
complaint, whose conversation seldom fails to end in an enum- 
eration of difficulties and hardships, whose last word at night 
is an angry growl. If you can get such persons to reason on 
the subject, they will acknowledge that there is some " want " 
at the bottom of it; the " want " of a better house, a finer dress, 
a more handsome equipage, a more dutiful child, a more provi- 
dent husband, a more cleanly, or systematic, or domestic wife. 
At one time it is a " wretched cook," which stands between 
them and the sun ; or a lazy house-servant, or an impertinent 
carriage-driver. The "want" of more money than Providence 
has thought proper to bestow, will be found to embrace all 
these things. Such persons may feel assured that, People who 
cannot make themselves really comfortable in any one set of ordinary 
circumstances , would not be so under any other. A man who has 
a canker eating out his heart, will carry it with him wherever 
he goes; and if it be a spiritual canker, whether of envy, 

192 HalVs Journal of Health. 

habitual discontent, unbridled ill-nature, it would go with tho 
gold, and rust out all its brightness. Whatever a man is to-day 
with a last dollar, he will be radically, essentially, to-morrow 
with millions, unless the heart is changed. Stop, reader, that 
is not the whole truth, for the whole truth has something 
of the terrible in it. Whatever of an undesirable disposition a 
man has to-day without money, he will have to-morrow to an 
exaggerated extent, unless the heart be changed : the miser 
will become more miserly ; the drunkard, more drunken ; the 
debauchee, more debauched ; the fretful, still more complaining. 
Hence, the striking wisdom of the Scripture injunction, that all 
our ambitions should begin with this: " Seek first the kingdom 
of God and his righteousness ;" that is to say, if you are not 
comfortable, not happy now, under the circumstances which 
surround you, and wish to be more comfortable, more happy, 
your first step should be to seek a change of heart, of disposition, 
and then the other things will follow — without the greater 
wealth! And having the moral comfort, bodily comfort, 
bodily health will follow apace, to the extent of your using 
rational means. Bodily comfort, or health, and mental comfort 
have on one another the most powerful reactions ; neither can 
be perfect without the other, at least, approximates to it ; in 
short — Cultivate health and a good heart ; for with these 
you may be u comfortable " without a farthing : without them, 
never ! — although you may possess millions ! 


Scientific investigation assures us, that " the amount of 
nourishment required by an animal for its support must be in 
a direct ratio with the quantity of oxygen taken into the system ;" 
which, being put into homely English, means, that as our supply 
of oxygen comes from the air we breathe, it follows, that the 
more pure air we inhale, the more oxygen we consume ; it then 
follows, necessarily, as out-door air is the purest, that is, has 
most oxygen in it, the more we breathe of that out-door air, the 
more nourishment do we require ; and the more nourishment a 
man requires, the better appetite he has : hence, to get a natural 
appetite, a man must go out of doors ; and as it is very tiresome 

Eating by Rule. 193 

to be out of doors, unless one is doing something, and, as if we 
do something, it had better be of some account, therefore, who- 
ever wants to whet up his appetite, had better spend his time 
out of doors, doing something useful. A very perspicacious 
ratiocination ! 

All this seems very rational and very right. Then why do 
we not act up to it? Why pursue the very opposite course, 
and instead of going out of doors when we feel dull, and stupid, 
and cross, and desponding, loll about the house, as blue as 
indigo, with not a word or smile for anybody? Having no 
appetite, we bethink ourselves of " tonics." The reckless take 
wine, or brandy, or vulgar beer ; the conscientious do worse, 
and take physic, calling it " bitters," tansy, dogwood, quinine, 
and such " simple things" 'specially the quinine, which has 
helped to invalid and kill more people than would make a 
monument sky-high. 

Well, what is the result of these " tonics?" They make us 
feel better— for a while — give us an appetite for more than we can 
digest, and being imperfectly digested, the blood which it makes 
is not only imperfect as to quality, it is too great in quantity; but 
it is in the body, and must crowd itself somewhere, always select- 
ing the weaker part, which, in most cases, is the head ! — very 
natural that — and there is headache, dullness — never was much' 
brightness in that head anyhow — in fact, it amounts to stupidity, 
and such persons being naturally stupid, and making themselves 
artificially so, they have a double right to the title: as the youth 
had to a diploma, who graduated <at two colleges, and became 
as the calf did which sucked two cows — a very great calf! 

Therefore, never eat by rule. Never eat at one meal as 
much as you did at the corresponding one the day before, 
simply because that was your usual quantity ; but. eat according 
to your appetite. If you have no appetite, eat nothing until 
you do. If you are in a hurry for that appetite, and time is 
valuable to you, do not attempt to whet it up by stimulating 
food, by exciting drinks, or forcing tonics, but bring it about 
in a natural way, by moderate and continuous exercise in the 
open air, in something that is interesting, exciting, and in 
itself useful. Violent spasmodic exercise is injurious, and even 
dangerous to sedentary persons. Hence, we are opposed to 
gymnasiums^ unless superintended by intelligent men, practical 

194 HalVs Journal of Health. 

physiologists. Let it be remembered, as a truth which cannot 
be denied, that a given amount of violent exercise taken within 
an hour will do many times the good, if scattered continuously 
over a space of five hours, without any of the danger that per- 
tains to the former, especially as to feeble persons. All exercise 
carried to severe fatigue, is an injury ; better have taken none. 


Milton's blindness was the result of over-work and dys- 

One of the most eminent American divines has, for some 
time, been compelled to forego the pleasure of reading, has spent 
thousands of dollars in vain, and lost years of time, in conse- 
quence of getting up several hours before day, and studying by 
artificial light. His eyes will never get well. 

Multitudes of men and women have made their eyes weak 
for life, by the too free use of the eyesight in reading small 
print, and doing fine sewing. In view of these things, it is well 
to observe the following rules in the use of the eyes. 

Avoid all sudden changes between light and darkness. 

Never begin to read, or write, or sew, for several minutes 
after coming from darkness to a bright light. 

Never read by twilight, or moonlight, or of a very cloudy 

Never read or sew directly in front of the light, or window, 
or door. 

It is best to have the light fall from above, obliquely over 
the left shoulder. 

Never sleep so that, on first awaking, the eyes shall open on 
the light of a window. 

Do not use the eyesight by light so scant, that it requires an 
effort to discriminate. 

Too much light creates a glare, and pains and confuses the 
sight. The moment you are sensible of an effort to distinguish, 
that moment cease, and take a walk or ride. 

As the sky is blue and the earth green, it would seem that 
the ceiling should be of a bluish tinge, and the carpet green, 
and walls of some mellow tint. 

Disinfectants. 195 

The moment you are instinctively prompted to rub the ey£s, 
that moment cease using them. 

If the eyelids are glued together on waking up, do not forcibly 
open them ; but apply the saliva with the finger — it is the speed- 
iest diluent in the world — then wash eyes and face in warm 


Some one says that noxious effluvia are absorbed in an incre- 
dibly short space of time, if two or three onions are cut in thin 
slices, and put on a plate, to be renewed every six hours. This 
is just as true as that the smarting from the scratch of a pin 
becomes instantaneously unfelt, if the person is knocked down. 
The only safe, healthful, and effectual method of keeping a sick- 
room " sweet " is, to keep everything scrupulously dry and clean ; 
instantly remove every article of clothing or bedding which has 
an atom of dampness or moisture upon it, do not allow even 
pure water to stand a moment in the apartment, let the fireplace 
be always kept open, with a frequent and free admission of 
the pure and the fresh air from out doors. This should be 
done every two or three hours during the twenty-four. It is 
the pure air that sick people want, not an atmosphere loaded 
with the fumes of onions, for in a pint of air they displace just 
as many particles of fresh air as would burnt sugar, cologne- 
water, or the sulphureted hydrogen of the privy ; for, be it 
remembered, it is not the odor which does the mischief, so much 
as the deficiency of nutritious particles of the atmosphere which 
it takes the place of. We should rather think, that every addi- 
tional odoriferous article introduced into a sick-room only added 
to the difficulty, even though it were the perfumes from "Araby 
the Blest." The greatest humanity we can show to the sick is, to 
secure to them the most important remedies ever known, to wit, 
quietness, cleanliness, and pure air: these alone would cure 
three-fourths of all our diseases, but we will not use them ; yet 
they are everywhere attainable, and cost nothing but a little 
trouble. With the same physicians and the same medicines, 
the mortality of the British army in the Crimea was diminished 
one-half, through the influence of Florence Nightingale, in 
the procurement of greater comfort and cleanliness among the 

198 Hall's Journal of Health. 


Is a very common disease in Summer-time. Cholera is nothing 
more than exaggerated diarrhoea. When a man has died of 
diarrhoea, he has died of cholera, in reality. It may be well 
for travellers to know, that the first, the most important, and 
the most indispensable item in the arrest and cure of looseness 
of the bowels, is absolute quietude on a bed ; Nature herself 
always prompts this, by disinclining us to locomotion. The 
next thing is, to eat nothing but common rice, parched like 
coffee, and then boiled, and taken with a little salt and butter. 
Drink little or no liquid of any kind. Bits of ice may be 
eaten and swallowed at will. Every step taken in diarrhoea, 
every spoonful of liquid, only aggravate the disease. If loco- 
mo-tion is compulsory, the misfortune of the necessity may be 
lessened, by having a stout piece of woollen flannel bound 
tightly round the abdomen, so as to be doubled in front, and' 
kept well in its place. In the practice of many years, we have 
never failed to notice a gratifying result to follow these observ- 


In freezing Winter-time. Do it in a hurry, if there is no fire in 
the room ; and there ought not to be, unless you are quite 
an invalid. 

But if a person is not in good health, it is best to undress by 
a good fire; warm and dry the feet well; draw on the 
stockings again ; run into a room without fire ; jump into bed, 
cuddle up, with head and ears under cover for a minute or 
more, until you feel a little warmth ; then uncover your head ; 
next, draw off your stockings, straighten out, turn over on 
your right side, and go to sleep. 

If a sense of chilliness comes over you on getting into bed, it 
always will do an injury; and its repetition increases the ill 
effects, without having any tendency to " harden" you. Nature 
abhors violence. We are never shocked into health. Hard 
usage makes no garment last longer. 


N OTICES, &c. 

Change. — By having a white paper cover to the Journal of 
Health, a better quality of material and a larger amount of read- 
ing matter can be given, without any additional expense to our 
subscribers ; hence it is hoped none will object to the change. 

Our Daughters' Schooling. — The sisters Bucknali have re- 
tired from the more arduous labors of a large school for young 
ladies in New York city, and have removed to their beautiful 
country seat near New Brunswick; where, not abandoning a 
field altogether, in which for so many years they successfully la- 
bored, they will still continue to give instruction to a select few ; 
this will be interesting intelligence to their patrons and scholars, 
which latter, after entering married life, have repeatedly come 
to their former teachers for the express purpose of assuring them 
how much they appreciated their fidelity and conscientious and 
untiring efforts to make their moral and literary education what 
it ought to be, and which they more highly valued now, than 
when they stood in the relation of pupils and teachers. This 
simple fact of itself tells volumes in just praise of these admira- 
ble and able instructors of so many of the daughters of New 

Being in the midst of a farming region of great fertility, the 
necessary expenses of boarding are lessened, while its known 
salubrity, the social surroundings, the many churches, the flour- 
ishing Theological Seminary, and the accessibility to New York 
and Philadelphia by Eail, many times a day, all make New Bruns- 
wick one of the very best locations in the Union for the proper 
education of our daughters. 

The American Tract Society, 150 Nassau St., New York, 
have issued " Leaves of Life," being striking facts illustrative 
of select passages from the Bible ; a class of books which ought 
to be multiplied by millions and thrown broadcast over the land ; 
for whatever tends to impress the minds of the young as to the 
meaning of Scripture, its truth, and its divine origin, helps to 
benefit and bless the. race; and thrice happy are they individ- 
ually, who can lean trustingly upon every Bible statement, 
and feed upon it, and feel assured always that " it is a faithful 
saying and worthy of all acceptation/' — Of a similar nature 
is " Food for Lambs." 

An instructive narration for the youug is " Lyttonville j or, the 
Irish Boy in Canada; " — showing how beautiful it is to return 
good for evil. 

Messrs. J. G. Broughton and Wyman of the American Tract 
Society, 13 Bible House, New York, and 28 Cornhill, Boston, 
have issued "A Word to Sabbath-School Teachers," urging them 
to more diligent attention to their work : to throw into it more 


prayer and a more intense looking- for present results. tl Ten 

Helps to Joy and Peace ; " also, " Bible Sketches, and their Teach- 

The Cross in the Cell. — In regard to this book, by Eev. N. 
Adams, D. J)., of Boston, which is desigued as a guide to inqui- 
rers, an eminent divine and experienced pastor says : 

" I am filled with sincere delight by the book. I know of no 
work uninspired in which the gospel is preached more skillfully, 
plainly, and affectionately. It is 'Baxter's Call,' ' James's Anx- 
ious Inquirer,' etc., only better than any of them. It is the best 
book 1 know of to put into the hands of any one — judge or cul- 
prit, old or young- — when one wishes to teach ' more perfectly 
in this way/ It has all the charm of a story and all the power 
of the pulpit." 

— Last evening a lady admirer of the Journal forwarded the 
following scrap from an unnamed newspaper, and this morning 
another came from California. 

" Sleeping Together. — Hall's Journal of Health, which claims 
to be the highest authority in medical science, has taken a stand 
against married people sleeping together, and thinks they had 
better sleep in adjoining rooms. It says kings and queens never 
sleep together, and why should other people ? Think of sepera- 
ting a newly married pair on a cold winter's night, because Hall's 
Journal of Health said so ! 

% ' We suppose the reason that Mr. Hall has taken the standthat 
he has, is because he has studied the science of medicine so much 
in his }^oung days, as to become round shouldered, and so much 
deformed otherwise as to prevent the fair sex from admiring him 
very much. If he is not deformed in his body, he certainly is in 
his head. Just think of it ! Our wife going to bed in one room 
and us in another, especially when the rats are as bad as they 
are at our house. Mr. Hall can just go any where he pleases, pro- 
vided he has the wherewith to pay his fare, but we'll snooze with 
our wife as long as we've got one. 

" A good many people sleep together in these parts, who ought 
not even to sleep iu adjoining rooms; but Hall's Jonrnal of Heal- 
th is'nt sufficiently popular to break up the practice." 

To all of which we have only to say, we are straight as a ram- 
rod, as lively as a cricket and as brisk as a bee ; our poll is as 
black as a big tom-cat in the dark ; we have no bricks in the hat 
but have some rocks in the pocket ; and as to this sleeping busi- 
ness, we think we are in the right. What's the use of having one 
v ife or a husband, if you are fast asleep ? We do not object to the 
idiosyncrosies of our critical young friend'; this is a free country, 
but as for ourselves, we rather prefer being wide awake when 
things are going on, and if any one can sleep under the circum- 
stances it is because he's "no account.'* 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. XIIL] SEPTEMBER, 1866. [No.9 


In returning from " The Springs," the Sea-side, and other 
places of resort during the heats of summer, many families have 
noticed in the autumual and winter months that more or less of 
the members, especially the children, are quite unwell at times. 
In a day or two they get better only to feel worse again, and 
this annoying process continues till the cold weather has steadi- 
ly set in. come persons are regularly " ailing " at intervals of 
days or weeks. The name given to this form of sickness by 
common people is " the creeps," as the symptoms come on with 
a chilly sensation of the hands and feet, or along the back, ex- 
tending generally over the whole body, when there is sometimes 
a general shiver or shake — to be followed by a fever during 
the afternoon and going off with a perspiration during the night. 
In the Western country this is a process which the person attacked 
has to go through every twenty-four hours for weeks and months ; 
to be resumed the next year, and the next, until in five or ten 
or more years, the constitution becomes hardened to it or it 
wears itself out, provided the unhappy patient does not, in the 
meantime, take a bad cold and become consumptive, or die more 
summarily of some more active malady. 

There is scarcely a locality within thirty miles of New York 
where families can remain until the first of Autumn without 
having the seeds of this hateful malady sown in the system, to 
fructify on their return home and thus do away with all the 

200 UaWs Journal of Health. 

good effects of a summer's sojourn in the country. It is not at 
all likely that this state of things will materially alter in this 
generation, for the laws of nature are uniform ; but it is desir- 
able to interpose some means of fortifying the system against 
these attacks by scientific appliances. This is certainly demon- 
strable and possible ; but to do so satisfactorily, it is necessary 
to understand the whole subject, which may be made exceed- 
ingly interesting and is a matter of personal concern to every 
one who is in the habit of " going to the country" in the sum- 
mer time. To have the enjoyment of such a pleasant sojourn 
constantly clouded with the apprehension of the discomforts of 
having the *' creeps " for an indefinite time on returning to 
town, is certainly not a pleasant contemplation. 

The cause of fever and ague is " miasma, " the meaning of 
which word is emenation, a * rising from,' as it is supposed to come 
up from the surface of the earth and impregnate the atmosphere, 
which being breathed into the lungs is taken a few seconds la- 
ter into the circulation, being intimately mixed with the blood 
and poisons it, causing it to be thick, sluggish, black and impure. 
In some situations this miasma is so concentrated, saturating the 
atmosphere, as it were, consequently thickening the blood more 
rapidly and to such an extent that it flows at first slowly and 
,at length scarcely moves at all at the extremities, and cir- 
culates perceptably only about the heart; and as the blood be- 
gins to die the instant it ceases to move, the limbs grow cold, 
s tho veins are distended, the fire of life goes out and the man 
dies^of congestive fever. Some have been known to die in the 
chill of fever and ague, although generally, fever and ague is 
• not considered any more dangerous than the tooth-ache ; hence 
in both cases the unfortunate victim has very little of the sym- 
I pathy of those around him. 

The substance of miasma has been considered etherial, as the 
, atmosphere of a miasmatic locality upon chemical analysis, made 
by different experts and in the most careful manner, has not 
been found to contain any ingredients, hitherto, which did not 
belong to a pure and healthful atmosphere. Still, although the 
miasma could not be detected, it was known to be an entity, 
an actual thing, and men had to be content with studying its 
nature, and its effects, and its laws, by observation on its modes 
of action, then recording the facts observed and deducing the 
laws of its action therefrom. The first name given to it was 
"marsh miasm," because ..the effects were observed in the most 

Fever and Ague, 20 1 

marked manner in the neighborhood of marshes, of low flat 
damp lands where vegetation was rank. 

It was next observed that the sickness arising from marsh 
miasm did not occur in cold weather ; another step forward was 
then made, that miasm was peculiar to damp soils, and that heat 
was necessary for its production. But the effects of miasm were 
not observed on the sea-shore, although there was dampness 
and heat and a flat surface. The reason must be because it was 
sandy ; there was no vegetation, hence another element was es- 
sential to miasm. There must not only be dampness and heat 
but there must be vegetation, and when it was later observed 
that miasmatic diseases were more general and malignant in the 
Fall of the year, and that was the season when vegetation 
be<;an to decay and die and decompose, the concatenation was 
complete and the full idea was expressed in the proposition : — - 
Malaria is an emenation from decaying vegetation in warm wea- 
ther, bence miasm was caused by vegetable decomposition — 
such decomposition requiring moisture and heat. 

So much for the nature and cause of miasm. Its effects were 
from time to time noticed as originating in man, diarrhoea 
dysentery, and all forms of fevers. Its laws of action were 
next investigated, observation proved it milder in the Spring, 
more malignant in the Autumn. There was vegetation enough 
in the Spring and moisture enough, but not sufficient heat in our 
latitude to cause vegetable decomposition. 

It was next observed that persons exposed in miasmatic local- 
ities in the night, suffered more than those exposed in the day- 
time. For fifty years previous to the discovery of gold in Cal- 
ifornia it was known among the commanders of vessels that sai- 
lors might go ashore in certain tropical climes in the day-time, 
but to pass a night on shore was certain death. The more 
intelligent adventurers who first went to California via the Is- 
thmus of Panama made practical use of this fact, and began the 
passage early in the day so as to get to the higher points of land 
before night came on. The immediate cause of the fatal attack 
of illness to Bishop Potter in his visit to California was inatten- 
tion to this fact, for he left the ship to perform a marriage ceri- 
mony, remained on shore during the night, was soon attacked 
with a new form of di§easc and lived just long enough to land 
at San Francisco. 

Old Charleston merchants will remember that while it was 
considered death for them to sleep in the city during the sum- 

202 Hall's Journal of Health. 

mer for a single night, habitually rode into the city to transact 
business in the middle of the day. Twenty years ago the door- 
ways and steps of public buildings in Rome were crowded with 
sleepers in harvest-time. They were the men who worked in 
the Pontine marshes during the day-time; they knew it was 
death to sleep there at night. 

Without narrating each particular step in the discovery of 
the additional laws of miasm, suffice it to say that in ordinary 
localities the effects of miasm were found to be more decided in 
the hours including sun-rise and sun-set, and that at other 
times it was almost innoxious. It was very natural then to en- 
quire why was it most hurtful at sun-rise and sun-set to remain 
in a miasmatic locality ? It must be because it was most concen- 
trated at that time ; there was more of it in a given amount of 
air breathed into the lungs. Cold condenses all atmospheres ; 
heat ranges, expands and sends upward. The heat of the day 
generated the miasm from the damp decaying vegetation and it 
rose rapidly towards the clouds ; but when the sun began to de- 
cline the atmosphere became cooler, more heavy, fell towards 
the surface and settled within a few feet of it , that layer 
next the earth being most malignant, and every foot higher the 
less so. It is known that when a traveler with a dog entered 
the Grotto del Cano, the dog died while the owner remained un- 
injured, he being several feet higher, the gas causing death to 
the dog being so much more concentrated $Mn on the ground. 
It is known that a man lying down in a poppy-field will die be- 
fore the morning, at certain seasons ; but if he works in it, his 
standing up enables him to breathe a less compact layer of air. 
At sun-rise the atmosphere begins to warm and the miasm to as- 
cend, and in the course of an hour it has ascended higher than 
the head and hence is not taken into the lungs. At mid-uay it 
has gone to the heavens; at midnight it lies immediately on the 
surface, in each case not breathed into the lungs by a man on 
his feet. 

Nowjustat this point, a practical and important lesson was to 
be learned, which for actual practical results in proportion to the 
expense and labor and trouble, is scarcely second to any other 
in the whole range of sanitary science ; not new, but too sim- 
ple to command any special general attention. If the heat from 
the sun, by a general law of nature, so rarifies the miasmatic air 
as to make it innoxious, artificial heat must do the same thing. 
If a man will keep a brisk fire burning in his family room for 

Fever and Ague. 203 

k D 

the hour or two including sun-rise and sun-set, and will remain 
in that room during that time, it will be an absolute exemption 
from all autumnal diseases, and from cholera itself, other things 
being equal, for cholera is known to make its greatest ravages 
where common epidemics prevail in ordinary times, such as 
fevers, dysentery and diarrhoea and cholera is only an aggrava- 
ted diarrhoea, as yellow and congestive fevers are the exager- 
ation of common fever and ague. 

The dreadful ship-fever, jail-fever and the epidemics that 
occur in crowded vessels arise always from the decay of veget- 
able matter in the hold of vessels ; the wood of which the 
vessel is composed being in a state of constant dampness and 
inevitable decay. Now as there can be no decay where there 
is dryness, and heat makes dry there is only one way to disen- 
fect a vessel to make it healthy. Empty it ; make it dry as a 
powder-horn, by stoves or by the more expeditious and less ex- 
pensive method of introducing heated air into it from a steam 
engine. A vessel may be frozen up and thus made healthy ; but 
it is only temporary ; the miasm was only condensed and will 
make up to all its virulence, as did the viper in the fable, as 
soon as it is warmed. Heat, on the contrary, rarifies the miasm 
and sends it to the clouds and, by its drying effects, prev ents 
ts renewal. 

The writer spent forty years of his life in various malari- 
ous countries, and acting in the light of the above principles 
was never sick an hour in any of them, where he travelled on 
horse-back in the heats of mid-summer days by the pestiferous 
vapors of the bayous and visiting the sick at mid-night where- 
ever and whenever called ; but at sun-rise and sun-set, in the 
heats of July, he was by a blazing fire in his own house, or 
secured one if abroad. And he can name families in the 
West in districts where Fever and Ague was universal, except 
in a solitary house here and there where the friendly fire was 
started at sun-rise and sun-set, in the family room ; and the 
breakfast was eaten before going outside the door, and the sup- 
per taken at sun-down, the excitement of the circulation caused 
by the meal, and its strengthening effects on the system, help- 
ing to fortify it against the attacks of malarious influences. 

But within a year it has been announced as a discovery made 
by a physician in Chicago, and by a lady in France, and by 
her communicated to the Academy of Sciences, that the cause 
of epidemic Fever and the Autumnal diseases was discovered to 

204 Ball's Journal of Health. 

be a living thing, the gentleman calling it vegetative, a Sporule ; 
the lady asserts it to be an entozon, a breathing animal. 

But it is curious to observe that this Sporule or entozon is 
under the identical laws, supposed to belong to miasm ; that 
heat destroys it ; cold benumbs it ; that it is most vigorous in 
its ill effects in the system in the cool of the evening and the 
morning, and that it is only found in marshy places, in warm 
weather. Their existence are said to be made visible by the 
microscope — are seen in the saliva and attached to the inner 
portion of the mouth ; and that if an atmosphere containing 
them is taken to a distance where it is not naturally existing, 
and is breathed by a person in health, that person in a few 
days has Fever and Ague. 

From the Boston Watchman and Reflector. 


By W. W. Hall, M. D. 

Eminent medical fmen have directly opposite opinions on 
some points connected with cholera. Bat there is a remarka- 
ble unanimity of sentiment among the old school men and the 
new, allopaths and eclectics, vegetarians and cold water cures, 
on many facts of a practical character, which it is important 
for every individual to keep prominently in view until the 
scourge has passed away. 

All agree that cholera prevails most in localities where, in 
ordinary seasons, the inhabitants suffer from common epidem- 
ics, such as diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and ague, and other 
forms of fever. .These manifest themselves in damp places, 
flat lands, made lands, bottom lands, and at the mouths of 
rivers. Hence, in cholera times, dry, sandy, high situations 
are the safest localities, but if persons cannot leave low, damp 
lands, the next best expedient is to sleep in the highest stories 
of dwellings, and not descend from them from sundown until 
after breakfast next morning. If the houses are of but one 
story, then a blazing fire should be kept for the hour including 
sunset and sunrise, the family remaining in doors during the 
interval. The reason of this is, that the cause of these epide- 
mics is an ingredient in the atmosphere which does not neces- 
sarily belong to it, hitherto called " miasm," which means an 

Cholera Certainties* 205 

emenation, which seems to arise from the earth, and is more 
virulent in its ill effects on the surface, and less injurious the 
higher the ascent from the ground. At about one hundred feet 
the poison is not supposed to be perceptible. This conclusion 
was received centuries ago in the East. So also, in 1854, the 
authorities of London caused observations to be made with this 
point directly in view; and the truth became patent, that in 
the exact proportion that houses were elevated above the gen- 
eral level of the city, other things being equal, their inmates 
were exempt from the scourge, and that at one hundred feet 
elevation there was scarcely a single case of cholera. The ob- 
vious inference then is, that the higher rooms of dwellings 
should be occupied as chambers. 

All admit that filth of neighborhood, of habitation, of cham- 
bers, of clothing, of person and of skin, are directly promotive 
of cholera. The atmosphere is then saturated with impurities. 
These are taken into the lungs, and thence conveyed into the 
blood itself, depriving it of its life, making it thick, black and 
poisonous, dampening the spirits, oppressing the brain, and 
producing a general feeling of weakness, weariness and fa- 
tigue. These impurities are also conveyed into the stomach, 
mingle with the nutritive materials, and are carried to every 
portion of the system. Uncleanness also plugs up the pores 
of the skin, and prevents the escape of that insensible perspi- 
ration which is the great scavenger of the body; the ill effects 
of w r hich may be judged of by the repeated experiments of sci- 
entific men, for when an animal is enveloped in an India rub- 
ber bag, the nose only protruding, it begins to die in a few 
hours. The practical lesson taught by these facts is, let the 
entire body be kept most scrupulously clean. Let the clothing 
be frequently washed, and aired daily; let every chamber be 
ventilated and kept dry; damp cellars should be sprink.ed with 
chloride of lime, and all standing water near a building should 
be conveyed away, and its bed covered with fresh earth or 
common lime. 

Fear will excite a deadly attack of cholera in a few hours. 
A machinist having seen a comrade die in a blue or collapsed 
stage, went to work soon after inside a boiler. On emerging 
into daylight, he noticed that his hands and arms were almost 
black. He at once took it for granted that this was caused by 
an attack of the disease, and the shock thus produced ended 
fatally — he died of cholera symptoms. 

206 EaWs Journal oj Health. 

It is certain that any violent change in the habits of eating 
or drinking, while cholera is prevalent, invites the disease; but 
it is incumbent on all persons to eat regularly of plain, whole- 
some food, which the stomach can receive and dispose of with- 
out inducing indigestion. This should be the universal rule 
for eating and drinking, as to quantity and quality. 

While it is known that cholera is usually ushered in with 
several thin passages from the bowels, it has been also ob- 
served that a failure of the bowels to act for two or three days 
lays the system, by the necessary reaction, open to a violent 
and dangerous attack of diarrhoea. Undue action or inaction 
of the bowels, therefore, is sufficient ground for prompt medi- 
cal advice. 

Getting cool too soon after exercise, which induces visible 
perspiration on the surface, especially if there is weariness or 
fatigue, is as certain as anything else to cause a violent attack 
of cholera when the disease is prevailing. Whenever, then, a 
person feels uncomfortably warm from exercise, from eating, 
drinking, or mental excitement, it is the dictate of prudence to 
retire to a close room, so as not to allow a draught of air to 
blow on the person. He should not remove any garment for a 
few minutes, and then should lay them aside one at a time, at 
intervals. This may seem finical or unduly careful, but it is 
better to be finical in this matter, than to die in the agonies of 
cholera a few hours later. 

Exposure to the necessity of exercise of any sort in the hot 
sun from nine A. M. to five P. M. in summer, is likely to in- 
vite an attack of cholera to those who are mainly in doors, and 
it is just as dangerous in a sultry, cloudy or damp day. Per- 
sons, then, who are from home, and can be masters of their own 
movements, at the seaside, springs, hotels or boarding houses, 
should aim to take their walks, rides, excursions and diver- 
sions before nine o'clock in the morning, or else defer them 
till five in the afternoon, thus remaining cool and quiet during 
the heat of the day. 

To change the dress immediately after coming in, heated and 
warm, and to throw one's self on the bed, to fall asleep within 
a minute or two without any covering over the shoulders, or 
near an open window, as women too often do, has been the 
means of sending many a sedentary person to the grave in a 
few hours. 

All physicians of all schools agree that the phases of cholera 

Cholera Certainties, 207 

are different in different places, at different seasons, and in 
different constitutions, requiring a difference of treatment. Dr. 
Ayre was the most successful physician in Great Britain in the 
treatment of the disease when it last prevailed in that country. 
He lost but thirteen per cent, of his patients. He relied main!/ 
on calomel, and objected to all stimulants. Yet, although he 
gave his formula, it was so unsuccessful in other parts of the 
country than his own, that it was immediately abandoned. And 
from almost every country we are now receiving the formulas 
which have been most successful in each of them, and they very 
widely differ. This is certainly proof positive that it is sa f er 
to rely upon the prescriptions of educated physicians in your 
own locality ; and that taking a prescription on one's own re- 
sponsibility coming from other localities is very unwise. 

But the most indisputable fact of all is this : that as soon as 
a man notices, in cholera times, that he has a weakening, forci- 
ble, thin, painless, light colored discharge from the bowels, he 
should go directly to bed, send for a physician, remain qitiet 
and warm until the physician arrives, and then submit implic - 
itly to his directions. If a physician -cannot be obtained, the 
man should remain on his bed for two or three days. He can 
safeJy eat small quantities of ice to quench his thirst, but 
should drink nothing but a sip or two occasionally of hot tea. 
A common woolen flannel, fourteen inches broad, and long 
enough to double in front, should be bound tightly around the 
abdomen. He should not eat anything but boiled rice and 
similar mild food. The probabilities will be ninety-seven per 
cent, in favor of his recovery. 

A Pleasant Mouth Disinfectant: — Hypermangate : of potas- 
sa and hyperoxydate of barium, of each twenty-four grains, to 
be rubbed up into a mass, with sugar and glycerin, and divi- 
ded into 144 lozenges. Every ill-smelling mouth will become 
by their use perfectly odorless. — Medical Record. 

Gunpowder Marks. — Smear the scorched places with glyc- 
erin, by means of a feather, then apply cotton wadding ; lastly 
cover with oil silk. In one case the discoloration was very 
great, the patient looking more like a mummy than a living 
being. It entirely subsided in a month by the above treat- 
ment. — London Lancet. 



August is the most fatal month in towns and cities — October the least. — 
Nearly twice as many die in August as in December. The deaths in New York 
during July, August and September are nearly one-third greater than during 
October, November and Decern t er. These proportions most likely hold good 
else-where: but of these three thousand deaths and sixty thousand cases of 
sickness besides, more than one half are avoidable, in the estimation of scien- 
tific medical men ; — avoidable in the main, simply by avoiding the sun from 
ten to four, and eating aud drinking wisely. 

All who possibly can ehould leave the large cities before the first of July, 
( for then the excessive hot nights begin, and the thermometer stands at ninety 
degrees, Fareinheit, at sun-iise, in the halls and parlors of our dwellings,) and 
remain till the first of September. At least three or four weeks in August 
should be spent in the country by those who can not npare the longer time — 
The mountains are better than the sea-shore. One should not choose a river- 
bank, or bottom-land, or a level country, unless among the pines, because in 
these situations the seeds of fever and ague ate sown, and the person exposed 
wjII return to town to have "creeps " or intermittants when cold nights come. 
If families, and parties of ladies and gentlemen, were to inaugerate a custom 
of camping out in the Adriondack mountains or tho^e of Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia or New England for six weeks during the Summer, tho advantages over 
the Springs and the Sea-Side would be incalculable. Voung men should travel 
on foot or on horse-back, and all who can should select bo*u ding-places away 
from the public thoroughfares, and where they can live a* untrameled as pos- 
sible by dress, fashions, and formalities of every description. Still, observant 
people mutt know that there is more real enjovment and comfort in one's own 
house in the city. The freedom of the whole buildiug, night and day ; your 
own hours of rising and retiring ; your baths; your dishablle ; — these aro 
indispensable to real comfort any where in mid-summer. But the great mul- 
titude must stay at home the year roui.d, and it can be done in good health if, 
other things being equal, a wise system of eating and drinking were adhered 
to, on the following sucomct principles : Take coffee, tea, cold water, lemon- 
ade and other acids, and ice-cream. It is believed by the best French physio- 
logical experimenters and observers, that all acids, especial iy in Summer, pro- 
mote the secretion of bile, prevent fevers, and keep the system free ; hence tho 
advantage of fruits, berries, kole slaw, salads, pickles, sour milk, and the like, 
as warm weather approaches. Sweet milk, ale, beer and porter, all tend to 
create bile, to constipate, to induce head-ache, cold feet, neuralgia, and want of 
appetite, in Summer. The whole body is weak and indisposed to effort in 
warm weather. The stomack is in the same relaxed condition, and to impose 
on it full meals, and to urge it to take fuller ones by tonics, stimulates, and 
tempting tables, is irrational and suicidical, and is the immediate cause of 
one hah the sickness and deaths ol warm weather, for they are avoidable by the following 
system ..f diet: 

Eat but three times a day and nothing between meals. Breakfest: coffee, tea, or cold wa- 
ter ; coldb.ead and butter and a saucer or two of berries in i heir natural state, ripe, fresh, 
and perfect. Supper, same except no berries. Dinner, lemonade or coid water, bread and 
butt er with toinatoes, or any other one vegetable. Meats one day, soups another; melons 
and berries as above, for dessert. Bread and butter and cold water alone would sustain life 
and give vi orous health for the Summer months. Any family who will diet as above for one 
ween in Summer time, avoiding ordinary exposures, will find an exemption from •• unpleas- 
ant" symptoms which will convince them at once of the value of such a system of living — 
with a lightness of sprits, a joy< usness of mind and a mirthfulnees of temper, which is a 
real luxury to think of, in comparison to the weariness, dulness, want of appetite, suffer- 
ing from lvat, wakeful niglits, unre reshed mornings, insufferable ennui, and intense longing 
for excitement and exciting drinks,— which afflict those who sit at luxurious tables all Sum- 



The religious sentiment of the whole country has experienced a revulsion 
and a shuck recently which, it is to be hoped, will Lot be repeated while time 
endures. The model monster, who was recently executed at Philadelphia, for 
the murder of a confiding family of eight persons within an hour, in the ex- 
pectation of getting a little money, profess-d repentance, and a confidence of 
forgiveness, just as he was swung off by the neck like a drg, and that with a 
known lie in his mouth: and what makes the matter worse, educated religious 
advisers did not hesitate, to give countenance to the horrible profanation of 
professing their belief in his sincerity. 

Akin to such an absurdity is the workings of the mind when a man wishes 
to commit a crime ; he first persuades himself that the act contemplated is not 
a crime in this particular case, although as a general rule it is unquestionably 
80. Men have committed adulters, and then hushed their own consciences by 
pleadiug the examples of Alraham and David. Passion, Appetite, Feai — 
these, when they r^gn supreme, seem to cloud the intellect, or in some way 
derange the mental machinery, and, for the time being, prevent its healthful 
working. It is known <y those who have been reared among negro slaves, 
that they do not be ieve it wrong to steal from their masters. A lady who had 
inherited a faithful domestic, to whom was entrusted everything, was so 
shocked one day in finding her pi'fering, that she burst into tears. '• La, 
Missus !" exclaimed the surprised darkey, "you needn't take on so, I'se been 
doin' fich things all my life ' In a professional experience of thirty years 
at the bedsde of the sick and dying, the writer has never known a single case 
when, in the immediate prospect of deat' , professions ot religious sentiment 
were for the first time made, thai were not repudiated on an unexpected reco- 
very. The truth is a true religious sentiment is the offspring of love, and 
affection and grati ude to Him whose offspring we are; the ^el^blance a sham 
pi«- ty, arises from threats, fear, compulsion, as was ludicrously exhibited in our 
1 ttle Bt-bbie when ore day, in his seventh year, we being down town, the tall 
chimney of our dwelling was induced, by a tornado, to make a voyage of dis- 
covery throuoh the roof, with a joung ocean of water. " What shall we do, 
mother?" cried the boy, in great terror. " Prav to the Lord, my child.," But 
Robbie being a minute man, ai d steing no signs ot the remedy being put in 
opnration bv his respected maternal progenitor, exclaimed, with the utmost 
impatience, the bricks still tumbling in, and the cataract of waters givin no 
indication of a surcease, " Why don't }0U do it, th^n?" and feeling thrown on 
his own resources, down on his marrow bones he went — "Now I lay me down 
to sle^p." J u-t as he arose fiom Ids spontaneous devotions he observed that 
his younger sister was following "in tne same line;" but looking up through 
the j oof, and seeing the clouds, a 1 gone, his whole countenance oveisprtad with 
joy, exclaimed, "JNendn't pray now. Aiice, the sun's shining.'' 

Kead-r, let your piety be prompted by the habitual contemplation of the 
goodness of God in the sunshine of health and prosperity and a calm life; 
then, should stomas threaten, and adversity come, and sickness waste the health, 
yiway, you can look it all in the face fearlessly, and feel, as the last life strings 
are breaking, "I know that my hVdeemer liveth; ' and at the first blast of the 
trumpet, which w^kes the world to judgment, }ou will find yourseli robed in 
spoils puuty, among the shining onea. 



An English farmer became possessed with the idea that he had the 
Rinderpest ; his family Doctor tried to laugh him out of it, this only 
served to confirm his vagary ; he then consulted an old physician of con- 
siderable experience in human nature as well as in medicine ; he made 
many inquiries of his patient, entered fully into the case and at lengtht 
sent him to an apothecary with a sealed prescription, which the man of 
the pestle and mortar read to the astounded patient. " This man has got 
the cattle plague, take him into the back yard, and shoot him on the spot, 
according to act of parliament/' This brought the soft headed farmer to 
his senses, and he was a well man. 

Sickness is sometimes imaginary, but in such cases it does no good 
to deride or to scold : so it is sometimes with what is called nervousness, 
it is useless to make light of it, the feeling of suffering is the same as if it 
were real, in such cases sympathy is oftentimes a more efficient remedy 
than derision or impatient epithet. " Bear ye one another's burdens 7; is a 
moral medicamentum of great efficacy. The wits of physicians are often 
called into requisition, and impromptu remedies are sometimes as effica- 
cious as they are amusing. A titled lady once became possessed with the 
idea that a mouse had ran down her throat while she was sleeping with 
her mouth open ; her physician seeing at once how matters stood, advised 
her to call next day : meanwhile he produced a mouse and arranged it in 
his coat sleeve so as to be made proper use of at the desired moment. 
With a great show of preparation he adjusted an instrument to distend 
the mouth, and placed a small mirror in a situation as if to reflect the im- 
age of what might be seen. " Hold on, be steady, I see the tail/' and with 
a tremendous jerk he produced an innocent little mouse, gingerly held be- 
tween thumb and finger by its caudle extremity ; to the infinite gratifica- 
tion of his titled patient, who, placing a magnificent fee in the Doctor's 
hand, withdrew with a mountain-weight removed from her mind, which 
otherwise might have crushed it. A rich old toper imagined that a 
bottle was attached to his nose and that if it was broken, it would let all 
the blood out of his body ; hence his whole time was spent in guarding 
his nasal appendage from harm. A rough ol d surgeon of great eminence 
was consulted, "Go to Ballylack with you," and with an appropriate 
action, smashed a bottle into a thousand pieces, " there's the bottle, but 
you see it had no blood in it" The patient's whims were humored, and 
the mind saved. But it is useful to observe, that it is only those who 
have nothiog to do, persons of elegant leisure, who are cursed with these 
imaginary evils. Blessed is the ordainment that man shouid live by 
the sweat of his brow. 



Is an instantaneous inflammation of the brain, occasioned by 
the sun's rays communicating their heat to the structures witli 
such intensity and rapidity as to cause dizziness, headache and 
nausea or vomiting- ; the patient then falls breathless, turns 
black in the face and dies, unless proper assistance is given on 
the spot ; which is, to be taken to the shade. The neck should be 
instantly freed from all that binds it ; pour warm water on the 
head, and dash it upon the body — the Arabs pour it in the cars, 
this may a'-so be done. It is sometimes an hour or two before 
relief is obtained, which is ascertained by the patient becoming 
more conscious and more able to help himself. Let him drink 
as much water as he desires, if he can swallow it. 

Sun-stroke is prevented by wearing a silk handkerchief in the 
crown of the hat, or green leaves, or a wet cloth of any kind ; 
but during an attack warm water should be instantly poured on 
the head, or rags dipped in the water and renewed every minute. 
The reason is two-fold : the scalp is dry and hot, and the warm 
water not only removes the dryness, but carries off the extra 
heat with great rapidity, by evaporation. Sun-stroke is more 
common in the temperate than in the torrid zones. It is more fre- 
quent and fatal in New York and Quebec than in New Orleans 
and Havana. Day laborers are most liable to sun-stroke, espe- 
cially in proportion as they use stimulating drinks. It is doubtful 
if any strictly temperate person ever becomes a victim to this 
instantaneous life-destroyer, but excessive exposure to the 
direct rays of a summer's sun, may occasion sun-stroke in any 
individual, in the proportion as he is of a sedentary occupation 
or of delicate health, Such persous, if compelled to be out of 
doors under a hot summer's sun, should wear a soft loose hat, 
with some light loose cloth in the crown ; have the neck and 
throat bare and unconfined ; should eat but little meat, and live 
mostly on coarse bread and butter and berries, ripe, raw and 
perfect, without sugar or milk, keep regular hours and have 
abundant sleep. Laborers should wash the whole scalp in cold 
water several times a day, and keep the surface of the body 
clean by rubbing it with a damp towel every night before going 
to bed. Let the friction be sufficiently vigorous to cause an extra 
redness of the skin. It is being between two fires that makes 
sun-stroke common in cities and uncommon on small islands or 
at sea. because the brick and stone pavements give back almost 
as great a heat as comes from the sun. 



Are Nature's method of avoiding or curing disease, A Boil be- 
gins with 3 hard lump, which increases in size, heat and pain- 
fulness for about seven days ; then it begins to " point," and a 
yellow speck at the topis seen. This spreads and finally 'breaks/ 
discharging more or or less blood and matter for two or three 
days when the " core " conus out, the pain ceases, the hollow 
left is by degrees filled up with new flesh and in about fourteen 
days from the beginning, the patient is well, at least of that 
one ! I>ut sometimes a second one breaks out before the first 
one is well ; or a dozen or more appear in various parts of the 
body in various stages. 

Job was covered with boils. The Romans designated them 
by the Latin word which means to " make mad," or ill-natured. 
Only saints can be serene when a boil is coming to a point. — 
The old and young, the vigorous and the weakly, all are expos- 
ed to them ; but with this difference : in the robust they run their 
course in about fourteen days and get well of themselves. In 
persons of feeble constitution a boil becomes a carbuncle, which 
is many boils springing up near to-gether. These often prove 
fatal, especially with those who use ardent spirits. The general 
treatment is to call in a surgeon and have it cut to the bone in 
a cr'-ss. In every case keep the parts moist all the time by a 
poultice of sweet milk and stale bread ; nothing better, safer or 
more handy can be used ; it remains moist longer than most 
others, and is easily softened and removed preparatory to renew- 
als, which should be made thrice a day. 

Boils are the result of impure blood, made so by imperfect digestion: or 
an excess of bile, owing to a torpid liver or the want of sufficient out-of- 
door exercise. They are not a sign of health, but that nature is carrying 
on a healthful process. A felon or whitlow, is a boil formed on the bone 
under the whit-leather or broad tendons, which are so impervious that 
the yellow master can not be worked out through them ; hence, if not 
promptly cut down upon, to let out the yellow matter, it must get well by 
the slow and fearfully painful process of re-absorbtion. As to a common 
boil, all that should be done is to render the process of cure less painful by 
moist poultices, by living on coarse bread, ripe raw fruits, berries and to- 
matoes in their natural state, using no sweets, oils, meats or spirits. If 
the constitution is feeble, beef-soups and other nourishing food is necessa- 
ry. Be out of doors; keep the skin clean and have the bowels act freely 
every day. The Saxon name " Bile " is the best term, because it is really 
nature's process of discharging extra bile from the system, with other 
hurtful humors which ought to be out of it. If boils follow fever or other 
disease, it shows that they were not treated with sufficient activity. 



I had personally known him for thirty-five years, standing six feet four, 
with perfect proportions otherwise. He was a man of mark among the 
many passengers on the European steamer ; but scarcely had the noble 
vessel passed Sandy Hook before the man seemed troubled. Something 
was discovered to be missing; not intrinsically of much value, but it 
could not be replaced. during the voyage, and yet it was a constant need — 
he had left his tobacco. There could not an ounce be found on the whole 
ship that was not far inferior to the high brand which he had been in the 
habit of using. But in one of those moments in which gifted minds rise 
to their proper dignity, he suddenly resolved, " I'll be a slave no longer. — 
I shall not touch it during my two years expected absence abroad." And 
he did not. He occupied for a quarter of a century the highest social po- 
sition in the great city of his adoption ; his personal position was com- 
manding ; in his profession, he was second to none ; as a writer, he was 
prominent. Thirty years ago I knew him as one of nature's orators. He 
had a majesty of presence possessed by few of the monarclis of the earth; 
while the courtliness of his manners and the kindness of his nature were 
so blended that he was the loved and revered of every circle in which he 

Some unremembered time after his return, he was met by a clerical 
brother who after congratulating him upon his improved appearance 
and apparent vigorous health, asked him if he would not take a cigar. — 
Said he, " I have not used one in a long time, for years, in fact, but I will 
Emoke one with you ; " and it was done then and there. His old passion 
came upon him " like a strong man armed," and he yielded himself more 
and more hopelessly to it until no moment of day-light found him from 
under its baleful influence. The Summer of 186- found him at Saratoga. 
He seemed the perfection of manly beauty as to the body. But there 
were whisperings as to the mind. Friends delicately advised him that he 
needed the quiet of home. He could not think of such a thing ; he great- 
ly preferred remaining where he was. Matters became urgent. His family 
were telegraphed of the urgency of his retirement from public associations. 
He reached home a wreck. The strong, the brilliant mind was gone. 
Except the members of his family and a single clergyman, no one was al- 
lowed to enter the sick-chamber. But he passed away in driveling idiocy, 
attendant on softening of the brain, which, with the whole nervous system 
had been so constantly and so long under the influence of the stimulus of 
tobacco, they could no longer be roused to sensation, and mind and body 
both gave away together. v-.,.. 

It may admit of question which should be most pitied, the miserable vic- 
tim of an unrestrained animal indulgence, dead; or the living tempter to 
take "Tue Fatal Cigar." 

214 UalPs Journal of Health. 


" New York Social Science Review ; — a Quarterly Journal 
of Sociology, Political Economy and Statistics, edited by Simon 
Sterne and J. K. H. Wilcox, $4 a year. Nos. 1 and 2, for January 
and April, 1866, bound in one cover,'price $2 50. by mail. It 
contains among other things, the "International Almanac for 
1866," which of itself is invaluable as a book of reference for 
complete and latest and most authentic statistics geographical, 
political, social and industrial ; specially interesting now to all 
intelligent men as it gives the population, size, military and na- 
val strength of all civilized countries ; natures of their govern- 
ments and constitutions ; names, ages, qualifications, &c, of the 
various rulers of the old world and the new ; size and population 
of all onr states, &c, &c, with a list of all the Banks, Stock- 
Companies, Dividend values, &c. 

The Southern Presbyterian Review, issued quarterly, $3 a 
year, at Columbus, S. C, 100 pps, 8 vo., well executed on good 
paper. The March Number contains Puritanism and Presbyte- 
rianism ; St. Paul's vision and natory, by John H. Bocock, D. D. 
of Va.; The Relation of State and Church, b} T Rev. R. S. Gledney, 
of Miss.; Life and Times of Bertrand Du Guesclin, by Rev. A. 
T. Dickson, of S. C; Northern and Southern views of the Prom- 
ise of the Church, by the Rev. Prof, J. B. Adger, D. D. 

The Review is commended to the patronage of all good men 
of liberal views in the whole Presbyterian Family. Would 
it not be a good plan for all now that the State is able to 
take care of herself, to join hands under the banner of a true 
Presbyterianism as it existed in the days of the Revolution, and 
make a resistless stand against sin and Satan, and under the 
battle cry of " Forwarts Brudern," place the standards of the 
church in every town and village in the Union, the motto of 
every company corps and division being, "Love One Another/' 

Why Not ? — This book of 91 pages is sent post-paid in paper 
binding, for 50 cents ; in neat cloth, 81. — The editor is the poor- 
est hand in the world to go at things in a roundabout way. He 
prefers to come right to the point. This book is published by 
Lee and Shepard, Boston, Mass. It is a Prize Essay by H. R. 
Storer, M. D., of Boston, and is issued for general circulation by 
order of the American Medical Association. And now for the point. 
An increasingly large number of persons apply to city physici- 
ans to destro} 7 the child before its birth for one of three reasons — 
to hide shame, to avoid the trouble of rearing children, or to 
limit population. This book shows, authoritatively, the often 
danger to life, and the infallibly serious effects on the constitution 
in cases where the life of the mother is not lost. It is a public 

Notices. 21 5 

humanity to publish such a book. It is needed, greatly needed 
and should be seen by every husband and wife in process of a 
family. Our book on i; Sleep," (&1.50 by mail,) treats mainly on 
this and kindred subjects ; but Dr. Storer's publication is more 
scientific, treating on this one branch. 

Messrs. Broughton & Wyman, Managers of the New York (13 
Bible House) Branch of the American Tract Society, of 28 
Cornhill, Boston, have just issued " Pleasant Grove," by Alice 
A. Dodge, pp, 208., being sixteen narrations for children, well 
adapted to foster '"a more intense and firmer purpose" to prac- 
tice what is true, lovely and good. " Nellie Newton." Pp. 144. 
Showing, in a striking manner, the value of patience and perse- 
verance as means of success in life, and the building up of char- 
acters strong, useful and good. " Lift a Little." By Mrs. J. B. 
Ballard. Pp. 80. Containing eight stories for little children, 
teaching them to dare to do right always; why some are not 
always happy ; meaning to do good, lifting the old quilt of a 
Christmas morning, to show all the beautiful things for the en- 
couragement of good boys and girls. 

Strong Tea. — A little girl, three years old, was left in a room 
by herself in New York, and a few hours after drinking some 
black tea from a cup, died. It is not uncommon for servants, 
and even mistresses, to drink during the day the coffee and tea 
left after the regular meals. It is a pernicious habit, leading to 
nervousness, fretfulness, and general ill health, and is only sec- 
ond, in its ill effects, to constant "tippling" among men, or the 
frequent use of snuff and the tobacco pipe. Any habitual stim- 
ulation, beyond that of the natural food and drink, tends always 
to injure the health, weaken the mind, sour the disposition, and 
shorten life. 

Hot Weather. — In tiling a roof in 47th street, New York, in 
July, 1866, the workmen found the thermometer to indicate a 
heat ol 137 degrees. About the same time a United States Mon- 
itor in the torrid zone gave a heat in the engine fire room reach- 
ing 150 degrees Fahrenheit, with the effect to induce spinal 
disease, attended with violent convulsions, but none died. 

Hydrophobia. — James Kirby, of Waterville, N. Y., aged 16 
died on the 5th of July, 1866, in violent convulsions. About 
three months before he had been bitten by a dog, yet no ill 
effects had been experienced from the bite until the day before 
he died. Dogs do not perspire except in the tongue. When they 
become mad they froth at the mouth, showing that the perspir- 
ing functions are changed. It was narrated, some years ago, 
that a Frenchman, having been bitten by a dog, determined to 
avoid hydrophobia by steaming himself to death ; but the effort 
caused profuse perspiration, and he escaped hydrophobia, and 

2 1 6 Hall's Journal of Health. 

death also. In the light of these facts, a steam bath might be 
tried in the case of a person suffering an actual attack of hydro- 
phobic convulsions. Readers would do well to remember this, 
and that a good steam bath may be extemporized by putting hot 
stones under an open-seated chair, cover the patient with a blan- 
ket, and pour water on the stones. 

The Scientific American, which has every week valuable 
suggestions in reference to domestic comfort and convenience, 
besides its wealth of strictly scientific articles, says that ice m<ty 
be kept a surprisingly long time by stretching several inches of 
cotton batting on a pasteboard, or a half dozen thicknesses of 
newspaper, broader than the pitcher ; sew the longitudinal ends 
together, so as to receive the pitcher ; let it stand on a cushion 
of the same material, and put a pillow over the top. We had 
ourselves tried a similar expedient two days before to preserve 
some ice cream, and were gi atified at the success of the experi- 
ment. This is noticed for the benefit of the sick in localities 
where ice can be obtained with difficulty, or from long distances. 
— Or put in a vessel to be kept between two pillows, or hang the 
ice in a well, just above the water — a twenty pound lump will 
sometimes keep thus a day or two. 

Car Eiding. — One of our most respected physicians was riding 
in a street car (Londoners call them "Tramways") with his elbow 
jutting out of the window ; the tongue of another vehicle came 
in collision, and fractured the arm. This is the third accident of 
the kind in New York city which has come to our notice. A 
woman was almost burned to death recently, her clothing having 
take n fire from a spark from the locomotive while she was stand- 
ing on the platform between two cars. 

The railroad between New York and Philadelphia, via New 
Brunswick, has carried millions of passengers in the last twenty- 
five years, and not a single lite has been lost of any passenger 
while in the cars. The practical inference is, that when you 
ride in a vehicle keep your arms and head within, and avoid the 
platforms of rail-cars, and the roofs of canal-boats. 

Epidemic Cholera, by J. S. Webster, M. D. Published by Mil- 
ler, Wood & Co., 15 Laight street, New York : 48 pp., paper 
cover, sold for 25 cents, is one of the most truthful and instruc- 
tive issues for popular use that has lately come under our notice. 
Its evident object is to get at the truth in theory and practice, 
and abide by its teachings. 

Our Daughters. — The New York Observer, of July 26th saj^s : — 

'* The Anniversary Exercises of the Misses Bucknali's School, 

recently of New York city, were held on the 13th inst., at New 

Brunswick, N, J,, a large andience being present. Prayer was 

ffered by the Rev, Prof. Doolittle, after which the Senior Class, 

Notices. 217 

with great credit to themselves and to the institution, engaged 
in the critical analysis of the English language. The Composi- 
tions of the Graduating Class, embracing the Valedictory, elicited 
much commendation. After the distribution of the prizes, one of 
the Principals delivered a parting address to the Graduates, pre- 
senting them with their diplomas. Music was interspersed 
through the exercises, which were closed with an eloquent ad- 
dress by Rev. Dr. W. J. R. Taylor." 

Misses Laura Acker, Irene Birdsal (valedictarian), and Miss 
Ellen H. Hall, each of whom received three or four prizes for 
proficiency in several departments of study, were graduates from 
New York city. 

Health and Disease. — Sent by mail for $1 60, shows that 
there is no good health without a daily action of the bowels. 
That to secure this by medicines or injections always leaves the 
system in an unfortunate condition, and that the only natural, 
safe and efficient method is the judicious adaptation of food, in 
quality and quantity, to the need of each case, A book of such 
great importance to human health and comfort, and of such uni- 
versal application, written for popular use, has not been pub- 
lished hitherto. The views are neither new nor original with us, 
hence we praise the idea of the book without praising ourself. 
We want the people to understand, and we want it to be taught 
to children as soon as they begin to be seven years old, that a 
failure of the bowels to act once in every twenty-four hours, will 
always and inevitably be followed by some symptom or actual, 
and often fatal sickness in forty-eight hours ; and that a man 
never gets well of any known disease until the bowels begin to 
return to one action daily. 

The great Cholera Symptom.— Many a reader of the follow- 
ing sentence will die of cholera from inattention to it, that in 
cholera times a forcible, painless, large, pale, thin weakening 
discharge from the bowels, is Cholera begun ! and death will 
follow in twenty-four hours unless it is attended to, the best 
way of doing which is to lie down fiat on a bed and stay there, 
eating ice if thirsty, and keeping still and warm until a physician 
can be had. (See January number of this Journal for 1866, sent 
by mail for fifteen cents.) 

In common diarrhoea the evacuations are yellowish and gri- 

In cholera they are whitish and painless. 

In dysentery they are scant and bloody, with distressing de- 
sires, but inability to do anything but strain. 

Bilious diarrhoea is a healthful process, and ought not to be 
interfered with. The discharges are jiot very thin, are always 

218 Hairs Journal of Health. 

black, green, or yellow, attended with a great deal of rumbling, 
or darting, transient pains. For this, the best mode of procedure 
is to be quiet, keep warm, eat nothing, take nothing, and send 
for a physician. 

If ! but what is the use of saying anything about it ? Men 
will commit suicide, run the risk of dying any night, will sacri- 
fice a good night's rest, and ensure a weary waking in the morn- 
ing, with a day of miserable fretfulness and nervousness follow- 
ing, for the momentary gratification of their gormandizing throats, 
rather than practice a little self-denial, and eat absolutely noth- 
ing in warm weather, especially after a noon-day's meal, but a 
single piece of bread and butter, taking with it a single cup of 
tea. If any man, woman or child, who reads this, will practice 
it for a single week, and does not at the end of that time feel 
better, sleep better, and have a more lively, cheerful temper, we 
will send such the Journal ot Health, without charge, for 1866, 
if the trial is made during this September, 1866. Strangers have 
come to us, others have written to express their gratitude for the 
suggestion of light suppers, in consequence of the greater happi- 
ness of mind, and the greater bodily enjoyment following on the 

Catarrh. — A gentleman from Canada West writes, July 26tb> 
1866, to P. C. Godfrey of 823 Broadway, New York, " Enclosed 
please receive $20, for which express to me the value in your 
catarrh remedy, I got some from you a short time ago for a 
daughter, and it really has done her good," This is inserted to 
give us an opportunity of saying to our subscribers, we do not 
prescribe for catarrh cases, it is not in our line of practice ; but 
if you have catarrh, and are sure that it is catarrh, by the symp- 
toms of more or less fulness in the parts connected with the 
throat, and more fulness in head, watery nose and eyes, or ill 
smell of the discharges from the nose, and if, in addition, you are 
so unwise as to go to the advertising men of the large cities, 
who will undertake to cure any case of catarrh for three hundred 
dollars provided it is paid in advance, rather than cousult your 
family pbyfiician — better risk five dollars in the trial of God- 
frey's remedy ; for if it does you no good the money will be re- 
turned, and "no questions asked ;" and if good does follow its 
use, then you have saved $295, a part of which, in gratitude, you 
ought to expend in purchasing a full set of Hall's Journal of 
Health, 12 volumes bound in muslin, and two volumes Fireside 
Monthly, now discontinued, bound uniformly with the Journal, for 
$21, for reciprocity of good turns promotes the general good. 



It is not possible to supply a pure warmth by any furnace 
ever invented, unless it simply heats water or air, out of which 
is given the caloric necessary to make a dwelling comfortable. 
But warming houses by steam, hot water, or hot air, costs, for 
an ordinary residence, about eight hundred dollars, which 
makes it impracticable — places this luxury wholly beyond four 
fifths of all the households in the land. That the heat which 
comes from any furnace through an ordinary register, although 
the coals are red-hot, is a sickening stench, can be demonstrated 
any moment in a winter's day ; it is sending into a room an in- 
cessant stream of air, almost wholly divested of its oxygen, 
which is the element for which alone air is breathed at all ; nor 
is this all — the oxygen has not only been abstracted, but sul- 
phureted hydrogen and carboneted hydrogen, which are 
among the most noisome smells in nature — that of rotten eggs — 
replace the oxygen ; and that such an atmosphere, steaming into 
our parlors, and dining-rooms, and chambers, can not be other- 
wise than most pernicious to health, only but an idiot can deny. 
Every year new patents are coming out, claiming to meet the 
failures of their predecessors, proving conclusively that all pre- 
vious ones have been signal and lamentable failures. 

It may be a more potent and convincing argument against 
the pestiferous effects of furnace heat, at least in the minds of 
some, that it ruins the furniture and the woodwork of all 
buildings into which it is introduced. 

Open wood-fires, the most cheery and delightful of all modes 
of house-warming, are too expensive, and are exceedingly 
troublesome. The common open grates for coal are the next 
best, but they fail to give a comfortable heat in the coldest 
weather; they fail to keep the feet warm, which is the most 
important part of the body to be kept agreeably heated ; and, in 
addition, the very instant the coal in the grate is touched, the 
whole room is filled with a fine dust, which settles on the paint- 
ings, the furniture, the carpets, and the very clothing in the 
drawers, making dingy the most polished surfaces, scratching 
the furniture and the gilding, and grinding out the carpets by 
the flinty dust. 

220 hall's jouenal of health. 

But there is a method of warming houses, cheaper than 
grates and more efficient, giving almost none of their dust; 
incomparably less troublesome than wood-fires, while the heat 
is just as genial .and quite as pure ; the fire needs replenishing 
but once a day, never requires a poker, if properly attended to ; 
gives very little dust, keeps the feet warm, and keeps before 
the eyes the cheery sight of a broad bed of burning, glowing 
coals. In short, it is a plan for warming houses, which has 
never, in all its points, been surpassed — has never been equaled. 
It is Dixon's low-down grate. It is believed that there is 
scarcely a single educated physician in Philadelphia, who owns 
the house he lives in, who is not supplied with one or more 
of these delightful luxuries. They cost from twenty-five 
dollars each and upward, and are placed in stead of an ordinary 
fireplace or grate in the course of a few hours. 

Three fourths of the heat of a grate or fireplace goes up the 
chimney, and is wasted. Dixon's Philadelphia low-down grate, 
by a moderate extra expense, can be so arranged that all the 
ashes are conveyed into the cellar, and the otherwise wasted 
heat is saved to a considerable extent, and conveyed into the 
rooms above ; not the heat of burning coals, but air is brought 
from out-doors, carried behind the chimney-back, heated with- 
out coming in contact with the coals, and is conveyed into the 
room above by an ordinary register, not in a sulphurous odor, 
but simply in the shape of pure air warmed, which is of ines- 
timable value for sitting-rooms, chambers, and nurseries. We 
had one of these admirable contrivances put in our house in 
1859, and every additional year only increases our appreciation 
of the luxury. This notice has been written without the know- 
ledge of the manufacturer, and will surprise him as much as 
any one of our readers ; but it would add so much to the health 
of families, both in town and country, whether they burn soft 
coal, anthracite, or common wood, for it is adapted to the con- 
sumption of any kind of solid fuel, that we feel constrained to 
bring it thus prominently forward, and the more fearlessly 
because we know whereof we affirm. To save us the expense, 
time, and trouble of answering letters of inquiry, our readers 
will please address T. W. Dixon, 1324 Chestnut street, Phila- 
delphia, or his agents, Mead & Woodward, 37 Park Row, New- 
York City 


Such is the conformation of the earth's surface and the relative 
position of the countries of the world in reference to trade, com- 
merce, and manufacture, that the great pathway of nations is des- 
tined to be that which connects the Mississippi river with the 
western shore of the Pacific Ocean, by rail. 

As between China, Japan, Australia, and the East Indies, on the 
one hand, and the United States, with England and Western 
Europe, on the other, the Pacific railway would save months of 
time in transit — and time is money — hence the road will be built. 
Not one line, but two; for two are imperatively required. The 
necessities of the times, martial, civil, social, and commercial, will 
have them, and that too, in a much briefer space than most persons 
imagine. One from Oregon to St. Anthony's Falls ; the other from 
San Francisco by way of Texas to New Orleans. Then, by reason 
of the trade winds going and returning across the Pacific, the 
quickest route for travel or freight, from the Americas, will be from 
New Orleans via El Passo, in Texas, to San Francisco ; while from 
China and adjacent countries, to the United States and England, 
the most expeditious conveyance will be across the Pacific, and by 
way of the line from the mouth of the Columbia or Puget Sound to 
St. Anthony's Falls, Minnesota, or the Mississippi river. A round 
voyage thus, will save between one and two months' time ; and that, 
on a cargo worth millions of money, besides wages, is an item so 
considerable, that private enterprise will greedily seize at the chance 

of investment. 


Theke is a time-honored and mammoth building cornering on 
Fourteenth street and Third avenue, which has met the familiar gaze 
of such of our citizens as have been accustomed to pass that way, 
for perhaps a greater part of the present half century. This build- 
ing stretching its immense length along two streets, is devoted exclu- 
sively to the manufacture of the Worcester Piano, which has a name 
for durability of structure and sweetness of tone which ought, if it has 
not, to have made the fortune of any man of moderate ambitions. 
But it is not as easy now as formerly, to make a fortune by strictly 
honest dealing ; if done at all, it is only until a man has become 
decrepid and gray, and almost ready to take his departure on the 
returnless journey; one of the reasons of this is found in an article 
in the July number, headed " unskilled labor." 

Another, at least temporary drawback, as to a speedy fortune by 
strict business integrity, is the want of means on the part of the 
many, to secure the best materials for their particular handicrafts. 
Sometimes on account of a want of foresight or thrift, or a still 
more unpardonable want of knowledge, materials are needed for 
the construction of a superior article, which no money can purchase, 
aiid time only can procure the needed supply. 


Too many of our mechanical men live from hand to mouth, and 
the material purchased yesterday, must be used to-day ; in proof, 
look at any floor in any brown stone or marbled front, in the whole 
city of New York, constructed within the last five years, and it will 
be scarcely possible to find, a well-fitting door, an easy moving 
drawer or window sash, while the joints in the floors will measure 
from a quarter to half an inch or more. This is so undeniable, that 
builders find it the shortest cut to say, that it is owing to furnace 
heat ; and yet, Forty-two Irving Place, which has a furnace only for 
appearances, can show floors on either story half an inch apart at 
the ends of the boards, and at the sides in proportion. 

When, however, there is a business integrity, and abundant 
means to employ the best materials in fabrics of any description, 
two results always show themselves, a good name and an ultimate 
prosperity ; hence the reputation and success of the establishment in 
question, whose instruments stand the test of all weathers, from 
Canada to Cuba, and from the borders of the Atlantic to the shores 
of the Pacific Sea. 

To make this practically useful to all young mechanics, the secret 
should be communicated, and it consists in three things : 

1. A faithful apprenticeship to a good master. 

2. A timely supply of the very best materials; 

3. Making them up without haste, and with the utmost careful- 

In the case above, the wood of important parts is obtained years 
beforehand; it undergoes a most minute examination as to its 
soundness, passing through a long seasoning, according to the vary- 
ing thickness and hardness of the particular wood, and if at the end 
of this tedious process, the material remains sound and haud, with- 
out a blemish, it is used, and not otherwise. It is thus by making 
each particular instrument as if for his own personal use, almost 
living in the same building with the workmen, passing through 
every room at any hour of the day, making the employes feel as 
if they were watched every moment ; it is by these means, we re- 
peat, that the Piano Fortes of this house have acquired a reputation 
at home and abroad, which requires an almost daily shipment to 
other countries as well as to the various parts of our own. 

To every young mechanic we therefore say, the path of a certain 
and honorable success for you is, 

1. Be thorough masters of your calling; and, * 

2. Give honest material and honest work to every article which 
leaves your establishment. 


l)r. R. T. Trall, whose Hydropathic establishment at 13 Laight Street, 
New York, is so well known, has just published a book purporting to be 
" A Scientific and Popular Exposition of the Fundamental Problems in 
Sociology, issued by William Wood and Co., of New York, and G. J. 
Burns, Wellington Koad, Chamberswell, London, England, sent post paid 
for $2. 312 p,, 12mo., with Illustrations. Dr. Trall is a prolific writer* 
and has published several books, which merit a very general circulation, 
such as " Alcoholic Medication," 30 cts. ; " Women's Dress/' 30 cts. ; 
" Hygienic Cook-Book/' very valuable, 30 cts. ; Retries' * Manual of Gym- 
nastics,'' 40 cts. Turkish Baths at $1.50 each, where applicably adminis- 
tered are of very great value ; they are artificial " sweats," and are often a 
thousand times better than physic ! 

In the heat of summer it is especially desirable to preserve the entire 
person as pure and clean as possible ; the feet are particularly liable to 
acquire an ill odor ; they should be placed in water, warm is best, 
ankle deep for a minute or two, then wiped dry and then wash face, hands, 
armpits and lastly the feet with a mixture named in this Journal several 
years ago ; two tablespoons of Hartshorn water, called " Aqua Ammonia'' 
by Druggists, in a basin of water ; or a tablespoon full or two of common 
spirits of hartshorn in the same amount of water ; it not only removes all 
odor, but leaves the skin most perfectly clean ; but put on a clean pair of 
stockings every morning. 

Brief Biographical DicTiONARY,by Rev. Charles Hole, of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, England, with additions and corrections by Wm. A. 
Wheeler, AM., assistant editor of Webster's Dictionary and author of 
Noted Names of Fiction, etc., published by Hurdand Houghton, 459 Br*>ome 
St., New York, 1866. 453 pp. 12mo Sent postpaid for $2.00 This book 
gives, in alphabetical order, in one line, the most eminent names of the 
dead, the year of their birth and death and four or five words descriptive 
of the character of their lives ; and this is human fame and human worth 
and human life, to be compressed in a single line. Caesar C. Julius, Dicta- 
tor, born 100 B.C. died 44 B.C. ; Bonaparte, Napoleon I. Emperor, born 
1769, died 1821. We eagerly looked for some of the revered names of our 
own time. Archibald Alexander, American — Divine, born 1772, died 
1851 ; James Waddell Alexander, D.D., (our own Pastor,) American Scholar 
and Writer,born 1804, died 1859 ; Joseph Addison Alexander, D.D.,(Brother\ 
Divine and Linguist, born 1809, died 1860 ; Charles Caldwell, (our honored 
medical preceptor,) Medical and Miscellaneous writer, born 1772, died 1853. 
It is a most interesting and valuable book, destined to be in the library of 
men of all professions, of poets, scholars, writers ; men of our time every- 
where will make it a standard book of reference ; the American compiler 
has added very greatly to the value of the English edition by adding very 
many American names ; the public will be glad to know that he is pre- 
paring a similar work to embrace the names of the distinguished living. 


Containing 236 Health Tracts on the following subjects, with a steel 
engraving of the Editor, sent post-paid for $2.50. 

Aphorisms Physiolog'L 


Antidote to Poisons, 

Acre, One. 


Burying Alive. 

Baths and Bathing. 


Bites and Barns. 


Beauty a Medicine. 

Best Day. 


Burning to Death. 

Bilious Diarrhea. 

Balm of Gilead. 


Cold Cured. 

" Neglected. 

" Avoided. 

" Nothing but a. 

" In the Head. 

" How Taken. 

«' Catchiag. 

Checking Perspiration. 
Child -Bearing. 
Children's Eating. 

" Feet, 

Children Corrected. 

" Dirty. 
Cute Things. 
Coffee Poisons. 
Clothing, Flannel, 
" Woolen, 

* Changing. 

Convenient Knowledge 
Cooking Meats. 
Cheap Bread. 
Church Ventilation, 
Diet for the Sick. 
Debt, a Death! 

($1.50 a Year.) 



Dying Easily. 





Death Rate. 


Digestibility of Food. 

Dirty Children. 

Drugs and Druggery. 

Eyes, Care of. 

" Weak, 

« Failing. 
Erect Position. 

" Wisely. 
Eat, How to. 

1 ' What and when to. 
Eating Habits. 
" Great. 

" Curiosities of. 
M Economical, 
Elements of Food. 
Fruits, Uses of. 
Flannel Wearing. 
Follies, Fifteen. 
Fifth Avenue Sights. 
Food and Health. 
Fetid Feet. 

Ice, Uses of. 
Inverted Toe-Nail. 
In the Mind. 
Kindness Rewarded. 
Law of Love. 
Life Wasted. 
Loose Bowels. 
Leaving Home. 
Logic Run Mad. 
Medicine Taking. 
Music Healthful, 
Milk, its Uses. 
Morning Prayer. 
Month Malign. 
Mental Ailments. 
Mind Lost. 
Medical Science. 
Nursing Hints. 
Nervous Debilities. 
Old Age Beautiful 
One Acre, 
One by One. 
Obscure Diseases. 
Presence of Mind. 
Private Things. 
Poisons and Antidotes. 

Food,Nutritiousnessof. Pain. 

" its Elements. 
Greed of Gold. 
Genius, Vices of. 
Great Eaters. 
Gruels and Soups. 
Hair Wash. 
Health a Duty. 

" Observances. 

" Essentials. 

** Theories. 
Household Knowledge. 

Home, Leaving. 
Happiest, Who are. 

Parental Trainings. 
Physiological Items. 
Posture in Worship. 
Physician, Faithless. 
Popular Fallacies. 
Read and Heed. 
Restless Nights. 
Recreation, Summer 
Sitting Erectly. 
Shoes Fitting. 
Sour Stomach. 

Sick Headache^ 
Sunshine. . 

Suppers, Hearty. 
Soldiers Remembered. 

" Cared for. 

" Health. 

« Items. 

« AIL 

Sunday Dinners. 
Sleep and Death. 
Spot the One. 
Summer Drinks. 
Sickness not Causeless. 
Say re, the Banker. 
September Malign. 
Summer Mortality. 
Soups and Gruels. 
Sick School Girl. 
Stomach's AppeaJ. 

Study, Where to. 
Salt Rhfcum. 

Traveling Hints. 
Three Ps. 

Toe Nail, Inverted. 
Thankful Ever. 

Valuable Knowledge. 
Vermin Riddance. 
Winter Rules. 
Warning Youth. 
Woman's Beauty. 
Worth Remembering. 
Wo-ship, Public. 

" Posture in. 

" Without Pricat 
Weather Signs. 
Weather and Wealth. 
Warmth and Strength. 
Worth Knowing.' 

Hall's Journal of Health," No. 2 West 43d St., New-York, 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when siclcness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. XIII.] OCTOBER, 1866. [ NO. 10 


Confirmation of our January article, written in 1854, is found 
in the following, which has just made its appearance, and of 
which and its author, the New York Evening Post says — 

" We find in the current number of the Cincinnati Lancet and 
Observer an article by Dr. .John Davis, one of the most eminent 
and skilful allopathic physicians of the western states, in which 
he gives particulars concerning the treatment of cholera, which 
will, doubtless, have interest for those of our readers who 
adhere to the allopathic method. 

After reviewing the different modes of treatment and re me- 
dies adopted in various countries, and showing their uncertainty, 
Dr. Davis says: 


<I judcre, therefore, that, as vet, we are safest in seeking in 
the swnptoms of this disease for guides for its m anagement. — 
Examining the course of the malady, it is very often found that 
its attacks are preceded by laxity of the bowels corresponding 
to ordinary diarrhoea, the stools not being white nor rice-water 
in character. We are not warranted in pronouncing such cases 
cholera; for during the epidemic prevalence of this pestilence, 
perhaps a large part of the population are thus troubled, and 
though many of them take no medicine, they escape any serious 
illness. This kind of diarrhoea the French have named chol- 
erine; but inasmuch as Dr. Farr has applied this word as a 

226 Hall's Journal of Health. 

term for the zymotic cause of cholera, it is less likely to cause 
confusion if we confine ourselves to the use of the old name 
diarrhoea for this condition. The indications for its treatment 
are simply to use ordinary astringents. 

4 When, however, the discharges assume the rice-water form, 
or are white and copious, we are warranted in concluding that 
cholera is present. l)r. Drake, in one of his letters to the pub- 
lic, in the early part of 1849, very emphatically declared, that 
when this character of stool appears, it is just as sure that 
cholera is present as that your house is on fire when as yet only 
a few shingles are burning. Yet the course taken by many reg- 
ular physicians in this city was to consider nothing as cholera 
that did not run through all the stages of the disease, including 
collapse, and often even death. When a city ordinance required 
a statement for the public from each practitioner of the number 
treated and the results, one estimable and excellent physician, 
holding the views to which I have referred, reported four cases 
and four deaths. So strong was the disposition among regular 
physicians to attach odium to any report of success at that time, 
that I declined making any return concerning my own cases. 

* Rice-water diarrhoea, or diarrhoea presenting copious whi- 
tish stools, appearing when cholera is epidemic, being regarded 
"by all of the writers as sufficiently evincing the presence of the 
malady, it is our duty to acquiesce in this conclusion. 

< These discharges manifest the absence of bile, and that we 
need something that will cause this secretion to flow into the 
intestines, and for this purpose no agent is so powerful as calo- 
mel. And our experience teaches us that even in common diar- 
rhoea attended with whitish discharges, and particularly in 
the case of young children having this kind of evacuations, we 
are very slow and uncertain in arriving at success, except when 
we combine a limited amount of this agent with our other means. 

6 Another indication is to control the diarrhoea by the admin- 
istration of astringents in company with the calomel. 

1 Pursuing our investigations, we find that an essential feature 
of the disease is the more or less rapid failure of the capillary 
circulation, and to counteract this tendency no medicines are 
so effective as piperine and capsicum. They determine more to 
the surface than any other stimulants that have not otherwise 
a mischievous action in the condition of a cholera patient. So 
active are they, that a well person taking a full dose of either 
is hot all over, often in a few minutes. 

Treatment of Cholera, 227 

c As the attack advances, vomiting, intense thirst and suppres- 
sion of the urine occur, accompanied with violent cramps in the 
limbs ; and if the attack is not controlled, collapse and death 

6 Such is the general description of this disease, but the cases 
considered individually often present minor difficulties which 
require attention almost as much as the graver symptoms. 


6 My course upon meeting with a case of Asiatic cholera of 
the ordinary form was to administer something amounting to 
the following, viz : Calomel, ten grains : gum kino, twenty grains ; 
piperine, ten grains ; prepared chalk, one drachm. Mix and 
divide into ten parts. One of these powders to be given 
every ten minutes, or even only every three hours, according 
to the condition of the patient. 

6 Instead of this formula I frequently used the following, viz: 
Blue mass, one scruple; tannin, two scruples; piperine, one 
scruple. Mix and make into twenty pills. One of these tQ be 
taken every twenty minutes, or only one every two or three 

6 For the vomiting I ordered mustard poultices over the stom- 
ach, and when this did not suffice I prescribed the following 
preperation for internal use, viz: Creosote, half a drop ; chlo- 
roform, from half a fluid drachm to a fluid drachm ; simple 
syrup, half a fluid ounce ; peppermint water, one and a half 
fluid ounce. Mix. A teaspoon ful of this to be given every ten 
or twenty minutes while the vomiting continued. 

'Notwithstanding the intense thirst, I forbade the use of wa- 
ter except in tablespoon ful measures sparingly supplied, having 
found that in larger quantities it was immediately vomited. I 
however allowed small pieces of ice to be kept in the mouth; 
and I gave water liberally after the vomiting had ceased. 

' As to the mercury in the foregoing prescription, I discontin- 
ued its use as soon as the stools were darkened in color, or the 
diarrhoea was arrested. My observations led me to conclude 
that the further administration of mercury tended to the estab- 
lishment of dysentery and attending fever. When the diar- 
rhoea persisted and the discharges were of a darkened color, 
omitting the calomel or blue mass, I continued the other parts 
of the treatment; and when the diarrhoea was checked, I left 
off the astringents, continuing the use of the stimulant till re- 
action was fully re-established, and often combining a grain of 

22S IlaWs Journal of Health. 

quinine with each dose of the stimulant. In some cases I used 
liuxham's tincture of bark, or some preperation of iron, instead 
of the quinine, as a tonic. 

6 Soon after the appearance of reaction the kidneys usually 
resume the performance of their function ; and there was sel- 
dom an occasion for a resort to diuretics. The plenteous supply 
of water, administered as soon as the patient was able to retain 
it, almost always sufficed. 

6 This was the general plan of treatment. For the lesser 
troubles that often attended I ordered as the circumstances 
seemed to demand. Opium or brandy I did not prescribe, ex- 
cept in special cases ; and then only when the attack was in 
an early stage, owing to the fact of what I saw myself and 
the testimony of some of the highest authorities, that their use 
tends to increase the danger of the occurrence of fever and 
cerebral difficulties when the patient has survived the first stage. 
Blistering with cantharides over the epigastrium was in 1832 
'extensively practiced in Europe; but the little benefit of it was 
so manifest that no systematic writer now recommends it. 

4 Frictions I discountenanced, inasmuch as they increase the 
alarm of the sick and excite the minds of the attendants, with- 
out producing any benefits adequate to compensate for their 
evil effects. And this course I also pursued with everything 
else that was likely to add to the fears of the sufferer. 

!j I wish I were able to state the proportion of recoveries under 
the plan which I pursued ; but I know recovery was so frequent 
that even when called to a severe case I expected the patient 
to get well. Even a large number of my collapsed cases sur- 
vived. I may add that the great majority of my patients got 
well in a very few days without passing through a stage of 
fever, or having any cerebral disturbance. 

' My field of observation during the invasion of 1849 was 
extensive, as many of you know. My office was in the crowd- 
ed German portion of our city, where every physician had more 
calls to visit persons stricken with this disease than, even with 
the utmost taxing of his physical powers, he was able to at- 
As a matter of general interest we append the following 

Cholera prescription. — The Board of Health of New York 
city recommends the following prescription in severe cases of 
Diarrhoea, when the services of a physician can not be immedi- 
ately obtained, " Tincture of Opium, Tinctureof Camphor, Tine- 

Treatment of Cholera. 229 

ture of Capsicum, of each one drachm ; Chloroform, half 
a drachm; mix and take half a teaspoonful after each 
evacuation. This will in most instances cure a diarrhoea, but 
it does not follow that it will cure Cholera. The typhoid symp- 
toms which the disease leaves behind it in the system must 
have other treatment; but much has been gained when these 
characteristics have been overcome. By the use of the above 
remedy until a patient can be seen by a physician, a recovery 
may occur which would be hopeless if the disease were permit- 
ted to go unchecked into a full or even partial collapse." 

As Diarrhoea, Dysentery and Cholera are in the samo class 
of diseases, and when cholera prevails there is more or less of 
the other two present at the same time and are liable to run 
into cholera, we advise all our readers to have a three ounce 
vial of the following in their houses in case of an attack in the 
night or its being impossible from any cause to secure promptly 
the services of a physician. The very fact of giving some- 
thing which is recommended by such high medical author- 
ity has of itself a quieting and soothing influence on the 
patient in promoting a recovery ; but bear in mind always 
that Dysentery gives bloody discharges with much distress- 
ing and unavailing straining. Diarrhoea gives large, thin, 
yellow, green or dark, ill-smelling discharges with more or 
less griping. Cholera gives neither griping nor blood, but 
a copious, forcible, whitish, thm, inodorous, painless and 
most exhausting discharges ; one of which is cholera begun, 
to be followed up by others, bringing on in a few hours 
vomiting, cramps, suppression of urine, hoarse voice, blue 
skin covered with large drops of sweat, and death, with 
generally a calm, composed and perfectly rational mind to 
the very last. 


The Xashville (Tenn.) Journal of Medicine and Surgery 
contains an article on the above subject, by J. VV. Brown, 
M. D., the substance of which will be of interest to many 
of our readers. He states that dysentery is the principal 
disease with which the physician has to contend in Tenn- 
essee, Arkansas and North Louisiana, and in some localities 
the mortality is frightful. Drs. McMath and Weilder, of Louis- 
ville, Ark., informed him that they had treated three nun- 

230 HalVs Journal of Health. 

dred cases of the most aggravated form with success by 
the use of creosote, and in every case in which it was given 
(if not delayed too long,) a marked improvement took place. 

The following is the formula used by these gentlemen: 

Capsicum, 10 drops ; acetic acid, 20 drops ; sulphate of mor- 
phine, 2 grains — all mixed in an ounce of distilled water. 
A teaspoonful of this is given every three or four hours to 
adults; smaller doses are given to children, in gum arabic 
mucilage. Drs. Mc Math and VVeilder consider it nearly, if 
not quite, a specific in dysentery. 

This disease is sometimes very fatal and prevalent in all 
parts of our country, and children about two years old, in 
the cities, are very liable to be attacked with it in the months 
of July, August and September. Creosote and morphine 
alone, we understand, are given in such cases by our New 
York physicians, but with what general success we can not 

Whole volumes could be written about cholera, but there are 
two points upon which every observant reader should keep his 
attention steadily fixed, that is, the actual facts connected with 
its exciting cause and cure. The original cause we know but 
little about, but it must be a something which precedes the ex- 
citing cause and without which there can be no epidemic chol- 
era \ this is most certainly the fact that many things will ex- 
cite an attack of cholera, when the disease is prevalent, which 
do not do so when it is not. But this 1 original cause cannot 
produce a single case of the disease without the aid of an ex- 
citing cause ; these two causes, the original and the exciting, are 
like powder and fire, harmless, unless brought in contact. 
Filth of person, clothing, dwelling, and locality, are regarded 
as among the indisputable, exciting causes ; it is true only in 
part perhaps ; not all kinds of filth cause cholera ; the filth of 
decaying vegetation excites the disease in a community ; but we 
have seen no proof that proximity to a grave-yard,- to slaugh- 
ter-houses, or bone-boiling, or glue establishments is more dan- 
gerous in that direction. A man in ordinary health may sleep 
in a slaughter-house for a month, in a cholera locality, and 
will not take the disease; if, other things being equal, he sleeps 
in a house on the windward side of a drained mill-pond, its 
muddy bottom exposed to a hot mid-day sun, any time from 
June to September, he will die in a week, if not in twenty-four 

Treatment of Cholera. 231 

hours. Whatever of a vegetable nature that is allowed to de- 
compose by being kept moist and exposed to a hot sun, or the 
heat of a ship's hold in warm weather, will excite cholera, al- 
ways and under all circumstances, where cholera is prevalent ; 
when it is not prevalent, it will always cause diarrhoea, dysen- 
tery, and all forms of spring, and fall fevers, according to the 
degree of decomposition, from slight fever and ague which con- 
tinues for months, and leaves the system as well as ever, to the 
congestive chill, which kills in a night. When any one thing 
causes epidemic cholera, it is important to know what that one 
thing is, so as to direct all the energies to its removal, instead 
of wasting them in the removal of other things comparative- 
ly harmless. No standing water on an earthen bottom ought 
to be allowed within a mile of any residence in cholera times ; 
and in communities, every street gutter should be kept as clean 
as a broom can make it, or as dry as a powder-horn. Street 
filth, cellar filth, rear-yard filth, kitchen filth, all involving the 
decay of vegetable substances, these are they which make chol- 
era victims in cities. 

As to the pathology of the disease, we think it is the failure 
of the liver to withdraw the bile from the blood, it is torpid or 
relaxed, and does not do its legitimate work with proper activ- 
ity ; whatever restores this action, cures the case. All physi- 
cians of legitimate medicine, of all lands, know that calomel is 
the most certain medicine known to man, by a thousand-fold 
to stimulate the liver to its natural action ; there are various 
other medicines which have a similar effect, but they can never 
be relied on, and when the time lost in a failure is literally 
death, in this terrible malady, surely the certain should be em- 
ployed in place of the uncertain : besides this there is another 
incalculable advantage in calomel as in the progress of cholera 
in each case there is such an irrepressible vomiting, that even 
cold water is ejected with great force, the instant it reaches 
the stomach, much more, nauseating drugs, but calomel is so 
heavy that it sinks to the bottom of the stomach, especially if 
in the form of a pill, and is, in that form at least, impossible of 
ejection, and goes on to do its proper work, first of arresting 
the passages within two hours, next of changing their color. 

Dr. Edward B. Stevens, the efficient and able editor of the 
Cincinnati Lancet and Observer, says that in the recent fear- 
ful ravages of the disease in Cincinnati, Ohio, the majority 
of the best physicians there have found the main reliance to be 

232 EaWs Journal of Health. 

small doses of calomel, two or three grains every fifteen min- 
utes, in combination, some with one thing, others with another, 
capsicum, piperine, opium, &c, while others, for whom he has a 
great esteem, give from ten to twenty grains at a time, and 
then rest, and wait for the result ; this is precisely the course 
we hinted twelve years ago, and repeated in the last Janu- 
ary number. Dr. Davis says, " his experiences this summer 
quite fully confirm the views advanced" in the article which we 
have just given our readers. We think the patient's life is en- 
dangered and time lost in feeling along with two or three 
grain doses at fifteen minutes interval, trying, as it were, to 
get along with the least amount of calomel possible, when in 
many cases a great deal more will be given in the aggregate, 
than the single large dose, to say nothing of the incessant dis- 
turbing of the patient whose inmost heart in all cases yearns 
to be let alone ; this constant doing something for a cholera 
patient, plasters, frictions, dosing and inquiries, exhaust his 
strength, and impress him with a sense of danger which in many 
cases kick the beam in favor of the grave. 

If the dejections of cholera patients cause cholera, and if it 
is spread by intercommunication, through travellers, it is diffi- 
cult to explain its leaping during 1866, from the Atlantic coast 
to the Mississippi valley, requiring three months in the transit, 
while travellers perform the journey in three days, but on the 
malarial theory, vegetable decomposition, the explanation is 
easy and conclusive ; the cholera has raged in the Western 
cities which are either built upon made ground or are f 'in the 
immediate vicinity of a soil composed almost wholly of the rem- 
nant of vegetable decay, as in Cincinnati, St. Louis, Memphis, 
and New Orleans. If the fatality in New York had been equal 
to that of Cincinnati, we should have reached four hundred 
deaths in a day, instead of seventy-four, at its highest. 

All know that the disease has waxed and waned in New 
York city thus far, in proportion to the heat of the weather, 
which causes vegetable decomposition, that is of kitchen offal, 
rinds, peelings, tops, decayed parts, dust ; and as to the streets, 
weeds, grass, bits of wood, droppings of animals, made up whol- 
ly of vegetable matter. We do not object to putting away 
choleraic dejections, instantly and perfectly, as a matter of com- 
fort, cleanliness, and decency, but the chief attention should be 
the removal or prevention of such filth as has been so much in- 
sisted on. Epidemic cholera is impossible under any circumstan- 

Treatment of Cholera. ■ 233 

c es in a pure air, or in a clean sandy plain, or in rocky mountain 
g ides, because there is no vegetation there to decay. 

With very great interest and satisfaction a letter from Dr. 
Davis is appended, this moment received, and he, will excuse 
the liberty taken in publishing it, for he is known to be too 
great a lover of scientific truth to have any delicacy in the use 
of anything from his pen which would add to the knowledge 
of the profession or promote the public welfare. 

Cincinnati, Aug. 30th, 1866. 

Dr. Hall. 
Dear Sir . — In your little note under date of August 28th, you 
inquire whether my plan of treatment of Asiatic Cholera has 
been as successful in 1866 as it was seventeen years before ? 

I reply that it has ; — that in every case but two, at most, 
in my practice, where the sick have been placed under it early, 
and the course strictly followed, recovery has been the result, 
and that without, in a single instance, the occurrence of con- 
secutive fever. 

It is a gratification to me to be also able to state that as 
many of the other physicians here as I have known to strictly 
adopt my course have been equally successful. 

One of these, who probably has had as great a number 
of cholera patients as any physician in this city, during the 
epidemic of this summer, remarked to me to-day, " that pursu- 
ing this plan of treatment he has no fears for a cholera patient 
if before being called to attend, no opium or camphor has been 
administered, and the fluids of the body of the patient were 
not already almost completely drained away. 

I have taken notes of every case of cholera of which I have 
had charge, and as soon as I have time I shall prepare a care- 
ful report from them. 

My views of the disease have not changed in the least. 
Cholera as it has prevailed in this city during the last few 
weeks, has been as the books have described it everywhere. 
If there has been any difference between the cases of 1849 and 
those of the present year, the difference has been that the cases 
this year have been more persistent, and required the longer 
con tinuance of the administration of calomel before the dis- 
charges wer e darkened in color, or the diarrhoea lessened in 

Our city during the invasion which began in 1859, with half 

234 Hall's Journal of Health. 

the population which it now has. lost four or five thousand peo- 
ple by cholera. This year we have lost only thirteen hundred. 
What next summer will show we cannot tell. 

In looking over the names of those who have died here of 
the disease, as they have been published in the daily papers, 
the striking fact is manifest that they were almost every one 
either German or Irish ; that is of the number who live in tene- 
ment houses, inhaling, of necessity, concentrated crow*d poison 
during much of their time. 

Yours respectfully and truly, 

John Davis, 
323 Elm Street, Cincinnati. 

We are not particularly anxious that our views of the na- 
ture, cause and cure of epidemic cholera should be adopted, 
but we do desire that all the real facts should be presented to 
the profession, and to intelligent general readers to aid in ar- 
riving at the true principles of practice. 

While all the facts are fresh in the memory, the Board of 
Health of New York would do well to answer the following 
questions in the light of all their observations. 

1st. — Were there a greater or less number of cholera cases 
in the vicinity of slaughter-houses, gas-works, glue manufac- 
tories, and bone-boiling establishments, than elsewhere ? 

2d. — If cholera dejections are a fruitful cause of spreading 
the disease, which seems to be becoming the almost general 
sentiment, must we suppose that only ' drunken persons and 
those living in low, flat, damp, or otherwise filthy localities, 
chanced to fall within the influence of those dejections? 

3d. — Did not the heighth of the thermometer indicate the 
ravages of the disease ? 

4th. — Were not those ravages always greater in low, flat, 
damp localities, and were not high grounds and clean sections 
wholly exempt ? 

5th. — If the cholera is a portable disease, that is, carried by 
travellers from one part to another along the great lines of 
travel, as was so confidently and pertinaciously asserted, a few 
months ago, why has it not reached Boston and Albany before 
this? Why did it require three months to reach Philadelphia, 
less than ninety miles away; why has it passed the Allegha- 
nies and leaped over Pittsburgh and lighted on Cincinnati, at 
the end of several months, when there is an incessant stream of 

Treatment of Cholera, 235 

travel of thousands of people daily from New York ? It re- 
quired several months for the disease to reach Harlem flats 
from the bay of New York, a distance of less than ten miles, 
travelled by thousands every day, in crowded cars. The dis- 
ease appeared sooner in the North than in the warmer locali- 
ties west and south, as Cincinnati and Charleston, because made 
lands are lower and more moist, and it required a more pro- 
tracted heat to evaporate the water and leave the flat surfaces 
exposed to the sun. Boston and Albany were too cold or 
stony, Pittsburgh too precipitous to hold water. We think, 
therefore, that the malarial theory explains all these points 
more satisfactorily than any other. 

The noisome establishments above named ought not to be 
allowed to remain one hour within the limits of any community. 
Their very presence has a pernicious moral effect, as well as 
physical; it is only contended that there is not sufficient proof 
to show that they develope cholera, in a cholera atmosphere. — ■ 
What has been said, relates only to epidemic cholera, that which 
involves a number of cases, those which occur singly, from per- 
sonal, individual, or transient causes, are not to be taken into 
account ; we conclude, therefore, that the law of the spread of 
epidemic cholera is heat, causing vegetable decomposition in a 
cholera atmosphere. 

Mad-Stone. — John Smith, of New Harmon, Ind., says that 
while living with the Indians, he learned that the Mad-stone 
was obtained from the Rennett of the Deer, and that he has 
one of them which will cure a bee-sting within the time one 
can hold his breath. Webster defines the Rennett, or Run- 
nett, the prepared stomach or concreted milk found in the 
stomach of a sucking quadruped. 

Rancid Butter is said to be restored to nearly its former 
sweetness, if three pounds are churned with half a gallon of 
sweet milk. 

Musquitoes are said to be driven from a room if a piece of 
gum camphor, as large as the quarter of a hen's egg is placed 
on a piece of tin and held over a lamp, but not so near as to 
take fire. The London " Field" says that the branch of a 
walnut tree, suspended over a bed, is a good protection against 
gnats and musquitoes. The Editor will be obliged to any one 
who will make the experiment thoroughly, and report. 

Erom the Boston Watchman and Reflector, by Dr. W. W. Hall, M, D. 



One of the ablest men of his time, a loved son of New England, gentle as a 
woman in his manners, but in mind as to culture, and power, and vigor in argu- 
ments, a very samson, after preaching in a country church on a cold winter's 
night, was invited to a neighbor's house until the morning. He retired early, and 
as usual, was put in the best room, to occupy a most faultlessly clean, sofr, white 
bed. From long disuse it had become damp. He felt its coldness keenly, but 
not wishing to give trouble, and in the" hope of soon becoming warm, he fell 
asleep, but awoke in the night with a terrible chill and cramp, of which he died 
in a few hours. 

The immediate cause of the death of Lord Bacon, whose renown is world-wide, 
was the cold and dampness of a spare room ; the best room in the house of a 
friend with whom he stopped for a night on his way to London. 

Let parishioners who may chance to read these lines, and who wish to honor 
a clergyman who may be enjoying their hospitality, with the best thiDgs they can 
offer for his convenience and comfort, have a care to freshly air and warm the bed- 
clothes of the spare chamber for two or three hours before they are used for the 
night, especially if the bed has not been occupied for a week or two. If during 
the evening he has been preaching, give him facilities for being thoroughly warm- 
ed befoie he is sent to his chilly " spare chamber." The clergy of the Christian 
church are the salt of the earth in a most important sense, for they are the am- 
bassadors of God; hence our interest and duty demand that for their office' sake 
t if for no other, care and consideration should be shown them. No one will be 
! sorry at the judgment for bestowing such attention. The reward will be the same 
as if it had been done for the Master in His own person, for His words are, "In- 
asmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these, ye did it unto Me." 

To mothers in Israel another word of caution may be given. Some of the 
clergy are killed by piecemeal , others in a night, by mistaken kindness. Ye 
meant it unto good, but the sure result follows for all that, and inevitably. If 
the minister dines with you and has to preach within a few hours, it is safer and 
better to provide a very plain meal, so as not to tempt the appetite ; otherwise 
an inefficient or sleepy discourse is almost an inevitable result. A very hearty 
supper after a long fast or exhausting religious services, endangers life itself. A 
very able minister of the Lutheran church, and a loved editor of a religious news- 
paper, was on his way to attend one of the church councils. % He left home early 
in the morning and travelled until noon, but circumstances were such as to make 
it inconvenient for him to take dinner and before he could reach the intended 
stopping place it was late in the evening. He was cold, and hungry, and very 
much exhausted. The family knew all the circumstances, and in their sympathy 
for him prepared a " splendid supper." He soon felt recuperated, an hour passed 
pleasantly in conversation, and in due time all retired for the night. The minis- 
ter did not appear at the breakfast table. On going to his chamber he was found 
insensible, and in a few hours died of apoplexy. And this was the result of a 
hearty meal. He had a weak constitution. An empty stomach was overloaded 
and in that condition he went to sleep, and death was the consequence. 

The first meal after a severe effort of either mind or body, especially if the ef- 
fort has been protracted should be a very simple one, such as light bread, butter, 
and a cup of hot drmk; then in four or five hours a hearty meal mav he o.*.? 1 - 
taken, and is necessary. 



Health and long life are almost universally associated with early rising; and 
we are pointed to countless old people, as evidence of its good effect on the gen- 
eral system. Can any one of our readers on the spur of the moment, give a good 
conclusive reason why health should be attributed to this habit ? We know that 
old people get up early, but it is simply because they can't sleep. Moderate old 
age doe3 not require much sleep ; hence, in the aged, early rising is a necessity, 
or convenience, and is not a cause of health in itself. — There is a larger class of 
early risers, very early risers, who may be truly said not to hava a day's health 
in a year — the thirsty folks, for example, who drink liquor until midnight and 
rise early to get more! One of our earliest recollection is that of "old soakers'' 
making their "devious way" to the grog-shop or tavern bar-room, before sunrise, 
for their morning grog. Early rising, to be beneficial, must have two concomi- 
tants ; to retire early and on rising to be properly employed. — One of the most 
eminent divines in this country rose by daylight for many years, and at the end 
of that time became an invalid, has traveled the world over for health, and has 
never regained it, nor ever will. It is rather an early retiring that does the good, 
by keeping people out of those mischievous practices which darkness favors, and 
which need not here be more particularly referred to. 

Another important advantage of retiring early is, that the intense stillness of 
midnight and the early morning hours favor that unbroken, repose which is the 
all-powerful renovator of the tired system. Without, then, the accompaniment of 
retiring early, " early rising " is worse than useless, and is positively mischiev- 
ous. Every person should be allowed to "have his sleep out;" otherwise, the 
duties of the day cannot properly be performed, and will be necessarily slighted, 
even by the most coascientious. 

To all young persons, to students, to the sedentary, and to invalids, the fullest 
sleep that the system will take, without artificial means, is the balm of life — with- 
out it there can be no restoration to health and activity again. Never wake up 
the sick or infirm, or young children, of a morning— it is a barbarity; let them 
wake of themselves, let the care rather be to establish an hour for retiring, so 
early that their fullest sleep may be out before sunrise. 

Another item of very great importance is, do not hurry up the young and the 
weakly. It is no advantage to pull them out of bed as soon as their eyes are 
open, nor is it best for the studious or even for the well who have passed an un- 
usually fatiguing day, to jump out of bed the moment they wake up : let them re- 
main without going to sleep again until the sense of weariness passes from their 
limbs. Nature abhors two things: violence and vacum. The sun doe3 not break 
out at once into the glare of the meridian. The diurnal flowers unfold themselves 
by slow degree; nor fleetest beast, nor sprightliest bird, leaps at once from his 
resting place. By all which we mean to say, that as no physiological truth is 
more demonstrable, than that as the brain, and. with it the whole nervous system, 
is recuperated by sleep, it is of the first importance, as to the well-being of the 
human system, that it have its fullest measure of it; and to that end, the habit of 
retiring to bed early should be made imperative on all children, and no ordinary 
event t-hou d be allowed to interfere with it. Its moral healthfulness is not less 
important than its physical. Many a young ' man, many a young woman, has 
taken the first step towards degradation, and crime and disease, after ten o'clock 
at night; at which hour, the year round, the old, the middle aged, and the young, 
jShouli be in bed ; and the early rising will take care of itself, with the incalcul- 
able accompaniment of a fully rested body and a renovated brain. We repeat it 
there is neither wisdom nor safety, nor health, in early rising in itself; but there 
is all of them in the persistent practice of retiring to bed at an early hour, winter 
and summer. 

238 Hall's Journal of Health. 


"We do not remember to have read in many a day any article 
on any subject with such an intense interest as Tischendorf's 
description of the manner in which he became possessed of the 
Sinai Bible, in one of the cloisters of Mount Sinai, it being, per- 
haps, the oldest copy in the world of the old and new Testa- 
ments written in Greek about the year 333, A. D. 

u I had rather/' said a venerable and courtly man, "have dis- 
covered for the Queen of England the Sinaitic manuscript, than 
11 Koh-i-nur;" and certainly it is worth more to the human race 
than any number of Koh-i-nurs, because it is a "mountain of 
light" not yielded by a perishable jewel of an hour, but a source 
of light upon the Holy Scripture, which shall not cease to shine 
during the ages. It was translated from the author's German 
narration for the Hours at Home, a New York publication devo- 
ted to religion and useful literature. Thirty cents will procure a 
copy containing the article, sent to Charles Scribner & Co., 654 
Broadway, New York, it being the June No. for 1866, being No. 
2 of volume third. 

Who in the wide world but a German scholar could start from 
home with a hundred Dutch dollars and his only coat unpaid for, 
on an uncertain mission which was to take him through three 
continents at a cost of three thousand dollars and fifteen years' 
time. But the plodding Dutchman did it ; and what is more, 
gloriously succeeded, to the great joy of Pope, Autocrats and 

The Christian puplic owe much to the enterprise of Hours at 
Home in obtaining this translation of Tischendorf's absorbing 

The Dental Eegister, edited and puplished monthly at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio,— $ 3 a year— by J. Taft, is well worth the patron- 
age of the Dental profession. It is now near the close of its 20th 

The Chicago Medical Examinee, a Monthly, $ 3 a year ; edited 
by Professor Davis, has a most important article in the June 
number on the Primary Surgery of Gen. Sherman's Campaigns^ 
by Professors Andrews and Wentworth. Dr. K. P. Cotton of 
London, on spitting blood as a sign of Consumption. Our own 
views are that if a man ever spits blood, he will in nine cases out 
of ten die of consumption unless promptly and properly treated. 
Although friends and physicians are too ready to ascribe it to 
any other cause, it is infinitely safer to say, that when a man spits 
blood it means death within two years, with very rare except- 
ions} especially when there is cough and the cough always gets 

Notices, 239 

better after each bleeding. On the other hand when a woman 
spits biood w e consider it a sign of no special importance of 

itself, unless it be a sign of their going to get well. -Also an 

article on the newly discovered cause of Fever and Ague, by ! 
Prof. J. H. Salsbury, who has immortalized himself by the dis- 
covery, if time verifies it. The idea is that the cause of fever 
and ague, for example, is a vegetable seed, of which the air is full 
at the surface of the earth at sunrise and sunset. None are 
found in the air during the middle of the day, nor at any time 
usually at a greater height than thirty feet ; answering precisely 
to the laws of miasm, published by us several years ago.^ 
( See articles " Miasm," and " Month Malign " and " Farmers' 
Houses," in previous volumes of the Journal.) It is one of the 
most important of all practical subjects connected with disease 
and the use we have made of the facts known in regard to mal- 
adies of this character in the shape of Spring and Autumnal dis- 
eases, epidemics, etc., was to recommend as an absolute and infal- 
lible preventive of these ailments in any family in the Autumn 

First — To sleep in the upper stories. 

Second — To exclude the night air from the chambers. 

Fourth. — Never go outside the house till breakfast was eaten. 

Fourth. — Come into the house before sundown and not go out 
afterwards, at least until supper was taken. 

Fifth. — Kindle a fire in the family sitting-room at sunrise and 
sunset, and sit by it. All these items correspond with Professor 
Salisbury's discovery. That these sporules are not found in the 
air of hot noon-day is because heat is incompatible with their 

By the thoughtful courtesy of Senator Morgan of New York 
City, we are in receipt of a volume of " Statistics of the United 
States," including Mortality, Property, Army and Navy, Deaf 
and Dumb, Banks, Railroads, Public Press, Churches, Education- 
al, etc., in 1860 ; being the final exhibit of the eighth census, 
under the direction of Hon. James Plarlan of Iowa, Secretary of 
the Interior. It is a quarto volume of 584 pages, replete with 
the most important information connected with our government, 
and will be a standard book of reference of inestimable value. 

To purtfy rancid Lard. — The following is said to effect this 
perfectly: — "Knowing the antiseptic qualities of the chloride of 
soda, I procured three ounces, which I poured into a pailful of 
soft water, and when hot,the lard added. After boiling thorough- 
ly for an hour or two it was set aside to cool. The lard was taken 
off when nearly «cold, and subsequently boiled up. The color was 
restored to an alabaster white, and the lard was as sweet as a 
rose," Rancid butter may be treated in the same way. 

240 HaWs Journal of Health, 

The Pulse. — In ascending into the air, the pulse, for the first 
mile or two, beats, for each hundred yards of ascent, one faster 
thus, if it beats seventy times in a minute, which is the average 
for adults in health, it will beat at the height of one mile, about 
eighty-eight times in a minute. We have not heard it so stated, 
but the breathing must increase with proportional rapidity, for 
the pulsations at the wrist, or the beating of the heart, which 
are at the same instant, are in the proportion to the breathing of 
four to one in health. It does not appear to require much effort 
to draw a breath, but Mr. Fitch has estimated that th-e power ex- 
pended in breathing during twenty-four hours would raise a 
hundred pounds to the height of seven hundred feet. 

A Dose. — The iollowing is taken from a newspaper. The stu 
pidity which could recommend such an abominable conglomera- 
tion is amazing. What is worthy of note, we see the same re- 
commendation in the same paper year after year, as regularly 
as the tomatoe season comes round : 

"For a family of half a dozen persons, take six eggs, boil four 
of them hard, dissolve the yolks with vinegar sufficient, add 
about three teaspoons of mustard and mash as soon as possible; 
then add the two remaining eggs, (raw) yolk and white, stir 
well ; then add salad oil to make altogether sauce sufficient to 
cover the tomatoes well : add plenty of sauce and cayenne pep- 
per, and beat thoroughly until it frosts. Skin and cut the toma- 
toes a full fourth of an inch thick, and pour the sauce over." 

The dish may be a very palatable one to any drunkard or to- 
bacco-chewer, whose faculties of taste have been so blunted that 
nothing but fire and brimstone could wake them up to any sensi- 
bility. A curious item in reference to the dose aforesaid is, that 
it gives the exact proportion of every item except the quantity 
of tomatoes to be used ; is it a pint or a bushel ? What is more 
surprising is, that the article is headed " Tomatoes for supper." 
They will live longest whose food is simple, and the fewer differ- 
ent articles we use at any meal beyond three or four, the better; 
while a simple supper of a piece of plain cold bread and butter 
with a glass of water or a cup of warm drink of any. kind, will 
be of incalculable benefit in the course of a lifetime to all per- 
sons who spend most of their time indoors. It is variety which 
tempts us all to exceed at meal-times, and they are wisest and 
will be the healthiest and happiest, and the longest lived by a 
score of years at least, who begin early to have simple tastes, 
and feed at each meal on one meat, one vegetable, and one furit, 
with any suitable drink, with bread, butter, salt, vinegar, pepper, 
and such salads as desired. There may not be. found one fam- 
ily in a thousand willing to adopt such a course, but it would 
prevent a large amount of pain and suffering, and wasting sick- 

Notices. 241 

ness, if something of an approximation was made to such a die- 
tary, and as the quantity is not limited, there is no danger of 
starvation, especially as the articles may be changed at each 
meal, which allows of abundant variety. 

Ice Preserver. — Make a double bag with a space of three 
inches between the inner and outer one, fill this space with feath- 
ers, at side and bottom, as tight as can be packed, and if the 
mouth is closely tied, a few pounds of ice will keep a week. 

Boston is having a sensation — or dispensation — growing out 
of the adveut of Professor Blot, whose lectures on the art of 
cooking attracted so much attention in New York. The Post is 
in ecstasies after the following fashion ; " Professor Blot's class- 
es in Mercantile Hall, are filling up rapidly. More of the posi- 
tive science and system of cookery is now talked about among 
matrons, young and old, than was ever imported into a year's 
conversation before. Many a hard working man of business 
experiences a sense of relief at the change in his domestic men- 
age. His head is clearer; his heart is lighter ; his home wears a 
pleasanter look. Professor Blot has done it. Thanks to the 
welcome lecturer on the mysteries of the culinary art, whobrings 
happiness as well as better dishes' and a sounder digestion." 

The American Tract Society, 150 Nassau Street, New York, 
have issued eighty questions on cards, with Bible answers, thus : 
"Should we be kind to each other?" answer, Eph, 4.32. " Be 
{ye kind to one another." In this way most important practical 
■information is communicated to children in an easy manner, with 
Scripture authority therefore. Also a paper-covered 24mo. 48 
pages, " To these commencing a religious life." This is a useful 
work to that too much neglected class of persons, those who 
have just joined the church ; the untiring zeal which some show 
in getting persons to join the church and then dropping them 
like a hot potatoe, as if salvation were secured, is a too common 
and a veryfgrave fault. The difficulties and discouragements of 
those just entering a religious life are not a whit less than those 
which beset them previous to making a profession of religion ; 
it is like throwing a baby in a mudhole and let it waddle out 
the best way it can. To these unfortunate forsaken ones, this 
three cent book is sweetly encouragiug, and very instructive. 
We don't mean to treat so serious a subject irreverently, but 
hope that the manner will attract the greater attention of those 
whose duty it is to carry the lambs in their bosom. 

The Rev. Charles Peabody's narration of " Twenty years 
among the Colporteurs," will encourage working christians, while 
it will shame those who expect to reach heaven by lolling and 

" On flowery beds of ease," 

242 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and to whom the whole of religions duty seems to be in riding 
to church on Sunday morning in spleudid equipages, with a 
"love feast" following, in the shape of a Sunday dinner with 
choice friends, from which they arise, in the identical language 
we heard from the mouth of that venerated man, the Rev. James 
W. Alexander, "more like gorged anacondas than anything 
else," seeming to forget that the compliment of practical piety is 
not made up by large donations of money, which do not involve 
one single, the slightest self-denial, but that more precious gifts 
to the treasures of the Lord is found in individual personal 
efforts, requiring mental anxiety, bodily fatigue, and trying self- 

Come to think of it, perhaps we had better change our M line" 
in spite cf General Grant's example, and go to writing sermons 
or " Health Tracts for the Soul. Wonder if it would be a more 
profitable investment of brain-work, bring in more money, to 
buy candy for our children now, alas ! all in their teens ; our once 
little Alice, just having passed twelve, yet towering up to the 
heighth of five feet three, and still " going ahead," bless her little 
heart ! 

The same society have also printed tf Among the Willows," or 
"How to do Good," by J. H. Tangille, being the history of Mary 
Cludge. The leading incident of this narrative having occurred 
at an institution of learning a few years since.. * 

* The Awakening of Italy," by the Eev. J. A Wylie, D.D., 12 
mo. 364 pages, from personal observations during four visits to 
Italy, including a year's residence in that country. Every zeal- 
ous friend of evangelical religion ought to get the book and read 
it ; it is of absorbing interest. 

! " Sisters and not Sisters," by Mrs. M. E. Berry, 246 pps., 12 
mo. Being lessons drawn from actual scenes in single home life, 
best suited to our common wants, a book which might be profit- 
ably read half a dozen times to the family circle before the winter 

" The young Lady of Pleasure," anonymous, without preface, 
316 pp. 12mo. A series of thirty letters to young ladies, closing 
with '• Your affectionate friend, M. Stanley." These are letters 
written by a lady teacher, at the request of a former pupil, who 
had " finished her education" in the usual meaning of the phrase, 
but who finds, to her surprise, that she is just entering upon the 
practical duties of life, and has just entered " The Practical 
Knowledge class," the previous classes having been theoretical, 
preparatory, having done little more than learning the mind one 
lesson, how to think. The motto on the title-page from Young, 
is alone, suggestive of a volume. 

Notices. 243 

" False pleasures from Moed her joys impart, 
Rich from within, and self-sustained the true." 
. This is one of the fittest works we have lately seen for a girl 
just leaving school. 

A Doctor's Life. — There is more than money's worth in a 
letter like the following from a Lady, the offspring of a grati- 
tude living in its freshness twenty years after its birth. " I am 
the wife of A. P. R. whom you treated for lung disease about 
twenty j^ears ago, and were the means of arresting and curing a 
malady which we thought would carry him to an early grave. 
M.y husband is now forty-three years old, and is very healthy. 
(Now for the political.) He has gone through five years 
service in the war, on the Union side, of course, for no such 
clever man as Capt. A. P. R. could ever be a " Reb." 

Mountain Weight. — A mountain is pretty heavy physically, 
and the expression is used to indicate the oppressed condition of 
the mind. Physicians are repeatedly consulted by persons who 
think they are " in a very bad way" when there is actually no 
physical derangement, but the trouble has arisen from a misap- 
plication, or misapprehension of the meaning of facts and occur- 
rences. A young gentleman writes, " I feel no anxiety now, you 
have lifted a most wearisome burden from my mind. I cannot 
tell you how strong and well I feel ; time passes cheerfully and 
swiftly, while before, only a day of life was a dread to me, not 
from actual trouble, but from fear of the future. 

Hair- Wash. — The very best and most efficient hair-wash in 
the world is soap-suds rubbed thoroughly into the scalp with the 
ends of the fingers; then rinse well with pure water, and wipe 
dry with a towel. If this is done thoroughly, once a week, there 
will be found scarcely a particle of dandruff, and the hair will be 
soft and silken, with the appearance of having more of it ; any 
hair-oil or pomatum whatever, is a filthiness and a hair destroyer, 
as they gather dust, obstruct the pores of the scalp, prevent the 
access of the air to the roots of the hair, and rots them. 

Rats. — The odor of dead rats induces disease in a whole house- 
hold, while most rat poisons are fatal to the family. If the bi- 
sulphide of carbon is poured into their holes it will drive them 
from the premises in twent}^-fbur hours ; the next best remedy is 
a rat-trap baited with toasted cheese. 

Purifying Water. — A plum-sized lump of alum attached to a 
string and swung around a few times slowly through a pitcher 
of water will cause the sediment to fall to the bottom in a few 
minutes. The neutral sulphate of alumine will make lime-water 
perfectly pure, destroying at the same time all organic com- 
pounds j almost all water has lime in it. 

244 BalVs Journal 6f Health. 

Cookery. — The severest blow to intelligence offices is Pierre 
Blot, (pronounced Blow) the lecturer on cookery. The Professor is 
both a scholar and a gentleman ; and every housewife who has 
an opportunity, by attending a full course of lectures, will, in 
spite of herself, become deeply interested in it, and will acquire 
an amount of practical information which will be useful for life, 
and which, if utilized, will save the health and money ol the 

Tobacco.— Four hundred millions of pounds of tobacco was 
raised in the United States during the year 1860. More than 
half of which was produced in the Northern States ; it ruins the 
health of many, and is the first step towards drunkenness, in 
millions of cases, and not only makes water insipid, but creates 
a desi fe f° r something to drink, which only spirits can satisfy. 

Physiognomy teaches how to know a man by his face. Just 
published, " New Physiognomy, or Signs of Character," 768 
pages, 8vo. sent by mail for $5.00, post-paid, by Fowler and 
Wells, 389 Broadway, New York. It has more than a thousand 
illustrations of the faces of remarkable men, and is one of the 
most interesting books which has lately come to our notice ; it 
is eminently practical ; it enables one to judge of human nature 
through the temperament, external forms, and the face ; to do 
this well, is an important element of success in life, in every de- 
partment, from the school teacher to the general; from the par- 
ent to tne czar ; whoever has to employ a servant, or a helper, 
one or a thousand, will fail or succeed according to the correct- 
ness with which he has judged of their character. It is a book 
suited to every parlor-table in the land, as it can be taken up 
with profit even if but for a moment. Faces change with the 
character, and employment, see Abraham Lincoln ; love signs, 
transmitted features ; hands and feet, gait, &c. 

The American News Co., 121 Nassau St., New York, W. B. 
Zeibur, Philadelphia, Henry Taylor, Baltimore, and Morrison, 
Washington City, have for sale the Post-Office Directory for 
1866. It contains the names of all the post-offices and post-mas- 
ters names in the United States and Canada, with names of new 
post-offices alphabetically arranged ; with rates of foreign and 
domestic postage ; lists of money-order post-offices with table of 
distances by the shortest mail routes from the county seats, from 
Washington, revised and corrected by J. Disturnell. It is sent 
post-paid, for $1.50 ; its value and usefulness to business and 
professional men is seen at a glance. 

Criticism. — " "We often think that Dr. Hall is a trifle too stick- J 
lish about small matters, and apt to magnify a molehill of hyg-l 
enic neglectfulness into a .mountain of trouble-making, — and in 

Notices. 245 

some matters too nearly an extremist ; but if he errs, it is always 
on the safe side/' 

We do not like the above criticism, at all, because it is of no 
possible use to us or our readers ; if the editor of the Lyons Re- 
publican will state in what we are too minute or are over par- 
ticular in small matters, we will investigate and correct the fault, 
for that is the only advantage of criticism ; if he will only specify, 
we promise to have some fun at his expense, and the profit of 
our subscribers. 

New-England Dying Out. — About three-fourths of all the 
children born in Boston during 1865 were of parents born in a 
foreign land ; therefore, argues one of the papers, " the Yankee 
stock will in time die out in New-England/' "We think by that 
time, Yankee stock will have peopled, will be. the predominant 
stock of this continent, from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf, and 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific shore. Because Yankee intelli- 
gence knows how to rear children to maturity, while foreign ig- 
norance and filth kills, almost as soon as born, for out of every 
hundred children dying, eighty-eight are of foreign parentage, 
and this has been the rate for the last five years in New York 
city, where the native population is 49 per cent, and the foreign 
51, or nearly equal, and it is presumed that the same proportions 
hold good in all our large cities. Hence if 62 per cent of all the 
children born in Boston are of foreign parents, and 88 per cent 
die, it is very easy to see they might as well not (have been born 
at all, and a great deal " mightier,'' as far as the question of the 
foreign outstripping the Yankee stock is concerned. The fact 
is, neither Yankee men. nor Yankee principles, nor Yankee thrift, 
will ever die out, while this planet is inhabited ; and if it is ever 
depopulated by a conflagration, the last survivor of a smoulder- 
ing world will be Jonathan, at the death, singly and alone, reso- 
lutely trying to put out the fire ; if by famine, the last loaf of 
bread will be owned by a Yankee. 

Advertisements. — Our readers will take notice, once for all 
that the mere admission of an advertisement does not involve 
any opinion whatever in its favor. Every one must try for him- 
self, and hold on to that which is good, but expect to be bitten 



Many of the so-called accidents of life by which health is irre- 
coverably lost, if indeed not more immediately fatal, are the 
legitimate result of ignorance, indifference, or thoughtlessness 
and which with a very little reflection might have been avoided. 
Nothing is more common than for girls and women to put a pin 
in their mouths, intending it to be but for an instant, and yet 
forgetting it, on a sudden impulse to laughter, it is drawn into 
the throat,or lungs themselves, requiring a delicate, painfnl and 
dangerous surgical operation in order to extract it. Perhaps 
nine persons out of ten in passing through a wood or harvest 
field, will take a twig or a straw and put it into their mouth, and 
before they are aware, it has made its way downwards causing 
the most distressing cough or strangulation, sometimes inducing 
hemorrhage or. convulsions. Eecently a printer in Baltimore, 
after a violent fit ol coughing expelled a brass nail an inch long, 
much corroded. It had been ' k accidentally" swallowed twoyears 
before, and for all that length of time had been a constant 
source of annoyance, bleedings and ill health. There is a pecu- 
liar tendency in children to put things to their nose or ears, and 
especially if a little rounded, a little slip propels them into the 
cavity. A girl, five year old, made a motion as if to smell a 
little black bean; it suddenly disappeared ; a surgeon was sent 
for and probed the nostrils, but could feel nothing. Six months 
later, it was blown from the nose ; we saw it a few moments 
afterwards all shrivelled and wrinkled. Yery recently a little 
fellow introduced a foreign body into his ear; as probing for it 
occasioned a great deal of pain, chloroform was used to facilitate 
the extraction, which failed, and at the same time the child was 
discovered to be dead. Children should be taught from infancy 
that life may be lost in ways above named, and that on no pre- 
tence whatever, for a single instant ought anything to be put in- 
to the mouth, which is not in the [nature of food, and to keep 
hard objects away from the ears and nostrils. 

Very lately a man went down into a well and was observed 
by his brother to dip his head forward and remain still and 
silent ; the brother in haste went down to his assistance and was 
observed to make precisely the same motion, when a third 
brother went to his rescue with a similar result ; they were all 
found to be dead from the suffocating gas at the bottom of the 
well. A bunch of straw, paper, or shavings should be thrown 
burning into a well before descending ; if it goes out, deathMs 
there. The first brother might have been saved by throwing 
cold water upon him, to absorb the gases and carry more oxygen 


VOL. XIIL] NOVEMBER, 1866. [No. 11. 


" He was always allowed to have his own way," was the rec- 
ord a few days ago, of a well-dressed young man who was found 
dead in the road, with a bullet hole through the back of his head. 
He was the only son of a wealthy widow, who furnished him with 
all the money he wanted, so that he might enjoy himse If ; with 
the result that he fell intofbad company, and dissipated habits, 
and evil associations, and was murdered on the distant shores of 
California for the jewelry which he had on his person ; leaving 
his mother in all her lonliness in her New England home, to pass 
the remainder of her life in bitter remorse for having acted on 
the mistaken principle, that the best way to have a child enjoy 
himself, was to allow him " to have his own way." Within a day 
or two, a murderer who had some education, and had enjoyed 
the advantages of good society, made the deliberate statement 
under the gallows : 

" And now I want to say to all these people to respect their 
parents. "W hen we throw all parental authority aside we com- 
mence a course of sin. It is terrible to be disobedient to parents 
Sabbath breaking and lying, too, are awful things. There are 
many here who have children, I want to state* to them that it 
is their great duty to God and their children to guard them well 
in their youth, and give them good influences to surround them; 
to take them more into their confidence, and make home inviting 
and happy to them, and talk to them more. My father was a 
church member, aud so was my mother ; but they never gave 
me any advice. They went to their church every Sunday, but 
they left their religion at the church. They never explained to 
us the doctrines of the Bible. All parents should see that 
their children have a love for God, and they should let them know 
what the bible is. A great many children are running around 
,in the streets, and they get them into the jails and that only 
'makes them worse. We should make home happy, and a bless- 
ng for them. It is a duty that God devolves upon us. I hope 
God may pardon all our sins, and that he may receive my soul." 


Such facts show that it is the houshold education which moulds 
the character, and that if the family relation was properly under- 
stood and its duties and obligations were properly met, -a vast 
amount of crime, and destitution, and Wretchedness, and prema- 
ture death would be prevented, and in view of the subject the 
following article from the able pen of the Kev, Dr. Joel Parker 
of Newark, New Jersey, merits a serious and thoughtful consid- 



The Family is a wondrous thing. What a history it has ! It 
dates clear back to Eden. It commences with the creation of the 
first man. In a sense, it is all contained in him, as its germ ; for 
the woman and the offspring are a development from the primordial 
form. The family is a house built by an infinitely skillful Architect. 
It is commenced with one living stone, and thence " groweth unto 
an holy temple in the Lord." Adam is " the head of the corner" — 
a corner-stone, stretching out in one direction. The woman is 
developed from the man, and the two stand as two walls united by 
a right-angle. By a double birth, the twin brothers, Cain and Abel, 
become the complement of the square. There stands, in its most 
complete form, our human life, as the life of Christ is set forth by 
the four-sided revelation of the Evangelists. And yet, while there 
is a four-fold form in the first complete family, as indicating strength 
and progressiveness beyond the necessary elements, there is a three- 
foldness analogous to the Divine Subsistence in a primal source in 
the man, in a second one proceeding from him in woman, and in a 
procession from the first two united, hi their children. 

Satan's envy was first excited by beholding this faint emblem of 
the Holy Trinity in the three-foldness of man, woman, and offspring ; 
and, as the arch tempter sought first to debase the image of God in 
the family, so we must commence a holy influence in that very spot, 
and first " bind the Devil on the hearth-stone." Call this philoso- 
phy, or speculation, or what you will, the family is a great institu- 
tion. It is the germ of every valuable social organization — the 
State, the Church, the School, and the compact of combined labor. 

The greatest function of the family, next to its physical subsist- 
ence, growth, and increase, which are essential to its existence, is 
intellectual and spiritual development. In this, all the members 


bear a part. Like the allegory of the body and its several Iiinb3 
and members, by Menonius Agrippa, and like St. Paul's similitude, 
borrowed from it, and invested with the life and perfection of inspi- 
ration, the family has a head and heart, and hands and feet, and all 
the various functions of a body. The family is an embryo state — a 
government. Its form, it is true, is peculiar. It is not a despotic 
empire, nor a monarchy, nor a representative republic, nor a pure 
democracy. It is, certainly, a patriarchal government — a divinely 
organized theocracy. Thus, the family has a head, as God is the 
head of the moral universe. As the Lord said to Moses, " I have 
made thee a god to Pharaoh : and Aaron thy brother shall be thy 
prophet " — so, in effect, the Lord has made the father a god to his 
family ; and the wife and mother is clad in a priestly stole, like 
Aaron, and is made the prbphet of this divinely constituted organi- 

As a Church, it possesses features and arrangements analogous 
with those of a fully developed Christianity. The husband is in the 
place of Christ ; his wife is in the place of the Church ; and the 
children ought to be a holy brotherhood. The ligaments that bind 
them all together, are those of love. The voice of worship, of 
prayer, and fiarmonious holy song, should fill the family mansion, 
and impart to the community that sacred character which justified 
an apostle, when sending greetings to a friend, in subjoining, after 
making mention of individually, " And to the church which is in thy 
house.' , 

The family ought to be more earnestly employed, as an organiza- 
tion, for securing every valuable end of social existence. It ought 
to be catechised in the elements of sacred truth, inspired with holy 
sentiments, and directed in the employment of its practical powers. 
To this end, a loving unity is of the very highest consequence. 
Nothing is more conducive to this than family worship and inspired 
teaching. There is a single psalm, the 133d, which is, perhaps, the 
most beautiful, and the sweetest bouquet in the whole Hebrew 
anthology. Let it be made familiar to all, as if placed in a vase in 
the keeping-room, and its beauty and fragrance shall fill the place. 
" Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell 
together in unity ! It is like the precious ointment upon the head, 
that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard ; that went down 
to the skirts of his garments : As the dew of Hermon, and as the 
dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion ; for there the 
Lord commanded the blessing, even life for evermore." Ail the 
members of a household ought to make this beautiful lyric their own. 


Then let all take part in the work of educating the family. 
What a beautiful, and useful, and pleasure-producing employment 
is it, to read in the family-circle ! Let there be stated times for the 
exercise. Let every one select gems of thought — elegant literature, 
scientific truth, rare and interesting information, and bring it for- 
ward for the general good. A good article is as quickly read as a 
poor one. A single paragraph, of extraordinary force and beauty, 
is of more value than whole volumes of fair common-place reading. 
One scientific truth, clearly brought out, will furnish matter for use- 
ful conversation, and reflection, and profitable application, for many 
years to come. 

Let the individual members be appointed each to seek out and 
present some specific needed information. Appoint each one to 
lecture on a given subject. Give to one, for instance, " printing," 
as a theme, with instructions to acquire and present to the family- 
circle, in a compact fbrm, information on the whole subject, em- 
bracing the etymology of the word to print; the origin of the 
art — its progress — its present extent in the world — its connection 
with other discoveries and improvements, as paper and ink manu- 
facture, and printing-presses, and types, stereotyping and electro- 
typing, and their present and prospective influence upon the world. 
Give to another, Africa, embracing its physical geography, and 
races* and languages, with commerce, and productions, and travels, 
and colonization, and present and prospective civilization — slavery, 
soil, climate, and indeed everything that can awaken an intelligent 
interest. Let another prepare a lecture on chemical science; 
another, on the beautiful ; another, on the vast ; and another, on 
the minute. Give time for preparation by reading and inquiry. 
Allow months or weeks — if needs be, a year. To this lyceum work, 
manufacture may be added ; and every member may be required 
to produce something distinguished for elegance or use. Let song, 
and utterance, and the vernacular tongue, be cultivated. Let 
sketches of excursions be preserved, and scraps of great value be 
clipped from periodical literature, and preserved. These are mere 
hints. Carry the purpose of improvement out in all directions. 
Make the family a university. 

Paeental Responsibility. — The father molds the head; the 
mother, the heart ; the father appeals to the understanding ; the 
mother, to the affections ; the father prepares for time ; the mother, 
for eternity. Happy the children who heed the wise teachings of both. 



BY H. L. "W. 

You ask me to give you upon paper some of the little incidents 

was relating to you last night. Here is one of our California 
ranches, very much at your service. 

You understand, cousin, that Petaluma is the central one of the 
three rich agricultural valleys — Napa, Petaluma, and Sonora — 
which are so often referred to in accounts of California. You are 
also familiar with the oft-repeated descriptions of their fertility and 
beauty; I shall not therefore expatiate upon that theme, but pro- 
ceed to the little visit that interested you. 

It was the noon of a warm and bright Summer's day that we 
drove up to the gates of General H 's ranche, and into the vine- 
yard, through which a carriage-drive wound up to the dwelling. 
About midway this drive we were brought to a halt for a few 
minutes, by a picturesque and to me novel spectacle. Three large 
wagons intercepted the way, laden to the brim, literally overflowing 
with ripe grapes of the finest quality, odor and color, just gathered 
for the wine-press. 

Several men were at work among the vines, each with a bushel- 
basket for the reception of the grapes when gathered. These were 
speedily filled with huge, luscious clusters, of the most beautiful 
coloring, from a transparent ruby to the most royal purple. One 
after another the men came up with these baskets poised upon the 
shoulder, and deposited them in the wagons. The last load was 
nearly completed when we entered. They soon drove on and 
made way for us. 

The house was old and oddly-fashioned, but improvements were 
going on of additional apartments spacious and commodious. The 
site was very fine, standing upon elevated ground, backed by 
high and picturesque hills, and commanding from the veranda in 
front a varied and extensive prospect of many miles — hill, dale, 
and woodland, just flushed with the mellow tints of departing 
Summer; and far off to the left, just melting in the distance of 
enchantment, the fair blue waters of the Pacific. 

I remember it well — that sweetly-tinted picture; it held my 
charmed eyes for some minutes while we stood upon the veranda 
waiting for admission. We entered to look upon pictures of a 
totally different character. The aspect of the room surprised me ; 


was I in reality on a California ranche f was this the farm-house of 
a wild new country? 

We were m the chief apartment of the dwelling. The room 
seemed to me of good size and height ; I couid not give the dimen- 
sions in feet and inches, but it was rather large, and the walls all 
round from floor to ceiling were covered with costly paintings 
from the Old World. These, I believe, had been brought from 
Europe by General H . 

Pictures of every description, old family portraits, vaguely hinting 
at their own histories ; landscapes, miniatures, and fancy pieces of 
all forms and sizes, richly framed, and making the old house 
gorgeous and glowing with beauty. The room was crowded with 
the costly furniture of an elegant drawing-room ; there was a fine 
piano, and more pretty bijouterie than I could recount. 

I was very much interested in Mrs. H , who received and 

entertained us most courteously. She is from Hungary, a hand- 
some and elegant woman, of medium height, and fine form, and so 
youthful in appearance, with her gay, vivacious manner, that it was 
difficult to credit that the several portraits of grown sons and half- 
grown daughters upon the walls were rejDresentations of her children. 

She came in fresh from the pleasant occupation of preserving, 
and though neatly attired in a handsome French chintz, buckled 
at the waist with gold, apologized for her attire. 

" Why, Madame," said I, " I should suppose you had no occasion 
for anything better than a chintz in the country, particularly this 
country." To which she replied, "That at this season she found 
it more necessary to be dressed^ on the ranche, than in San Francisco, 
owing to the reception of numerous visitors. Moreover," she 
added, with a playful grace peculiar to her manner, " there are our 
husbands ; if we fail to make ourselves charming to them, we must 
not complain if we find ourselves neglected. May be," she said, 
laughing, " they'll be hunting up new sweet-hearts ! ISTo ! " shak- 
ing her head, "that will never do!" She liked ranch e-life, 
her occupation was constant and agreeable ; it was something new 
to her, too. She conducted us over the place, explaining and 
exhibiting everything that was likely to interest us; through 
wide and well-made walks, fringed on either hand with fruit trees 
or shrubbery, and plucking as she went ripe figs and clusters of 
purple grapes, with which she filled our hands. 

We first went to the wine-cellar. A grotto of fifty feet in extent 
had been excavated out of the solid rock in the side of a hill. 
This was filled with barrels of new wine. The front part of this 


formed quite a large apartment. Here were the wine-presses, and 
two or three men were at work making and barrelling wine. A 
pleasant occupation enough, I should think. 

From this we went to look at the lady's bath-house, which was 
built over a warm spring. Nature had certainly done her part 
towards making this place an agreeable residence, even to tem- 
pering the bath of a dainty lady. In another part of the grounds 
was the General's study — a small building, of one room, hidden 
away in a sweet seclusion beneath fine old trees, which sheltered it 
beneath their protecting arms from dust, rain, and sun. "We did 
not enter this sanctum, as it was locked, but through the glass 
of the long French windows we looked in upon a handsomely- 
furnished room, fitted up like a library, shelves from floor to ceiling 
filled with books, upon the floor a gay carpet, a table with writing 
implements and papers, an easy morocco-cushioned chair; and 
through the glass doors on either hand charming glimpses of green 
foliage and flowering shrubs. 

This little snuggery delighted me. To reach it, we crossed a fine 
brook, the sweet lulling sound of whose gurgling waters was dis- 
tinctly heard here blending with the songs of the many birds over- 

I» believe I have written this very nearly as I related it to you. 
It is now nearly two years since I was there, and within this time 
the wealth and taste of the proprietors have doubtless effected 
great improvements. 

There were several other ranches, or farms, within this valley 
worthy of a record, but this will suffice for this article. 


In a beautiful vision of the night, which was at the same time a 
reality, the young wanderer, in a measure an outcast from his 
father's house, looked up into heaven and saw its happy angels, and 
voices came to him so sweetly comforting, that he was waked up 
from his delicious trance, and soliloquized, " Surely, the Lord is in 
this place, and I knew it not." He knew not the extent of his hap- 
piness until it had passed. So we all look back in memory on the 
scenes of childhood, and feel that they were in days of sunshine, 
but we " knew it not " at the time ; often know it not until years 
numbered by tens and twenties have passed, and " gray hairs are 
upon " us. 



We are moved to pity many times in meeting with a class ol 
men who are seeking for, they know not what. They see evil in 
the world and sorrow ; they see oppression and degradation, and 
while observing them, feel the more, in that they have experiences 
in the same directions ; tearful, bitter, almost heart-breaking exper- 
iences, it may be, and in blindness and powerlessness they are grop- 
ing about wearily and painfully for a remedy. 

In all these, not a single man or woman is found who does not 
begin by attacking the present system of received religion. Most 
of them persuade themselves that they believe the Bible, and readily 
refer to it as confirmatory of their peculiar systems, but in every 
case, they will only consent that the holy book shall be interpreted 
according to some preconceived views of their own. They are 
quite willing to make the Bible their arbiter, the tribunal of last 
resort, but then they insist that they must have the interpretation 
of its meaning. Yet with all this, they are dissatisfied and unhappy; 
there is a feeling of unrest which is devouring them, and they will 
talk ad infinitum to everybody, inferring from admissions of the 
occasional good sentiments which they avow, a more or less im- 
plied assent to their whole system, and drawing some comfort 
therefrom, they arrive at the conclusion that the whole world is 
rapidly falling into their views; and soon fanaticism assumes its 
sway, to hurry them to still greater extremes, until they are dashed 
on the rocks of suicide, of lunacy, or of perdition. 

All these people look sad ; they are extremely excitable ; they fire 
up on the instant ; and in all, we never fail to see a degree of bitter- 
ness towards opponents, and especially is a bitterness exhibited to- 
wards ministers, and churches, and communities, in proportion as 
these appear thriving, prosperous, and happy. Nor is this all ; the 
rich are their universal anvil ; on it they pound most mercilessly. 
With them, the selfishness of the rich is an exhaustless theme ; or, 
if they ever come to a conclusion, it is this, that if these same rich 
people would commit the distribution of their property to them, the 
millenium would come in a very few days ;, and while handling the 
money which they never had the capacity to earn or keep, they 
would be the happiest people on the face of the earth, and would 
thence assume that everybody else was prosperous and happy too ; 
just as a short time before, they had concluded that everybody was 
poor, and wretched, and miserable, because they were so themselves. 




Give us reading — with a name which is a pleasant reminder 
of the social circle, and all the dear delights of home ; recalling 
purest memories of all the most precious relations in private life, 
the care and protection, the advice and counsel we have received 
from age, the love and sympathy from equals, and the interest 
which invests all its associations. 

He who has no cherished recollections clustering round a remem- 
bered fireside, has lived an unloved life, and is destitute of one of 
the strongest safeguards of virtue. A nation of happy firesides pos- 
sesses within itself elements of strength, which can defy the attacks 
of iron-ribbed navies, or leagued battalions. It is a synonyme for 
the " only bliss which has survived the fall." 

We welcome to our homes another monthly. The supply of such 
periodicals. creates a demand^ Every new painting, taken from the 
easel of genius, fresh and glowing with the warm beauties of Sum- 
mer, or the wierd transformations of Winter, awakes the taste for 
its appreciations, and kindles a desire for new and varied produc- 
tions of the pencil. Every grand oratorio fills some longing in the 
tuned ear, unsatisfied before, and incites to new efforts in the won- 
derful combination of harmonious sounds. 

The shelves of costly libraries groan with ponderous philosophies 
and learned homiletics: we need something less cumbrous and 
expensive for daily use and isolated hours. We need these golden 
sands to fill up the interstices of our daily life, making it beautiful 
with these sterling truths ; and we appreciate the efforts of those 
who sift them from their granite casings, and send them pure and 
glittering to our firesides. 

Such literature is becoming a necessity of our intellectual nature ; 
it should be as plentiful as air, as refreshing as the common air — 
the generous air environing us on every side, below, around, 
beneath us — not elevated above us in cloud-land, but close at hand, 
within our dwellings, for each moment's uses, for us to breathe, to 
live upon, which none, however wealthy, can monopolize, because it 
is common. It should be as pure, as life-giving, as the common 
light, the sun-light, not only dancing in upper ether, from star to 
star, nor painting in glory the sunset, or the aristocratic mountain- 
top, but coming at once with its golden radiance to the level of our 
daily walks and common needs, greening the sod beneath our feet, 


pouring its flood of blessing through the lowly casement as well as 
the painted oriel. 

If we must eat, let our food be healthful, and not poisonous. If 
our thirst needs to be allayed, let us have water pure, fresh, and 
sparkling, from the crystal fount — not turbid, and muddy, and 
intoxicating. Our mental pabulum should be refined and strength- 
ening. It is not necessary for knowledge to be valuable, that it 
should be written in foreign tongues, or in black letters, or enclosed 
in heavy lids within folio and quarto. The guinea, subdivided, is 
not the less pure gold, and answers more purposes in its more fre- 
quent circulation, and performs a thousand more offices of kindness 
than in its condensed form. Only let it be gold, sterling gold, 
and it cannot be too plentiful, nor gladden too many firesides. 



" It is impossible for God to lie." Why ? Because it is directly 
contrary to his nature. The foundation of moral obligation is to be 
sought, not in the will, but in the nature of God. A thing is right 
or wrong, not merely because God commands or forbids it, but the 
right and the wrong of the thing are the reason of its injunction or 
inhibition. It follows, that the laws of moral obligation are as 
unchangeable as God — as immutable as the pillars of his throne. 
The principles of his moral government are the same from age to 
age eternally. If, in former periods, God did not pour out his 
judgment upon men, while in the indulgence of practices offensive 
to his holiness and in violation of his law, but manifested his good- 
ness by sending them rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling 
their hearts with joy and gladness ; this was because, as the great 
Apostle of the Gentiles informs the Athenians, when he stood on 
Mars' Hill, " The times of this ignorance God winked at, but now 
commandeth all men everywhere to repent." 

Unchanged by time, they cannot be altered or annulled by cir- 
cumstances ; these may " alter cases." But, whatever this trite 
aphorism may mean, it cannot apply to those cases into which enter 
principles of moral obligation. To practice idolatry, to dishonor 
parents, to violate the Sabbath, to murder, commit adultery, steal, 
lie, or blaspheme, are sins at all times, and under all circumstances, 
which no one can practice and be free from guilt, no matter what 

' 257 

the incitement, temptation, or provocation to their commission may 
be: these may soften the judgments of men, palliate the guilt 
before earthly tribunals, may be passed before the scrutinies of 
a merciful God, but cannot abrogate the law, or remove the solid 
foundations upon which an immutable morality rests. 

By the moral law of God, man is bound as an individual, a mem- 
ber of the family, the church, and the commonwealth, wherever 
great interests- are discussed or transacted — in the editorial chair, 
at the bar, in the pulpit, on the platform, in the legislative halls of 
the nation, on its benches of justice, in its cabinet counsels, at the 
head of its armies — in short, wherever he does or can act as a moral 
or accountable being ; for their violation,, he cannot plead the will 
of a superior, whether that of a single individual or a multitude, 
but must say, " The Lord our God will we obey, and him only will 
we serve." No pressure of circumstances, or sanction of law, by 
way of reward or penalty, can be plead — " Whether it is better to 
obey God or man, judge ye." As well may yon twinkling star 
expect to. break away from the law that binds it to its orbit, and 
wander at will throughout the Universe, as for man to suppose that 
he can in any way divest himself of his moral accountability, and 
place himself outside of the sphere of moral obligation. 

These laws, also — a truth which we are too prone to forget — 
bind nationalities as well as individuals. Nations, it is true, have no 
souls ; but those who compose them, have. Politicians may divest 
themselves of conscience — the soul remains, and they will be held 
to a rigid account as individuals for the manner in which they have 
discharged their duty, and wielded this influence and power, which, 
for wise and great purposes and ends, God has committed to them ; 
and in addition to this, if nations will affront his Throne, and defy 
his power, as nations they must suffer the penalty of his violated 
and outraged law. 

If for them there is no future, there are tremendous temporal 
punishments, as is plainly written upon almost every page of his 
Word and his Providence. In his hand is a cup of red wine, which 
he commends to their guilty lips, and thunderbolts of wasting and 
consuming vengeance, which, as Horace says, by their crimes, they 
will not permit him to lay aside — a truth confirmed by the ruins of 
mighty empires which were, but are not; by the desolations of 
lands once populous, powerful, and prosperous, which for sins of 
those who dwelt therein, have been turned into barrenness. 

France revoked the Edict of Nantes, shed the blood of the saints 
like water, upon the bloody day of St. Bartholomew, memorable in 


the annals of the Church and the world ; and but a few years had 
come and gone, until she had blood to drink, for she was worthy — 
wasted by wars, and weeping for the best and bravest of her chil- 
dren, whose bleaching bones whitened every plain of Europe, from 
the Seine to the Volga. 

Polona fell, not, it is true, unwept, nor yet, we fear, without a 
crime, but by injustice the most foul and atrocious that stains the 
pages of modern history. On the bloody battle fields of the Crimea, 
and before the frowning battlements of Sebastopol, a righteous 
God inflicted disgrace and punishment upon the proudest of her 

How often, too, does the punishment tread upon the very heels 
of crime. The sorrowful wail of crushed and down-trodden Hun- 
gary has scarcely died away. This very morning, the news that 
war is inevitable is flashed along the wires. The mightiest nations 
of Europe are about to " let slip the dogs of war " upon perfidious 
Austria, on the world's past and future battle fields — the plains of 
Italy. She must drink the cup of trembling to the very dregs, 
which, through long ages of inflicted oppression and wrong, she 
has been filling, and which has been made finally to overflow, by 
the crimes of the present reigning dynasty, the perjured house of 
Hapsburg. In these and other similar and equally remarkable 
Providences, which we might trace, did time permit, shall we not* 
hear the voice of God himself from the high Imperial Throne of 
the Universe, saying, " Be wise now, therefore, O ye kings, be 
instructed, ye judges of the earth — kiss the Son, lest he be angry, 
and ye perish from the way when his wrath is kindled but a little : 
till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no 
wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled." 

May the words which form the caption of this article arrest the 
attention of every one whose eye may chance to fall upon them, as 
they did that of the writer long years ago, when turning the pages 
of a work more learned; perhaps, and profound, but in all proba- 
bility not more useful, than the " Fireside Monthly P May they 
take it with them as a motto through life ; and may our rulers be 
warned by the example of other nations in the past and the present, 
and remember, that for nations there is only a future of desolation 
and ruin, unless they practice upon the principles of an " Immutable 
Morality," and incorporate them into the constitution and free 
administration of government. 



In 1802, 1 boarded at the same house, and ate at the same table, 
with Thomas Paine. From his dissipated habits, slovenly apparel, 
and filthy person, he was shunned by all the superfine-coat infidels 
in town and country. He boarded in the house of William Carver, 
a journeyman blacksmith ; his chief companions were journeymen 
mechanics. Generally, teyelve or fifteen assembled in his room 
every evening ; to them he preached the cold and cheerless doc- 
trines of infidelity. Many of them left the church, spent their 
wages in grog-cellars, became drunkards, died beggars, while their 
widows and orphans slept in almshouses. 

One evening, I entered his room and sat down ; he was accusing 
the Bible and its friends, as being the cause of all the bloodshed 
and mischief in the world, since the days of Noah's flood. He ceased. 
Said I : " Mr. Paine, you have been in France, Spain, R&me, Ire- 
land. You find no bibles there: granted. There, the common 
people are ignorant and brutish, live in hovels, like beasts that 
perish: granted. You have been in Scotland, where every house 
and cottage has its half a dozen bibles." "Its true," said he, "and 
they are the most superstitious bigots in the world." Now, says 
I, " Mr. Paine, if the bible was a bad book, those who use it most 
would be the worst members of society ; but, as it regards Scotch- 
men, the reverse is the fact. Yesterday's journal contained a list of 
the inmates of the State-prison, Penitentiary, and Almshouse, with 
the name of the countries whence they came, and excepting four 
Englishmen, they were all from countries, where they never saw 
the bible ; but there was not a Scotchman, woman or child, among 

At this moment the clock struck ten, he lifted a candle from the 
table, and without speaking, went up to bed, leaving his friends and 
myself to draw our own conclusions. Grant Thoebuen. 

In a private note, our venerable correspondent, in his eighty- 
seventh year, said, that he and Paine boarded with Carver and his 
wife, both of whom, with Paine, were from the same town in Eng- 
land. " We used to sit by Carver's fire of nights, while I heard 
them live their lives over again ; thus, I learned his life from the 
cradle, till I followed him to his grave, in 1809." 


That able scholar and gifted divine, W. A. Scott, D.D., some 
time ago has issued another 12mo., of 353 pp., through his pub- 
lishers, H. H. Bancroft & Co., of San Francisco. The mechanical 
getting up, both as to type and paper, would be creditable to New- 
York, while the subject matter, and the mode of handling it, are 
well worthy of high praise. We knew Dr. Scott to be a Bible 
preacher, many years ago, in the Crescent City, and it was to that 
he owed his power over the people, his crowded houses, and his ex- 
tended fame ; hence, it is no wonder that, in his writings, the Bible 
and its illustration and exposition are his Alpha and Omega, the 
beginning and the end and the middle of every book, as their titles 
indicate: 1. Daniel, a Model for Young Men; 2nd. The "Wedge of 
Gold; or, Achan in El Dorado ; 3rd. Trade and Letters : their Jour- 
neyings Round the World ; 4th. The Giant Judge ; or, Samson, the 
Hebrew Hercules ; and this last, Esther, the Hebrew Queen, the in- 
troduction to which ought to be made a tract of, and scattered by 
millions on the wings of every wind, throwing out, as it does, deep 
thoughts to clergymen, to mothers and daughters, to the Press, 
and to Christians of every name, as also to errorists, fanatics, and 
rationalists, in that all should take the whole Bible as their guide, 
looking for no new or other revelations, neither by vision, nor 
voices, nor dreams, nor angels, nor spirits, nor internal illumination, 
neither to add to, nor even explain the Bible. He is more and 
more convinced, that one great cause of the modern growth of fana- 
ticism and infidelity, is to be found in the departure of so many 
teachers from the custom of reading and expounding the Word of 
God. That it is worthy of serious consideration, whether there is not, 
and to what extent in our day, in the topical, metaphysical preach- 
ing of many, and in not a few of our popular tracts and treatises on 
practical and experimental religion, theological essays, religious 
essays, and pious novels, which are worse than the pious frauds of 
the dark ages, a dangerous tendency to draw away the public mind 
from the Book of God — whether the frequent religious meetings, 
the cramming of the Lord's Day, and the tendency of the popular 
religious literature of our time, is not towards a substituting of 
tracts, and books, and newspapers, about religion, for the Book of 
the Lord. There is no hand-book for revivals like the inspired his- 
tory of remarkable Bible conversions. For family reading and 
catechising on the afternoon on the Lord's Day, the hot-house sys- 
tem, now so much in vogue, is a poor substitute. For the family, 
and the place of business, the church, and the world, there can be 
no substitute for the Bible ; it is our only hope. And much more 
of the same sort has the learned divine written in his last book, 
which, no doubt, will be placed on sale with the Carter, Brothers, 
of New York, at one dollar. We wish we had room for further 
quotations from a book which is significantly dedicated to mothers 
and daughters, because " They who rock the cradle rule the 


In the preceding" pages'! articles are found which have been 
"written by different individuals, bearing more or less distinctly 
on the family relation, and the teachings which ought to be given 
therein in order to educate the child away from the influence of 
wrong desires, and inclinations, and passions, and lead him to 
the adoption of principles, and practices, and habits which are 
calculated to fit him for the performance of the highest duties 
which belong to a useful citizen ; and also to implant in his 
mind an inflexible and just religious sentiment to shield him 
against temptation to wrong doing, and to those vicious practi- 
ces which lead to a premature grave 

The unhappiness of those whose religious training has been 
neglected, is a strong argument for every parent to implant into 
the mind of the child some fixed religious sentiment as a means 
of prevention from falling into a misanthoropical state of mind, 
ending in a disabelief of all religion, and finally sinking into 
the grave an outcast from society, as was the case of Thomas 
Paine. Reference has also been made %o the kinds of books and 
periodicals which are best adapted to family training ; and some- 
thing, too, of the duties and the capabilities and influences which 
the wife may have in the household ) and it would be well if every 
married lady reader should lay these pages down, more resolved 
than ever, to follow the example of the Hungarian wife, by en- * 
deavouring to make^home attractive ; not only in the examples 
to be set before the children, but in the conduct before the hus. 
band, in one point, in which there is a general want of attention 
in half the houses in the land, — a point to which the newly mar- 
ried should begin to give attention as a first and indispensable 
duty ; and that is, the wisdom on the part of the wife of making 
a habitual effort to secure the affection and respect of her hus- 
band, in those attentions to her personal appearance, to which 
Madam H. evidently attached a high importance. Be assur- 
ed, that a wife never gains, but always loses, in the estimation of 
her husband, when she allows herself to fall into the too common 
mistake of supposing that her inattentions to her dress and per- 
sonal appearance in the presence of her family are not observed 
with silent disappointment and disapproval. A dowdy wife, 
with frowsJy hair and slatterly dress, lolling in her chair reading 


a novel, or who comes creeping into the breakfast room, not 
more than half awake when the remainder of the family are near- 
ly ready to leave the table, and drawls out some apology that she 
was never used to getting up early ; such women are a disgrace 
to themselves and the mothers who bore them and can not be 
either loved or respected, even were they angels else. A sloven- 
ly wife isn't fit even for a drudge, for the lowest servant ^in the 
household ought to be tidy. These novel-reading wives who 
dress only for company or for the street, and not from an innate 
love for all that is pure, and tasteful, and refined, are a curse to 
families and to society in general. They perpetuate their delin- 
quencies to generations after them, and tjiey are they whose sons 
grow up for the gallows or the penitentiaries, and whose memo- 
ries are execrated, as in the remarkable example which begins 
this article. But let not fathers lose sight of their responsibili- 
ties and duties ; that they are the special head of the family, and 
that not only their example but their daily teachings should be 
such as will be calculated to impress the minds of their chil- 
dren with a love and an admiration for all that is just and gener- 
ous and elevating in practice, as well as in theory; in conduct 
as well as in sentiment. 

And let the reader compare the life services of the thief and 
murderer whose latest breath was expeuded in bitter reproof of 
the parents who never gave him any religious instruction, with 
the beautiful life and ending of one whose praises follow and 
who, from earliest years was brought up in the nurture and ad- 
monition of the Bible truths which, if heeded, not only give 
the " promise of the life that now is, and that which is to come," 
but give assurence of that wisdom of which it has been said that 
"Length of days is in her right hand, and In her left hand, rich- 
es and honor f in other words, health and happiness for a long 
life- time. 




He never occupied a post which he did not adorn, and may 
weH be pronounced " blessed." He died in the full maturity of his 
years, and at the culminating point of his usefulness, leaving behind 
him 7io superior, and few, if any, equals in the sphere in which God 
had called him to act. His health recently becoming feeble he re- 
paired to the mountains of his native State. Every thing promised 
a speedy recovery, but an acute disease (dysentery) prevailing in 
that vicinity, soon disappointed all our hopes. Early on Sabbath 
morning last, just before the sun began to throw his radiance over 
the land, he heard the Saviour say, "Come, ye blessed of my 
Father," &c. 

When such men die, we are tempted almost to despair. It 
seems impossible that their place should be filled, or that we could 
ever do without them. Dr. Alexander united excellencies and gifts 
rarely found in one person — great intellect, refinement of taste, 
musical ear, &c. There was no more accomplished scholar. He was 
familiar with the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, the French, German, 
Spanish and Italian languages — was more like Macaulay in the full- 
ness of his style than any living writer. Many of his works are like 
strings of pearls — each a separate gem, yet bound to each other by 
an invisible thread. He once said that the only trouble he found in 
writing, was in turning the leaves of his manuscript. He was an 
erudite theologian, well acquainted with Christian doctrine in all its 
phases. These, howeve*, were accomplishments ; underneath these 
adornments was the man, and the Christian— ■" an Israelite indeed 
in whom there was no guile." Perhaps there is no man living more 
free from malice, from envy, from ill-will, and so abounding in things 
true and just and lovely and of good report. He was preeminently 
a devout man, fearing God, and full of the Holy Ghost. 

Remarkable vivacity and versatility characterized his preaching. 
He preached Christ in a manner almost peculiar. He endeavored 
to turn men from themselves, and persuade them to accept a salva- 
tion wrought out for them. He was eminently successful not only 
in the conversion of sinners, but in guiding inquirers, and leading 
the people of God to higher attainments in piety. But the great 
charm of his preaching was his power over the religious affections ; 
calling up joy, gratitude and love. His prayers were all real acts 
of adoration, thanksgiving and supplication. All his services were 



truly seasons of devotion, and inspired the very highest form of en- 
joyment ever vouchsafed to man on earth. 

The man who can raise our hearts and bring us into communion 
with our Saviour, we cannot but reverence and love. It is a power 
which attracts all eyes, wins all hearts, and offends no one. Not 
any one thing, but the combination of all these, made not the first 
orator, but the first pastor in the land. To sit under his ministra- 
tions year after year, was a privilege to be coveted. 

He was a man of great sorrow. When he entered Heaven, angels 
might say, " This is one that has come out of great tribulation, who 
has washed his robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. n 
No man can Jill his place. He was blessed with pious ancestors, 
but how supremely blessed now, since he has finished his course, 
having kept the faith, and received the crown. 

In view of such a life and such a death, all the distinctions of earth 
sink into insignificance. Who would not rather be such a minister 
and such a servant of God, than the greatest warrior and conqueror 
the world ever knew ? The great lesson taught by such a life and 
such a death is, that Christ is the Alpha and the Omega, the begin- 
ning and the end, the first and the last. He will say eventually to 
all his believing people, " Come, ye beloved." 



Makty suppose that the human teeth did not formerly decay as 
in the present age, and that the dental art is of recent origin ; but, 
in looking over the history of dental surgery, we trace it back more 
than four hundred years before Christ. 

Hippocrates and Herodotus were among the Greek writers upon 
this subject. And from among the Romans, we have also the writ- 
ings of Pliny, Martial, Horace, Celsus, and others, which reflect 
much light upon this branch of surgery ; and although as a science 
it was then in a rude state, yet there were those who devoted their 
exclusive attention to the teeth at that time. Good gold fillings 
have recently been found in the teeth of mummies, which must 
have been inserted more than two thousand years ago. 

Hippocrates informs us, that the loss of the natural teeth was 
supplied with that of artificial, made of bone or ivory, secured in 
the mouth by means of ligatures (made of flax, silk, gold or silver 


wire), tied to other remaining teeth in the mouth. Human teeth 
were also used and fastened in a similar manner. About one hun- 
dred and fifty years after Christ, Galen wrote a much better work 
upon this subject than any of his predecessors, yet very little ad- 
vancement had been made during the previous five hundred years. 

During the next fourteen hundred years, various authors wrote 
upon this subject, among whom were iEtius, Phazes, Albucasis, Ve- 
salius, Eustachius, and others, whose writings set forth nearly the 
same modes of practice, as those adopted by the Greeks and Romans. 

In fifteen hundred and seventy-nine, Pakie, a celebrated French 
surgeon, wrote a very correct essay upon the teeth. He enjoyed 
a great medical reputation, and was appointed surgeon in ordinary 
to Henry H., which office he held under three succeeding kings. 

His cure for the toothache was to thrust a hot wire into the roots, 
or make an application of the oil of vitriol. He also taught the 
doctrine of transplanting teeth, which was done by extracting sound 
teeth from the mouth of one person, and inserting them in that of 
another of higher rank, whose teeth were decayed or uncomely. 
In this operation, the decayed teeth are first extracted ; immediately 
after which the sound teeth are removed (generally from the mouth 
of a servant), and inserted while warm and fresh into the sockets 
just vacated for their reception. If this operation is well performed, 
under favorable circumstances the teeth and sockets in a few weeks 
become united and remain firm for many years. But this method 
has now become obsolete, and also that of tying artificial teeth with 
strings or wire. 

Artificial teeth made of bone or ivory, were objectionable on ac. 
count of their unnatural appearance, their liability to rapid decay in 
the mouth, and consequent tendency to become offensive. These 
objections led to the introduction of porcelain or incorruptible teeth, 
which were first conceived by Duchateau in seventeen hundred and 
seventy four, but not being a dentist, he was unable to carry out his 
theory practically, although he made some specimens that were 
capable of being worn, for which the Academy of Medicine of France 
granted him the honor of a seat. M. de Chemant, a practical den- 
tist then in Paris, took up the idea where Duchateau had left it, and 
finally succeeded so well that he-- obtained a patent some twelve 
years after from Louis Sixteenth. 

Other French dentists have also contributed much to the develop- 
ment of this important feature in dental practice. But to the 
Americans, is accorded the honor of having attained the highest de- 
gree of perfection in this branch of dentistry. 


The usual mode by which porcelain teeth are now manufactured 
consists in combining certain mineral substances, such as quartz, 
feldspar, Kaolin clay, &c, in due proportions, which are ground, 
mixed, and rendered plastic by the addition of water, then moulded 
or carved to represent the teeth, and solidified in a furnace with 
intense heat. 

The different tints and colors are produced by the use of metallic 
oxides ; teeth are made without representing the gums and many are 
tipped with gum color upon each tooth. Two or more teeth are 
sometimes connected; these are called block teeth; metallic plates 
are usually employed as a base upon which the teeth are set. They 
are formed of gold, platinum, paladium, silver and (recently) alumi- 
num, and sometimes a compound of metals ; vulcanized rubber and 
gutta percha have also been used of late, for temporary work, the 
practical result of which remains to be seen. 

Of all the various methods which have been employed for the 
construction of artificial dentures, that which combines the greatest 
advantages, and approximates the nearest to Nature, will command 
the' largest share of public favor; it should display teeth of a 
perfectly natural form, tone, and truthful expression, embellished 
with an artificial gum, without seam or crevice, securing perfect 
cleanliness, exhibiting the ropf and ruga of the mouth with all the 
delicate shades and tints peculiar to those of Nature, every tooth 
seeming to have grown out of the natural gum. By this method, 
the natural form and expression of the mouth and face can be 
restored, by raising the sunken muscles and sustaining them in their 
natural position, thus producing symmetry of form in the waning 
cheek and youthfulness of look. • 

The attention of the reader is invited to the above article on 
the teeth by a gentleman who is an honor to the Dental Profes- 
sion. Those who are advanced in life and whose teeth are defec- 
tive, may feel assured that artificial teeth can be so adjusted for 
practical purposes as to perform well the offices of the natural 
tooth in mastication, and this is specially important as a means 
of preparing the food for the more easy operation of the fluids 
which are provided for converting the food into ailment for the 
body; for the want of a proper and sufficient mastication has 
laid the foundation to multitudes of a life of suffering and inva- 

Notes and Notices^ 267 


One of the most concise, comprehensive, truthful and practical 
articles we have ever read on the subject of Cholera, is found 
in the Boston Watchman and Reflector for September 27, 1866 ; 
the name of the author, or its source, ought to have been announ- 
ced. The main positions are directly contrary to present received 
or fashionable opinions, and are almost, in verbal accordance 
with the points insisted upon in the pages of this journal for 
the last twelve years, among these are, 

First. Quarantine is worse than useless, for it not only does 
not prevent the disease from visiting a point but diverts ener- 
gies in a wrong direction, which if properly expended would 
have removed the causes which generate the malady. 

Second. Cholera is not " catching," is not in any way commu- 
nicated by one person to another, but arises in each individual 
from causes within himself, or belong to the locality in which 
he is. 

Third. Intercommunication is not the law of the spread of 
Cholera, in that in multitudes of cases, it has overleaped locali- 
ties in the direct line of travel, by a hundred miles or more, and 
at the end of weeks or months, has attacked the place which it 
had passed over. 

Fourth. That there are two causes of Cholera, a remote and 
an immediate, and both must be present at the same time, or the 
epidemic cannot exist. 

Fifth. That the remote cause is an influence about which we 
are as yet ignorant ; that the immediate cause, that which excites 
the attack in every case is either personal or local. 

Sixth. The personal causes of an attack of Asiatic Cholera 
are over-eating, over-heating, over-working, apprehension, and 
such like. 

Seventh. Local cause is uncleanliness, such as is connected 
with decaying substances, animal or vegetable, or both. 

Eighth. That while we have "no control over the remote causes, 
we do have an almost perfect control over the immediate ; in 
that the personal causes are easily avoided, and the local can be 
removed or counteracted. 

Ninth. That the whole subject is embraced in less than a dozen 
words ; personal temperance, domiciliary cleanliness, bodily 
qufet and warmth in a bed. 

Tenth. The immediate causes of Cholera are brought into 
operation by warmth and moisture acting on vegetable and ani- 
mal dead substances, as evidenced by a fact of universal obser- 
vation, that whenever a number of persons are attacked, it is 
always in a locality which is low, flat, damp and dirty. 

Eleventh. The symptoms of an attack of Cholera in cholera 

268 Ball's Journal of Health. 

times are forcible, large* watery, dirty, whitish colored passages 
from the bowels. 

Twelfth. The treatment — perfect quiet and warmth in bed, 
eat only ice if thirsty, and send for a physician. 

Messrs. Broughton and Wyman, JSTo. 13 Bible House, New 
York, the efficient agents of the " American Tract Society," at 
28 Cornhill, Boston, Mass., have sent for notice " The Little Gold 
Keys," by Mrs, J. P. Ballard, 151 pp., encouraging the young 
to use means for the more instructive reading of the Bible, the 
oldest and the most precious of all books, being " the way, the 
Truth and the Life,'' to all who love to read, and study, and pray 
over it. Reader ! are you one of these favored ones ? then ought 
you to be " ever thankiul." "The story of Zadoc Hull," 187 pp. 
It is a deeply engrossing story in connection with the war, and 
those who have lost children in the great strife, cannot fail to 
read and profit by it, as it helps to reconcile the ways of Provi- 
dence to man, and does it so sweetly, too. "Recollections of 
Mary Lyons," with selections from her instructions to her pupils 
in Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary, by Fidelia Fisk, 333 pp., *12mo. 
"The Thirty-eight Selected Sayings to Teachers and some forty 
others for Pupils," are so full of wisdom, so obviously true, so 
widely suggestive, that we could wish the entire volume could 
be placed in the hands of every teacher and of every young 
girl in our land ; it is a book full of practical Bible piety, and 
no Christian heart could fail to feed upon its contents ; it merits 
a very wide circulation. 

" Frank's Search for Sea Shells," by the author of " Rambles 
after Land Shells," 352 pp. ; it is emphatically a book for all 
ages from six to sixty, as it leads the mind from the contempla- 
tion of nature to nature's God, and makes upon it an indelible 
impression of the wisdom and benevolence of Him who made all 
worlds, and that his kind eye and individual notice rest upon 
all that has been created, to sustain, to care for and preserve, from 
the inert atom to the winged Arch-Angel, and as a man is what 
the books he reads makes him, they are wise for both worlds 
whose selections are from publications of this class which in- 
struct the mind, mature th«. affections, and elevate and sanctify 
the whole character. 

"The Two Ways," by Catherine Bell, 64 pp., an -instructive 
narrative for children, showing the immeasurable distance both 
for this world and that which is to come, between the destruction 
of him who walks in the hard way of the transg ressor and of 
him who walks in the way of that wisdom which insures pleasant- 
ness and peace, a peace which the world can never give nor 
ever take away. 

" Pictures and Lessons for Little Readers," 96 pp., contains a 

Notes and Notices, 269 

picture for every page, illustrating some useful, practical truths ; 
a good present for good children. 

The August No. of the Social Science Review, enlarged edi- 
tion, monthly, $4 a year in advance — published at 84 Nassau 
St., N. Y., postage free, contains an admirable engraving of 
Herbert Spencer, and a sketch of his character. Also, Should 
taxation be compulsory? — The congregate system of Judicial 
Reformation. — Grime and Punishment. — What is Free Trade? 
Ladies' Financial Economy. — All written with ability, and are 
papers of sterling worth, meriting the patronage of educated 
men of all classes and parties. 

One great and everlasting truth has been ineffaceably impressed 
on the public mind by the Press and by the hard logic of facts, 
in a manner never so thoroughly done before in all past history. 
It is this : That an atmosphere arising from filth of person, 
house and neighborhood is the prolific cause of cholera, 
in cholera times; and that the removal of it is the certain 
means of the immediate arrest of the spread of the disease. It 
is a practical lesson of inealculatable value. 

Southern. — We long for the time when the streets of New 
York shall show the familiar faces of Southern men and women; 
the men the embodiment of all that was cordial, generous, and 
high minded ; the women, beautiful, lovely and queenly, inwhose 
tones of voice there was a sweetness, a warmth, a music, which 
at once won a high appreciation • there has been a Jdreadful 
war, but their natures are the same, and we believe that the 
individual feelings of persons to each other, North and South, 
have not changed. We do not think that there is a single man 
or woman, North, who, on meeting an old Southern acquaintance 
on Broadway, would not jump with delight to offer and receive 
the extended hand; and that both parties would overwhelm 
each other with kind inquiries of the olden time; the more 
cordial and affectionate for the long interim of darkness and 
desolation. This being so, we invite the patronage of the North 
to the sustenation of Southern publications, whose object is the 
promotion of learning and the spread of religious truth. Among 
others we name the Medical Monthly of Richmond, Virginia ; 
the Southern Review, of New Orleans, and especially the Relig- 
ious Weeklies ; — The Baptist, published at Mount Lebanon, 
Louisiana, is just as good as it was before the War ; and so is 
The Southern Presbyterian, of Columbia, S. C. The Presbyterian 
Revieio is conducted with ability and ought to be sustained. 
. The Christian Advocate of Nashville, Tennessee, is one of the 
largest and best of the Methodist papers, and is full of val- 
uable family reading. 

270 EalVs Journal of Health. 

best mode of reconstruction is for the North to hold out a helping* 
sympathising hand, by being ready in every way to aid in the 
promotion of education, art, and religious truth. We really be- 
lieve that within five years, " The South " will be the most 
flourishing and prosperous county on the face of the globe. — 
Being Southern born and bred, we are not ashamed of our re- 
lationship, nor of the impartial record of the war. They are a 
brave people and a christian people, as they always were, as to 
the great body of them, and will one day show themselves capa- 
ble of ' greater things than these/ In the great " Conflict" which 
is past, we never, for the thousandth part of a second, doubted 
of victory for the North, neither had we an atom of sympathy for 
the idea the South was fighting for, but we have a sympathy 
and an attachment for the people and for their country, which 
time nor circumstance can ever eradicate. 

" The cause of Cholera cannot ascend any great height per- 
pendicularly, nor affect persons living in the second or third 
stories of any good residence." 

The above statement is designated as a " singular " one ; we 
have been insisting on the main idea, for a dozen years in 
these pages, embodying it in the statement that there is exemp- 
tion from cholera, in cholera times, and in cholera localities, in 
proportion to the elevation at which persons lived above the 
general surface ; and gave as proof, the observations made by 
a London Sanitary Board ten years ago ; — and also that the 
immediate cause of cholera, which is that which arises from 
vegetable decay in warm weather, cannot ascend perpendicu- 
lar elevations, as rocks or wells ; and that the Eastern na- 
tions acted on this idea hundreds of years ago during plagues 
and epidemics, by living in the upper stories of buildings ; 
not even going down to obtain family supplies, but draw- 
ing them up from the streets in baskets, supplied by the 
country people who come to town in the middle of the day 
when the miasmatic influences are not present to any spe- 
cial hurtful extent, it being worst at sunrise and sunset. 

So we are beginning to know almost as much as they 
did in the dark ages. 

Young children who live in cities during the hot weath- 
er would be almost exempted from Summer diseases if they 
lived wholly in elevated, good buildings, and were regularly 
and properly fed. 


There is a general impression that Pickles are extremely unhealthful ; the truth is, they 
are more easily digested than any other codiment, as they are a pleasant medium of convey- 
ing an acid into the system ; that is, cider vinegar, which chemical experiment shows is more 
nearly allied in its action on the food, to that of the gastric juice, than any other known liquid' 
Kole Slaw, made hy pouring vinegar on crisp, raw cahhage cut up very fine, is digested in 
about one hour, which is as soon as any other food ; while hpiled cahhage requires five hours, 
as also roasted pork. In the Spring of the year when the system hecomes feverish and "bil- 
ious and the hlood is thick and impure there is a craving for salads and greens and lettuce, 
all heiog used with vinegar ; and wise Nature, always watchful and kind, invites the taking 
of acids hy the delicious comhination with fruits and herries and tomatoes, as a means of 
" cooling " the system, which is the result of a more' active seperation of the hile from the 
hlood, which scientific experimenters of Paris have ascertained is done through the influence 
which acids have on the liver, in increasingits activity. Thus it is easy to see that pickles 
well prepared, with pure cider vinegar, kept in glass jars, hard, green and crisp, not only fully 
meet the tastes and instincts, hut actually promote the heathfulness of the hody. Delicate 
persons and dyspeptics may avoid swallowing the more solid portions of the pickle. To insure 
that the pickles shall he made free from the poisoning properties of brass and copper vessels, 
and of the equally destructive ingredients which are used to give them a fresh, green col- 
or, that excellent paper, the Baltimore Weekly Commercial, gives as original in its columns 
the following explicit instructions for making pickles : 

Picxled Cdctjhbers.— Keep the cucumhers in a strong brine for nine days or more ; then 
wash and put them in a hell-metai skiliet with lumps of alum through them ; cover with vin- 
egar and water. Put on the top to keep in the steam, and place the vessel near the fire tnat 
they may hecome hot, hut not so as to boil. When they are a good green pat them in glass 
jars with layers of any spices you may fancy. Fill up the jars with scalding vinegar. 

Pickled Onions.— Put the onions in a strong hrine for five or six days ; then simmer 
them in equal parts vf milk and water ; do not let them boil ; then take off the fire and dash 
into very cold water to make them erisp. Place in a jar with alternate layers of such spices 
as suit ; then pour on hoiled white wine vinegar. 

For mixed pickles : Take three dozen large cucumhers sliced ; half a peck green tomatoes' 
sliced ; half a peck onions peeled and quartered ; four large green peppers cut up ; one pint 
small red and green peppers ; sprinkle a pint of salt on them. Let them stand over night 
draining, then add one oz. white pepper; one oz. mace ; one oz. white mustard seed; half 
anoz. cloves ; half an oz. celery seed ; one oz. tumeric ; three table spoonfuls of table mus- 
tard ; two lbs. sugar ; one piece horse- radish. Cover them with the hest vinegar and boil all 
together for half an hour. 

For Pepper SAUCE.-Cut the cahhage very fine and salt it to the taste ; cut the peppers 
and onions in thin strips , Take two parts of the cahhage, 1 part onions, and 1 part peppers ; 
season all well, ar desired, and cover with boiling vinegar, which may be renewed during 
the season. A Jlrsetman says;— The best and surest way of keeping pickles hard and 
good, is to wash the cucumbers as soon as gathered, and put a layer of fine salt in the bottom 
of your harrel, and then a layer of cucumbers ; then salt again, and so on until the season 
is over. The water on the eucumhers hy washing, is sufficient to make all the hrine they 
need. Keep them covered, and a weight on the cover to keep them closely packed.- 
Mine keep In that way three years. When wanted for table use, take them out of the brine, 
put them in a hrass kettle, cover with cold water, and let them stand two or three days; until 
as green as you would like to have them ; then put one teaspoonful of alum and one of salt- 
petre in the water, and scald in that first water; let them cool in it ; then add fresh water 
more alum and saltpetre, and scald again ; change the water and scald three times, add- 
ing alum and saltpetre'each time. Cut one of the largest— taste of f he inside— if fresh enough 
drain them, and put in jars. Use the hest cider vinegar ; spice and pepper to suit your taste 
Change your vinegar when necessary, and keep from the air. 



In the old world marriage is a matter of convenience, or an out 
and out business transaction ; and family is bartered for funds, or 
an improvement in the pecuniary affairs of both parties is aimed 
at. In our own country it is literally a ".love affair," without 
rhyme or reason, sense or system ; — it is a blissful, mutual absorb- 
tion of two hearts into one — for awhile any how. Perhaps if it 
were made a matter of Hygiene there would be eventually a great- 
er amount of happiness and solid prosperity in any community. 
A sickly wife has many a time blasted the ambition of an indus- 
trious and enterprising young man whose aim was to rise in his 
business and become one of the leading men of his calling. 

But in the very first year sickness came, the young wife could 
not attend to her domestic affairs ; the servants became remiss, 
indifferent and wasteful ; the physician was called in ; the hus- 
band himself was obliged to remain at the house and the same 
derangement of his. own affairs took place, and every where there 
was waste and expenditure and loss of business and custom.-— 
Discouragement came, until finally all that was hoped for was to 
live from one day to another. 

At other times the husband became the invalid ; the support of 
the family is thrown upon the wife and the mother; and how 
many of them have worked themselves into a premature grave or 
.into a lunatic asylum, it is painful te contemplate. 

No sickly person can honorably marry another in good health 
without previously making a fair statement of the case. And even 
then if a marriage takes place a crime has been committed against 
the community and against unborn innocents. But when both 
the parties are " sickly" it is wholly inexcusable, and ought to 
be frowned upon by every intelligent community, however satis- 
factory the pecuniary condition of the parties. They may be 
able to support themselves but they can give no guarantee that 
their children, diseased in body and feeble in mind, shall not be 
a public charge at the hospital, the poor-house or an insane-asy- 
lum. The best general plan for ensuring a healthy and vigorous 
offspring is to make an antipodal marriage; — to make as 
much of a cross in the physical characteristics as possible. The 
city should marry the country ; the black-haired the blond ; the 
bilious temperament the nervous ; the fair-skinned the brunette; 
the stout the slender ; the tall the short. To marry each its like, 
is to degrade the race. 



A beneficent providence has arranged that while the air we 
breathe gives us life by purifying, the blood and imparting vital 
'heat, its unfitness for these purposes is instantly determined by 
such disagreeable impressions on the senses, that we instinc- 
tively cease breathing, or hasten from the contaminated spot. 
Then again, from her bountiful stores, nature has provided sub- 
stances which purify filthy localities and remove the nauseous 
smells. Some of these substances destroy the disagreeable odors 
but do not arrest decay, hence those odors would return con- 
stantly, as long as any of the substance remained which was 
the source of the evil. Chlorine removes a bad smell from putrid 
meat, but it will return in a few hours. A London Chemist has 
ascertained the fact that if a piece of fresh meat is coated with 
a substance distilled from coal and mixed with sulphurous acid, 
called carbolic acid, it will prevent the meat from decaying, and 
that such meat after being kept two or three months, is, if 
cooked, as sweet and fresh as meat just purchased from the 
butcher's stand ; hence chlorine, deodorizes, that is only takes 
away the bad smell for the present, but decay still goes on. Car- 
bolic acid not only destroys the odor but prevents decay, arrests 
it, and thus is a deodorizer and disinfectant combined ; it takes 
from a substance its polluting character, its power to make sick, 
to communicate disease. If further and more careful investiga- 
tions and experiments confirm the statements made by Mr. 
Crooks he is justly entitled to be named amung the benefactors 
of the age. The practical lesson to be impressed on the mind by 
these statements is, that a deodorizer does no more than take 
away the ill odor of substance or locality, temporally ; a disinfec- 
tant not only destroys that odor but prevents its return, by 
changing that condition of the substance from which the odor 
came, in a manner which does not allow the process to go on 
which gave rise to the odor. A disinfectant also takes from a 
thing its power to cause disease. A contagious disease is that 
which is caused by actual contact, and cannot be communicated 
in any other way, as glanders in horses, and syphjjis in men; 
infection is that which may be communicated by touching or 
handling the clothing as itch, plague, measles, small pox ; the 
air of a room in which these diseases are, can communicate the 
disease, hence that air is infectious, that is, makes into, fixes, 
implants, thrusts into the body, the disease with which it is loaded. 
A real disinfectant deprives the air and the clothing of that pow- 
er. It seems that carbolic acid is the most perfect deodorizer and 
disinfectant yet made known to man. 



One of the most impressive delineators ever listened to, was 
the Bev. David Nelson, M. D., while sitting under his ministry 
in our school-boy days. He h'ad occasion to attempt a solution 
of the cause of the ineffable radiance that sometimes lights up 
the face of the dying christian after the power of speech has 
been lost. The illustration was afterwards repeated in his re- 
markable book on the " Cause and Cure of Infidelity." 

The passage of the christian from the mortal to the immortal 
state, is like descending into a ditch, crossing the bottom, and 
climbing up on the other side ; and just as he rises to the top 
the veil of eternity is gradually drawn aside, when he has his 
first view of the immortal state. It is then that the effulgent 
glories of the heavenly world so entrance his vision that he is 
wakened up to the new life before the old one is laid aside ; and 
the sight so resplendent, impresses on the physical features some 
of the glories seen on Moses's face after he had been with Divin- 
ity ; repeated again on the Mount of Transfiguration, when after 
communion with the Holy One, the Master's face " did shine as 
the snn." Even "his raiment became shining, exceeding white as 
snow, so as no fuller on earth can white them." In speaking of 
this u great mystery" a nameless writer says, lt No one who pass- 
es the charmed boundery comes back to tell. The imagination 
visits the realms of shadows, sent out from some wiudow in the 
soul, but wings its way back, with only an olive leaf in its beak, 
as a token of emerging life beyond the closelv bending horizon. 
The great sun comes and goes in the heavens, yet breathes no 
secret of the etherial wilderness ; the crescent moon cleaves her 
nightly passage across the upper deep, but tosses over-bbard no 
signals. The sentinel stars challenge each other as they make 
their nightly rounds, but we catch no syllable of the countersign 
which gives passage into the heavenly camp. Between this and 
the other life is a great gulf fixed, across which neither eye nor 
foot can trace. The gentle friend whose eye we closed in the 
last sleep long years ago, died with rapture in her wonder-strick- 
en eyes, a smile of ineffable joy on her lips, and hands folded 
over a triumphant heart; but she spoke no word, and intimated 
nothing of the vision which enthralled her." 

Now and then, once in a generation it may be, one is permitted 
to return to life after having a glimpse of the other side. But 
their lips seem sealed, as if the subject was too holy for human 
converse. Whatever of sight was seen or sound was heard it 
was only described as a "glory unutterable." 


The American Agriculturist is published monthly for $1.50 a 
year ; it is the cheapest, best, and most ably edited agricultural 
monthly on the globe ; every issue has more than one hundred 
practical articles relative /to the cultivation of fruit, flowers, 
grains, cattle, &c. To any person sending us $2 before the first 
day of December, both publications will be sent for 1867, in- 
cluding the December issues of each ; this offer will expire on 
the last day of November, 1866, positively. 

The Scientific American.— The oldest, most successful, and ablest pa- 
per of its kind in the world ; as practically useful for every household as for 
scientific men and inventors, and all men of progress, is published weekly 
at $ 3 a year. We will send it and Hall's Journal of Health for 1867, 
for $ 3 a year, thus giving both publications for the price of one. 

The Phrenological Journal, now in its 43d volume, is published 
monthly at 389 Broadway, New York, at §2 a year, profusely illustrated 
with the portraits of eminent characters, and filled with a great variety 
of useful reading matter pertaining to the conduct of life, and mental 
moral, and social improvement. It will be furnished for 1867, with Hall's 
Journal of Health, for $ 2.50, thus affording our Journal for 50 cents a 

The New York Independent is published weekly at $ 2.50 a year. It 
i3 written for by some of the ablest minds in the nation ; it has weekly 
letters from well informed correspondents abroad, and gives in every 
issue copious monetary and market reports, prepared with great accuracy 
and industry ; we offer it and the Journal of Health, for 1867, for $ 3 to 
every person who has not taken the Independent before. 

These offers will be all withdrawn on the last day of the year 1866. — 
Those who send the money to HalVs Journal of Health, No. 2 West 43d 
St., New York, previous to the 1st day of December, 1866, will have a 
December number of each publication subscribed for, without charge. 

Five copies of HalVs Journal of Health for 1867 will be sent to one ad- 
dress for ^5; to Clergymen and Theological students of all denomina- 
tions, the Journal of Health will be sent for 1867 for $ 1. 

To any fifty Foreign Missionaries, who first apply, the Journal will be 
sent free, for 1867, free of postage. We wish we felt able to send it to- 
all of them, for they are doing more to raise *the world from barbarism 
to civilization, refinement and religion, than a thousand times their num- 
ber of princes, potentates, statesmen and? kings, while they work, and 
work hard, self-expatriated from their native land, for nothing more than 
their food and clothing, and these of a pretty plain kind, for_the most part. 



Furnace Heat Dispensed With. 

" A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor, warming the feet delightfully, with an oval fire-place nearly three 
feet across, with no visible blower, very little dust, and absolutely no gas ; 
the ashes need removing but once a year, while by the extra heat, pure 
air direct from out-doors, is conveyed to an upper room, without the possi- 
bility of meeting with any red-hot metallic surface, or with any corrupting 
surface whatever — it is simply pure air warmed. A Philadelphia corre- 
spondent who has used one of these low-down grates in a room eighteen 
feet square, for six years, says : 1 1 have never known a day that a fire 
made in the morning was not equal to the day, no matter what the temper- 
ature was Gutsi-de.' 

" To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least one 
room in the house where there are absolutely all the advantages of a wood 
fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from the cellar, 
and not from the room itself — this open, low down, air-tight, easily regu- 
lated grate, or rather fireplace, with its large broad bed of burning coals, 
or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, will be a great desideratum. No 
one who has a wise regard for the comfort, cheerfulness, and health of a 
family of children, should be without one for a single day. One can be 
put in at any season of the year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty 
to fifty dollars, according to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes 
about the same amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out, how- 
ever, as is supposed, near one third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of 
an old-fashioned wood-fire, (the oxygen being supplied from without.) It is 
equally adapted to burning soft coal, hard coal, or wood." — EalVs Journal 
of Health, for December, 1859. 


T. S. D IX O 2ST, 


References given "when required. 

Address, T. S. DIXON, 

Jfo, 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Fa*, 

(OPPOSITE thk u. s. mint,) 

Or his Agents, Messrs. MEAD & WOODWARD, 37 Park Row, New-York. 


Containing 236 Health Tracts on the following subjects, with a 
engraving of the Editor, sent post-paid for $2.50. 


Aphorisms Physiolog'L 


Antidote to Poisons, 

Acre, One. 


Burying Alive, 

Baths and Bathing. 


Bites and Burns. 


Beauty a Medicine. 

Best Day. 

Burning to Death. 
Bilious Diarrhea. 
Balm of Gilead. 
Cold Cured. 

" Neglected. 

** Avoided. 

" Nothing but a. 

" In the Head. 

" How Taken. 

» Catching. 

Checking Perspiration. 
Child-Bear ing. 
Children's Eating. 

" Feet, 

Children Corrected. 

" Dirty. 
Cute Things. 
Coffee Poisons. 
Clothing, Flannel, 
" Woolen, 
* Changing. 
Convenient Knowledge. 
Cooking Meats. 
Cheap Bread. 
Church Ventilation, 
Diet for the Sick. 



Dying Easily. , 





Death Rate. 


Digestibility of Food. 

Dirty Children. 

Drugs and Druggery. 

Eyes, Care of. 

u Weak. 

« Failing. 
Erect Position. 

Eat, How to. 

Ice, Uses of. 
Inverted Toe-Nail. 
In the Mind. 
Kindness Rewarded. 
Law of Love. 
Life Wasted. 
Loose Bowels. 
Leaving Home. 
Logic Run Mad. 
Medicine Taking. 
Music Healthful, 
Milk, its Uses. 
Morning Prayer. 
Month Malign. 

What and when to. Mental Ailments. 

Eating Habits. 

" Great. 

** Curiosities of. 

" Economical, 
Elements of Food. 
Fruits, Uses of. 
Flannel Wearing. 
Follies, Fifteen. 
Fire-Places. i 
Fifth Avenue Sights. 
Food and Health. 

Fetid Feet. 
Food,Nutritiousnessof. Pain. 

" its Elements. Peaceless. 
Greed of Gold. 
Genius, Vices of. 
Great Eaters. 
Gruels and Soups. 
Hair Wash. 
Health a Duty. 

" Observances. 

" Essentials. 

" Theories. 
Household Knowledge. 

Home, Leaving. 
Happiest, Who are. 

Mind Lost. 
Medical Science. 
Nursing Hints. 
Nervous Debilities. 
Old Age Beautiful. 
One Acre, 
One by One. 
Obscure Diseases. 
Presence of Mind. 
Private Things. 
Poisons and Antidotes. 

Parental Trainings. 
Physiolegical Items. 
Posture in Worship. 
Physician, Faithless. 
Popular Fallacies. 
Read and Heed. 
Restless Nights. 
Recreation, Summer 
Sitting Erectly. 
Shoes Fitting. 
Sour Stomach. 

Sick Headachy 

Suppers, Hearty. 
Soldiers Remembered. 

" Cared for. 

" Health, 

* Items. 

« All. 

Sunday Dinner* 
Sleep and Death. 
Spot the One. 
Summer Drinks. 
Sickness not Causeless, 
Sayre, the Banker. 
September Malign. 
Summer Mortality, 
Soups and Gruels, 
Sick School-Girl. 
Stomach's AppesJt 


Study, Where to. 

Salt Rheum. 


Traveling Hints. 

Three Ps. 


Toe-Nail, Inverted. 

Thankful Ever. 


Valuable Knowledge. 



Vermin Riddance. 

Winter Rules. 


Warning Youth. 

Woman's Beauty. 



Worth Remembering. 

Worship, Public. 

" Posture in. 

" Without Price. 
Weather Signs. 
Weather and Wealth. 
Warmth and Strength. 
Worth Knowing. 

Debt, a Death! 

Address " Hall's Journal of Health " No. 2 West 43d St., New- York. 
($1.50 a Year.) ' ^ 



Corner of Fourteenth Street and Third Avenue, K T. 

These instruments are made m accordance with a principle recently developed and patented by 
Horatio Worcester, which consists in the use of a divided iron plate instead of the solid one 
heretofore in vogue. The detached piece is coupled with the inner plate by means of a link at 
the base end, and is sustained in its proper position by the tension of the strings, which are 
attached to it in the usual manner. This gives to the strings a greatly increased power of vibra- 
tion, and frees the sounding-board so as to allow it to reverberate throughout its whole extend 
The increase obtained in volume and musical quality of tone is carefully estimated to be full one 
hundred per cent, as stated upon the authority of Louis M. Gottschalk, William Mason, William 
Berge, E. Muzio, Theodore Thomas, David R. Harrison, Charles Fradel, Christian Berge , and many 
other distinguished artists. Attention is respectfully invited to the following opinit'as of the 
improvement from leading journals : ■ 

From the New-York World. 

A discovery worthy the attention of every one interested in music has been made by an old-established piano- 
forte maker Mr. Horatio Worcester, whose warerooms and factory have for years formed a landmark on the corner 
of Fourteenth atreet and Third avenue. Mr. Worcester has succeeded in doubling the volume of sound belonging 
to the piano, and at the same time improving in a great degree its quality. This has been effected by merely using 
a plate made in two pieces instead of the common solid one. A portion is firmly fixed in the case in the usual 
manner, and to this the second piece is attached by means of a coupling at the base end. This coupling on one side 
and the tension of the strings on the other, hold it in its proper position, and allow it to move freely with the 
strings while they are in operation, the effect of which is to give double their former vibratory power to both the 
strings and sounding-board. The plate thus made is termed a hinged-plate. A few days since Mr. Gottschalk 
examined this novel feature and found it a worthy subject of approval, as appears by the subjoined extract from an 
autograph note of his to the inventor, under date of the 17th instant : " I estimate the volume of tone (in the 
improved pianos) to be increased about one hundred per cent. . . . . Their singing quality is excellent. The 
upper part of the key-board is exceedingly brilliant, while the base is of a rich and powerful sonorousness." Other 
esteemed artists have also cordially indorsed the use of a hinged-plate. Among them are the names of William and 
Christian Berge, Charles Fradel, David R. Harrison, and William Mason. Had the Worcester improvement been 
6ent to the London Exhibition, American pianos would have stood even a better chance than they do of winning 
Valuable laurels as model instruments. 

From the NeuvYork Zhening Post, 

Hinged-Platb Piano-Fortes. — A piano-forte manuiacturer of this city has perfected a genuine improvement in 
the method of constructing and bracing the iron plate to which the strings are attached. The iron is divided and a 
portion of it left free to yield. with the vibration of the strings and sounding-board. It is thought that pianos so 
Zashioned will stand in tune better than others, from the fact that the strain of the strings centers at one point only, 
(the hinge,) and also because they are less liable to injury resulting from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding- 
board. The substantial character of the improvement is vouched for by many leading musicians, artists, and 
critics' by whom it has been well tested at the warerooms of the inventor, Mr. H. Worcester, corner of Third avenue 
and Fourteenth street. 

From the New-York Musical Review and World. 

One of our oldest-established piano-forte makers, Mr. Horatio Worcester, has just received letters patent for an 
improvement in the construction of that favorite instrument. The advantage consists in the use of a hinged plate, 
which gives to the sounding-board a freedom similar to that found in the violin. Mr. Worcester uses a plate cast 
in two pieces, one of which is fixed in the case after the usual manner, and with which the second or inner portion 
is connected by a coupling or hinge. To this second piece the strings are attached in the ordinary way, and by 
exerting a strain in opposition to that of the hinge, the piece is held in position. The effect of this is to give increased 
power of vibration throughout the whole extent of the sounding-board. This produces a singing quality of tone 
unusually powerful and agreeable, while for general volume, durability, and richness of tone, the instruments are 
decidedly superior. As the tension of the strings centers at the hinge, instead of being felt around the entire edge 
of the pl&te, there is a greater chance of these pianos standing longer in tune than those having a solid plate. The 
strings are also relieved of considerable pressure arising from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding-board. It 
Is the opinion of nearly all the skilled musicians and artists who have compared the Hinged-Plate Pianos with others 
of the same scale and make, that the increase in volume and beauty of sound is quite equal to fifty per cent. The 
principle is certainly a correct one, and having worked in a most satisfactory manner so far, alter ample testing 
during nearly a year past, we see no reason to doubt its efficacy as claimed by the inventor. Being simple and 
substantial, it needs only to be known thoroughly to create for itself favor with the musical community. _ Mr. Wor- 
cester has received autograph testimonials from many of our most esteemed and influential resident musicians and 
critics, vn ^hich they express their entire confidence in the genuine character of the improvement. 

Complimentary notices have also appeared in the New-York Evening Express, Commercial 
Advertiser, Scientific American, Brooklyn City News, Brooklyn Weekly Standard, New- York 
Leader, Saturday Evening Courier, Dwighfs Journal of Music, and other standard journals, all 
*>f which indorse the Worcester modification in the strongest terms. 





We aim to shoio how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, w7ien sickness 

comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. { 
> • t - -a 

YOL. X1IL] DECEMBER, 1866. '[No. 12. 


•Are coughs, colds and consumptions, with others more special- 
ly fatal ; among the latter is Pneumonia, called by some Inflam- 
mation of the lungs, and by others Lung Fever. It is a disease 
which attacks the feeble and the strong ; the most rugged are 
taken to the grave by it, in four or five days ; others it spares 
to live and suffer for years ; even these who get over it remain 
feeble for months. 

Pneumonia is one of the avoidable diseases, and being of such 
a dangerous nature, they are wisest who knowing the causes, 
seek to avoid them habitually. A man sat up writing till a 
late hour of a Winter's night ; he noticed that the fire had gone 
out, but thought he could finish what he had in hand in a short 
time, but it required a longer period than he thought for, and 
when he had finished he found himself chilled through and 
through ; this was followed by an attack of Pneumonia from 
which he suffered for two years, running into consumption, of 
which he died. 

A young lady remained at a party in the country until twoo' 

clock of a March morning ; there was dancing and music and 

'mirth, the rooms were warm, and she left them when the body 

274 Ball's Journal of Health. 

was overheated, rode home in an open carriage and found her- 
self completely chilled ; she had an attack of lung fever, and 
at the end of two years stated that ghe had never seen a well 
da^ since the night of the party. 

A young lady was sitting in a warm room in her father's 
house, and some friends called in a carriage ; rather than put 
them to the trouble of coming in, as they merely wanted some 
item of information, and had an infant with them, she went to 
the gate to speak with them ; it was snowing a little, and be- 
coming interested in some recital, she noticed a chilly feeling 
pass over her. She never saw a well clay afterwards. 

Many excellent clergymen have had fatal attacks of pneumo- 
nia by failing to throw a cloak over their shoulders after the 
excitement of preaching in a cold room, or out of doors. 

Lung fevers are common with music teachers, who, after the 
excitement of walking to the residence of their pupils are allow- 
ed to wait some moments in cold parlors ; or after giving a les- 
son in a warm room, especially in vocal music, go out into a 
damp, raw wind. 

Clergymen and other public speakers have often been pre- 
maturely laid aside, by being compelled, after speaking, to ride 
several miles on horseback against a cold wind. 

An attack of pneumonia is -often occasioned by getting into 
a public vehicle after having been excited by walking, and be- 
ing compelled to sit in the draft of an open window which some 
selfish, inconsiderate clown had raised for his own comfort, re- 
gardless of any consequences to others.^ * 

To remain at rest in any position until a feeling of chilliness 
is induced, is sufficient to bring on an attack of inflammation 
of the lungs, however vigorous and robust the person may feel. 
Sitting still with damp feet; standing on the wet grass; 
keeping on damp clothes after having been engaged in exercise, 
are frequent causes of lung fever. One great principle, practi- 
cle in its nature and easily understood, underlies all these cases : 
it is the getting chilled ; this is the more easily brought about 
in proportion to the amount of exercise which has been previous- 
ly taken to the extent of inducing a warmth of body above 
what is natural ; the easy and universal preventive is, cool off 
very slowly after all forms of exercise in cold weather. 

If. a delicate person goes to bed in a warm room of a cold 
night and the fire goes entirely out, leaving the room thirty. 

In-Door Bangers. 275 

forty or 'fifty degrees colder when rising than at the hour of re- 
tiring, a cold is a very certain result. 


Multitudes of, persons have a great horror of going out of doors 
for fear of taking cold ; if it is a little damp, or a little windy, 
or little cold, they wait, and wait, and wait ; meanwhile weeks 
and even months pass iiway, andithey never, during that whole 
time, breathe a single breath of pure air. The result is, they 
become so enfeebled that their constitutions have no power of 
resistance ; the least thing in the world gives them a cold ; even 
going from one room to another, and before they know it they 
have a cold all the time, and this is nothing more or less than 
consumption. Whereas, if an opposite practice had been follow- 
ed of going out for an hour or two every day, regardless of the 
weather, so it is not actually falling rain, a very different result 
would have taken place. The truth is, the more a person is out 
of doors, the less easily does he take cold. It is a widely known 
fact that persons who camp out every night, or sleep under a 
tree for weeks together, seldom take cold at all. 

The truth is, many of our ailments, and those of a most 
fatal form, are taken in the house, and not out of doors ; taken 
by removing parts of clothing too soon after coming into the 
house ; or lying down on a bed or sofa when in a tired or ex- 
hausted condition from having engaged too vigorously in domes- 
tic employments. Many a pie has cost an industrious man a 
hundred dollars. A human life has many a time paid for an 
apple dumpling. When our wives get to work they become so 
interested in it that they find themselves in an utterly exhaus- 
ted condition ; their ambition to complete a thing, to do some 
work well,' sustains them until its completion, and the moment 
it is completed, the mental and physical condition is one of ex- 
haustion, when a breath of air will give a cold, to settle in the 
joints to wake up next day with inflammatory rheumatism ; or 
with a feeling of stiffness or soreness, as if they had been pounded 
in a a bag ; or a sore throat to worry and trouble them for months ; 
or lung lever to put them in the grave in less than a week. 

Our wives should work by the day, if they must work at all, 
and not by the job ; it is more economical in the end to see how 
little work they can do in an hour, instead of how much. It is 
slow, steady, continuous labor which brings health and strength 

276 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and a good digestion. Fitful labor is ruinous to all. 


This may be safely done in winter time when the day is clear? 
at any hour between sunrise and sunset, but on cloudy and 
damp days it is better to kindle a fire and thus create a draft 
up the chimney. A bed should always be made several hours 
before sundown, before it has had time to gather the damps of 
the evening. 

It will refresh us greatly if on waking up of a winter's night, 
we get out of bed, throw all the clothing to the foot and the next 
instant throw it back ; this drives all the confined air away 
from the bedding without allowing it to get very cold ; in ad- 
dition the hands should be passed over the skin of the whole 
body two or three times ; this operation is accompanied with a 
degree of refreshment and a feeling of purity on entering the 
bed again which more than pays for the trouble, and it is often 
a great sleep promoter, enabling a person to fall into a sound 
slumber in a few minutes after having been tossing restlessly 
for hours. 

Shut your moutn in going from a cold to a hot atmosphere, as 
well as the reverse ; this simple operation brings the tempera- 
ture of either a cold or hot air to the natural standard before 
it reaches the lungs, by making it take the circuit of the head • 
whereas if the mouth is kept open it clashes down upon the lungs 
like a shock. Whether asleep or awake we should accustom 
ourselves to keep the mouth shut ; the advantage in our sleep- 
ing hours is that we do not snore, we don't have the nightmare, 
flies, bugs and spiders don't crawl down the throat, and we don't 
tell tales in our dreams ; the benefits in the day time are that 
it induces a more healthful, deep, full and free action of the 
lungs, prevents innumerable chills and colds, and saves many a 
domestic sorrow. 


Ordinarily we are comfortable in church, if at the height of 
five feet from the floor, in the centre of the building, Fahren- 
heit's thermometer stands at sixty-five degrees. But in this re- 
spect no one man should be a guide for another. Some require 
more heat than others, but there is one rule of universal appli- 
cation — a rule which admits of no exceptions, the world over, 
each person should" notice what temperature keeps him comfort- 

Grunting. 277 

ably warm, and thus be a rule to himself. It is said of the Duke 
of Wellington that during the latter years of his life he became 
so frigid, that in order to be comfortably warm his room was 
kept at such a temperature in winter that it was in a measure 
impossible for any visitor to remain but a very few minutes. 

But when a man has taken a cold, or is becoming bilious ; or 
if he stays indoors several days, he requires more and more heat, 
and if under such circumstances he would eat positively nothing 
for a day or two and keep on piling up the wood so as to keep 
up a continual slight perspiration, the cold would be cut short 
off, or the biliousness would disappear in twenty-four hours ; in 
fact, very many of our aches and pains and ailments would dis- 
appear with an amazing promptness, if we could persuade 
ourselves, when they are first noticed, to only cease eating, 
keep warm, keep quiet, and drink abundantly of any hot liquid ; 
but the great misfortune is that nine persons out of ten prefer 
to take some kind of medicine however nauseous ; they feel as 
if» they could not spare the time to be sick, and would rather 
swallow a quart of the most disgusting compound, if it only 
promises to cure them up " right away," with th«3 result always, 
that they are not cured right away ; but after dosing them- 
selves for days and weeks with whatever Tom, Dick or Harry 
chooses to advise, they find themselves compelled at last to consult 
a physician when the time has passed for warmth and quiet to 
have any curative effect. 


Many persons precipitate themselves into the grave by at- 
tempting to bravado an ailment ; to be up and about in defiance 
of it. If anything at all is the matter with a man which is 
really disquieting, he should at least have as much sense as 
a pig, and go and lie down ; pigs are not such fools as to move 
about in pain ; it is a great deal better to lie down and 


Nature, so beautifully appropriate and economical in all her 
arrangements, makes a double use of the expression of pain or 
suffering both in men and animals. — a sigh, a moan, a tear 9 
always attract the attention and excite the sympathies of the 
well and also afford a grateful relief to the sufferer. Those 
griefs craze the brain which do not vent themselves in weeping. 
The tearless eye under trouble, breaks the heart. The pareni 

278 HaWs Journal of Health. 

who whips or scolds his child because he cries under suffering 
? or trouble, is a brute or an ignoramus. Neither mirth nor mour n- 
I ing ought to be restrained of their natural expression. Laugh- 
ter increases the gladness and sighs relieve the sorrowing heart. 
A very striking exhibition of this idea has frequently come un- 
der the observation of the most care] ess. There is a class of men 
and women of feeble intellect though they be, who are always 
complaining ; .they can entertain you by the hour with the details 
of their bodily sufferings ; according to their own story, they are 
never free from some ache, or pain, or malady, and you wonder 
after listening to their interminable narrations that they had not 
long ago died from the effects of such sufferings ; and yet they do 
not die ; they live on, and on, and on, to vex successive generations 
with their dismal histories ; if you sit down to the table with 
them, you will find that they can eat as much and as fast as 
the most robust, and have very nice perceptions of the good 
things of this life, eatable and drinkable. We may, then, rea- 
sonably infer that habitual grunting is a . life-preserver, and 
the Frenchman was not very far wrong after all, who advoca- 
ted the theory.several years ago that while it was indisputable 
. that laughing made the body fat, and that good natured child- 
ren, the lively, merry ones, were healthy, that it was equally 
certain that crying children were not less so ; in other words, 
that crying did a child good, it promoted a more vigorous circu- 
lation of the blood, and helped to develop the lungs. 


The reader has no doubt observed many times that if in very 
severe winter weather he remains in the house several days, the 
body gets very chilly ; while you are warming the feet and 
hands before the fire, the cold chills run down the back ; or if 
you go even from the fire to the window to look upon the snow, 
disagreeable creeps run all over the body ; and whether in these, 
or under any other circumstances, persons have an unpleasant 
chilliness, it is the result of a sluggish circulation and an imper- 
fect digestion — so little life-giving air is breathed, and so little 
exercise is taken that the nutriment is not drawn from the food 
eaten, the blood grows poor, and lifeless, and cold ; loses its 
heating power, and the body begins to freeze and die. But let 
a few hours be spent in the cool, out-door air in some exhiler- 
ating employment or pastime, and there is an entire change in 

Nothing to Do. 279 

the whole physical and mental condition ; the fire of life kin- 
dles in the eye, smiles light up the face, and the man is himself 


Every winter the number increases in our large cities, especial- 
ly in New York, of persons who having become tired of village 
and country life, or of keeping house in the city, look to 
boarding at hotels or private houses as a kind of an elysium ; 
nothing to do but eat and sleep and walk about ; while there is 
a blissful deliverence from the annoyances of incompetent, faith- 
less and blarneying servants ; who, when you engage them, profess 
a perfect knowledge and skill in everything which pertaftis to , 
the kitchen, and yet within a week, show that they know little 
or nothing beyond the most -common duties. They can not even 
kindle a fire without its costing about three times as much as it 
ought to ; they can not bake a loaf of bread fit to eat ; their* 
pastry would kill a plowman in a week ; and even when fur- 
nished most lavishly with ftie very best of materials, have nei- 
ther sense nor system in their preperation ; very few know even . 
feow to cook a potatoe — and dirt and filth everywhere prevail. 
But in escaping these vexations, greater than these soon present 
themselves in a boarding-house life, and among the first is the 
giving way of the health ; the body becomes sleepy and dull ; 
the mind loses its elasticity, and soon begins to waste itself in 
worriment about the merest trifles ; a very little inconvenience 
or difficulty is magnified and looms up in mountainous propor- 
tions. One of these called on us recently, a lady, well educa- 
ted, dressed elegantly and in perfect taste, and merely to look 
at, any man might be proud to call her his wife. The moment 
she entered our office she began to whine at an amazing rate, 
declaring that she was in a state of perfect physical and men- 
tal prostration. It was very natural for us to inquire into the 
cause of such a hopeless condition. She was boarding. A gen- 
erous husband had surrounded her with everything calculated 
to afford her enjoyment. She had no children, and no servants 
to annoy her. Her husband was at his place of business from 
10 to 3, and the remainder of his time was at her service. She 
went to the races, she attended the opera, and she visited her 
friends ; and yet she pretended she was in a perfect state of 
physical and mental prostration ! 

280 Ball's Journal of Health. 


Into this gulf of perdition will they arrive at no remote day 
who arrange to go to boarding as soon as married, instead of 
going to housekeeping. A more unprofitable mistake cannot 
possibly be made by the newly married ; it is more mischievious 
in winter than in summer, for in warm weather the young wife 
can walk on the street, or drive in the Park, or visit; among her 
friends, but in the winter they are cooped up in one room, and 
spend hours at the window-pane, gazing listlessly out opon the 
street; afraid of the cold, yet detesting th% confinement, while 
a great part of the time, the husband being at his business, the 
mind of the young wife is the prey of a thousand disquietudes ; 
at one time she thinks her friends are slighting her ; at another, 
she becomes envious of others who seem to be able to dress 
more elegantly than herself, and she begins to make unfavor-' 
able comparisons to herself and to her husband, as to their 
worldly condition, and she becomes moody, or petulant, and 
complains, and the husband wakes tfp to a new discovery, and 
as unwelcome as it is new— that his wife is not happy ; not hap- 
py in him, not happy in herself, not happy in her social position. 
But suppose these same persons had begun life in the old fash- 
ioned way ; had taken a small house and had busied themselves 
first in arranging whatever parental affection had bestowed, 
and then had set about deciding what they could afford to take 
from their own store of money and expend it for the most nec- 
essary articles of furniture, and as to the things they wanted 
besides, things not indispensable, yet desirable, laying plans 
together how, by economizing, first in one direction and then in 
another, they might lay aside enough to procure what they had 
set their minds upon ; and when this was accomplished, then to 
have another aim. No man can doubt that in going to house- 
keeping in such a manner, the prospect of a happy and thrifty 
married life is unmistakably more promising than in the health 
and heart destroying practice of living the first twelve 
months of married life in hotels and boarding houses. Very 
few young wives are safe in any public associations. The pa- 
pers abound in cases of infidelity to marital engagements by 
lately marri ed girls being thrown into the society of men 
of leisure, their husbands being engaged in their business pur- 
suits. The mere dandy, loafer, or gentleman of leisure has 
everv opportunity of taste, and dress, and address above that of 

The Men won't Propose. 281 

the mere man of business, to turn away a woman's heart 
from her husband by the mere fact of causing her at first, with- 
out implicating himself, to draw unfavorable comparisons against 
her husband, or to personal tidiness. One of the most splen- 
did weddings that had ever taken place then, in New York, 
resulted in a seperation, and a broken heart, and a premature 
grave within a few years, by the wife's continual twitting her 
husband, when they were walking on Broadway or the Avenue, 
about his want of taste in the selection of his apparel; — "why 
don't you bow as Mr. Blank does ? " — " His gloves are in per- 
fect taste; yours are such as a countryman would select." 

These things grew upon her, while they alienated him, and 
living as they did at the finest hotel in the city, with uncounted 
gold at their command, and nothing to compel their attention 
away from trifling things, their minds dwelt upon them, mag- 
nified them, allowed them to see nothing else, with the result of 
a seperation under circumstances which were infinitely worse 
than death, for then the grave would have closed over every 
sorrow, whereas life was spared, with its long years of ag- 


Because they are afraid of the enormous expenses of housekeep- 
ing. It requires a little fortune, now, to buy a house, and 
every article of furniture costs about three times as much as it 
did ten years ago. Young men of spirit, and they are the only 
ones worth having now, begin to calculate the cost of wedlock. 
When they see the extravagant lengths to which our daughters 
go in their dress ; when they look at the splendid mansions in 
which their fathers live, their minds begin to run in this chan- 
nel ; " She is a charming girl, in fact, too good for me, but to 
place such a trusting creature in a condition iuferior to the 
one in which she now finds herself, would be dishonorable, and 
I must forego the happiness of marrying her, even were she 
willing, until I have obtained the means of placing her in a 
social position worthy of her;" and while he is bending his 
energies to bring about this end, years creep on ; opinions have 
changed, views of life have altered ; the affections have become 
chilled and the mind hardened, with its attritions with men, 
preferences have been diverted, and in too many cases an old 
bachelor and an old maid occupy the places which otherwise 
might have been the abode of a happy family and a delightful 

282 Hall's Journal of Health. 

Every body ought to get married who can boast of three 
things, First, A sound body. Second, A sound mind. Third, 
A good trade ; this as to men ; and as to women, they should 
possess good health, tidiness and industry.- With these, any 
young couple can get as rich as they ought to be, or as rich as 
is necessary to an enjoyable life, if they will only go to house- 
keeping a little below their ability. 

The young should have the courage to live within their 
means • to have more pride in the consciousness that they have 
a little spare money at home, than in living in a style which 
keeps them all the time cramped in maintaining. "Better to live 
in one room with all the furniture your own than occupy a whole 
house with scarcely a chair or table paid for. 


It is productive of a great deal of domestic enjoyment to 
have a man and wife working to the same end, having a com- 
mon object in Yiew, whether it be to save up money enough to 
buy a new chair, or a neighbor's adjoining farm. It is thus 
that they grow into the feeling that they are one, that their 
interests are united, and they soon begin to work into each 
other's hands ; the wife seeks to make the husband's task easier, 
knowing that it enables him to do more for her, and that the 
common object will be the sooner attained ; the husband seeing 
this, reciprocates, and loves the more, day by day, until they 
become cue in aim, and feelings, and sentiments, and a love 
more abiding as the years grow old, is the happy result. 


" I do not mind being sick so much, nor the pain connected 
with it, but father is getting old, and he needs my help at the 

This was the sentiment of a young man the other day, who 
was suffering a temporary disablement. There was something 
beautiful in it. 

Every night about dark, a small boy with a light ladder and 
a box of matches, may be seen running along the street. He 
stops at each lamp-post, lights the gas, and then runs to another ; 
he does not loiter ; does not stop to talk with other boys, or to 
gaze at the splendid equipages which are yet returning from the 
Park along the Avenue. He is the son of the man whose busi. 

Eelp Father, %83 

ness it is to light the city lamps. No hired boy could possibly 
be procured who would perform the duty with such alacrity, and 
fidelity, too ; for not long ago he passed a lamp-post a rod or 
two and on looking back, he discovered it was burning too high. 
He at once ran back and adjusted it properly. What if it did 
burn too high ; it was nothing to him, nor to the city, nor to 
his father -, but suppose one of the Directors of the gas compa- 
nies had chanced to see that wasting light, his father might 
have lost his place. A lesson may be learned here which would 
add a million fold to family happiness, and it is this — it in- 
creases the affections of families to have the sons and daughters 
brought up to assist their parents in household duties, or in the 
means of family support ; there grows up a community of in- 
terest, each feels that he is helping the others, and the affections 
naturally go out towards those who help us. If a mother has 
no other use of her daughter, she should require her to assist 
in all domestic matters ; and sons should be early learned to 
proffer their services to their parents, even if it be to save a 
few steps in walking, or to make the accomplishment of any 
work in hand less laborious; in short,. children should be so ed- 
ucated that it shall be to them a duty, a pleasure and a happi- 
ness to help their parents, and to do it with alacrity, with a 
spontaneous promptitude which never gives time to be asked. 
But most parents will plead guilty to the charge, that instead 
of requiring their children to help them, and wait upon them in 
many little ways, they. too often prefer to wait on or help them- 

There is a feeling, which if expressed in words would read 
.thus — " The child may be engaged in something else of its own, 
or may not like to do it, and I can almost as easily do it my- 
self; at all events I won't divert him from his o ^n objects." 
Many a mother has made a bed in weariness, or cooked a din- 
ner, or swept a room, or washed a garment, or set up half 
the night in sewing, patching or knitting, when her daughters 
could have, shared the labor and made it easy to both ; but 
that daughter's dress might have been soiled, or she had a visit- 
or, or was going to take a walk, or was finishing a story. — 
Mothers, remember this one important truth — the most self-sac- 
rificing parents are oftenest brought to an old age of grief 
by the misconduct of both sons and daughters. 

Selfish children, those who are not allowed to bear the fam- 

284 Hall's Journal of Health. 

ly burdens soon begin to feel that it is not their place and that 
their parents ought to devote themselves to their comfort and 
happiness, and the sentiment expresses itself in words sometimes, 
" It is no more than they ought to do." " Other children's pa- 
rents do it, and why not mine '?" Nothing is more true than 
that those children who take the least interest in household 
matters, or in the business of the family, are the most selfish, 
the most ungrateful, and the least unlikely to grow up useful 
members of society, while those who are always ready to help 
their parents, to share their labors, will grow up more and 
more affectionate, more and more worthy of parental love, and 
arc very certain in after life. to be found the praise of the com- 
munity in which they live. 


of the physical man has a great deal to do with health and life. 
Many a^ man and woman owe an untimely death to damp feet 
in winter-time. This is very generally admitted, and many 
methods have been proposed to prevent it. In wet weather, or 
when the snow is melting, the India rubber shoe is the most per- 
fect article offered ; some prejudice has been excited against 
them, more than anything else" from the unwise use of them. 
They may be hurtful to some, but it does not follow that they 
are generally so. 

No one can be comfortable with cold, damp feet, and the 
very instant it is noticed, the person should begin to walk, or 
remove both stockings and hold the bare feet to the fire until 
they are perfectly dried and feel comfortably warm. India 
rubber overshoes should be worn only when the person is 
walking ; as soon as the walk is ended they should be removed. 
They certainly ought not to remain on the feet ten minutes if 
the person is standing still in the house after a walk. If a per- 
son is in and out many times in a day, it is better to have a 
pair of old slices covered with good India Rubber to re- 
main on permanently, to bo slipped on and off together • anoth- 
er pair of shoes and. slippers, to be worn in their stead while 
indoors ; but unless this other pair is always kept warm when 
not in use, the removal of a shoe and slipping on a cold one, 
will give a bad cold or a troublesome rheumatic affection in a 
very short tijne. The great mass of business men cannot make 
these changes, and to them the old fashioned soled shoe or boot - 
is best. 

Water- Proof Shoes. 285 

Various expedients have been devised to keep the dampnesfe 
from the soles of the feet. Some advise that a piece of sail cloth 
or other woven material, should be -cut in the shape of the sole, 
dipped in melted pitch or tar, and when cooled, placed between 
the layers of the shoe's sole and well sewed. If this is care- 
fully done it is simply impossible for any dampness to penetrate 
to the soles of the feet by simply walking on damp ground ; but 
in walking in wet grass or the slosh of snow deep enough to 
reach the upper leather, this device is no protection. 

Another means of rendering soles of shoes impervious to 
dampness, and to prevent their squeaking, is to set them in 
melted tallow deep enough to merely cover the soles, and let 
them remain a week ; if it is in a mixture of equal parts of bees- 
wax and tallow, it is still the better. 

A gentleman avers that from six years of experience and 
trial, the soles of shoes are not only made water-proof but will 
last three times as long if a coat of gum copal varnish is appli- 
ed to the soles and repeated as it dries, until the pores of the 
leather are filled, and the surface shines like polished mahog- 

. The soles of shoes may be made impervious to wat er by rub- 
bing the following mixture into the leather, until it is thorough- 
ly saturated — One pint of boiled linseed oil ; half a pound of 
mutton suet ; six ounces of pure beeswax ; four ounces of rosin. 
Melt these over a slow fire, storing well, and when the shoes 
are new, warm them and the mixture also, and use. 

Or put a pound each of rosin and tallow in a pot on the fire 
and when melted and mixed, apply while hot, with a painter's 
brush, to both soles and upper leather. If it is desired that 
the boots should take a polish immediately, dissolve an ounce 
of beeswax in a teaspoonful each of turpentine and lamp black 
a day or two after the boots have been treated with the rosin 
and tallow, rub over them this wax and turpentine, away from 
the fire. Thus the exterior will have a coat of wax alone, and 
will have "a bright polish. Tallow and grease become rancid 
and rot the stitching, and the leather also ; while the rosin 
mixture preserves both. 

One pint of linseed oil, a quarter of a pint of turpentine or 
camphor, a quarter of a pound of beeswax and a quarter of a 
pound of Burgundy pitch. Melt together with a gentle heat ; 
warm it when it is to be used, and rub it into the leather 
before the fire, or in the sun. 

286 Ball's Journal of Health. 

Or, melt together beeswax and mutton suet, half and half, 
and rub it in where the stitches are. 

Gutta Percha soles are preferred by Some. They may be 
attached thus : dry the old sole, roughen it well with a rasp, 
and rub on with the finger a thin, warm solution of gutta per- 
cha ; dry it, hold it to the fire, and then rub on a coat of a 
thicker solution. Take the gutta percha sole, soften ,it in hot 
water, wipe it, and hold both sole and shoe to the fire until 
warm ; lay the sole on gradually, beginning at the toe. In 
half an hour, pare it neatly with a knife. 

But it must be remembered that if you make the upper leather 
of a shoe water-tight, it is rendered measureably air-tight, and 
this occasions dampness on the inside, creating ill odors and 
coldness, while any kind of oily substance must not only rot 
the material but cause a noisome smell. 

To those who are forehanded, and have leisure, it is advised 
to purchase the shoes to be worir in winter six months before 
hand, and wear them a little at a time in warm weather ; thus 
they become hardened before winter sets in, and this hardening 
increases their durability. But before they are once worn in 
the wet, the soles should be held to the fire until they are well 
warmed ; then warm a little tar in a tin cup, and apply it with 
a swab to the bottom of the shoe, but not hot enough to burn 
the leather, then let it be well dried in before the fire. This 
will never work out while warning the feet; but this tar should 
be applied the first of each month until May, if the boots are 
worn much in the wet. This tar penetrates the sole to the 
eighth of an inch, and renders it almost as hard as horn. Grease 
of any kind will soften the leather and make it porous. With- 
out this tar application, the first wetting of the soles will con- 
tract them and making them fit not so well, sometimes making 
them too small altogether. 

If shoes are heated before the fire, they get hard and wear 
out very much sooner than if allowed to dry gradually in the 
upper part of the kitchen or family room, farthest from the fire, 
or on a shelf, or hung on a nail. 


It is a bad plan to grease the upper leather of shoes for the 
purpose of keeping them soft ; it rots the leather and admits 
dampness more- readily. It is better to make a varnish thus : 

Put half a pound of gum shellac, broken up in small pieces, 
in a quart bottle or jug, cover it with alcohol, cork it tight and 
put it" on a shelf in a warm place ; shake it well several times a 

Varnish for Shoes. 237 

crcr : 
tea ' 

day, then add a piece of gum camphor as large as a hen's e 
shake it well, and in a few hours shake it again and add one 
ounce of lamp black ; if the alcohol is good, it will all be dis- 
solved in three days ; then shake and use. - If it gets too thick, 
add alcohol — pour out two or three teaspoonfuls in a saucer 
and apply it with a small paint brush. If the materials 
were all good, it Will dry in about five minutes, and will be re- 
moved only by wearing it off, giving a gloss almost equal to 
patent leather. 

The advantage of this preperation above others is, it does 
not strike into the leather and make it hard, but remains on 
the surface and yet excludes the water almost perfectly. 

This same preperation is admirable for harness, and does not 
soil when touched, as lamp black preperations do. 


If boots are treated as above, and just before going out of 
doors the stockings are removed, and both feet and stockings 
are well dried before the fire, the feet will feel comfortably 
warm for several hours ; it is the moisture or steam about the 
feet which often makes, thern feel cold by the out-door air con- 
densing them. No one should travel in winter with tight-fit- 
ting shoes ; they arrest the circulation : this induces coldness, 
causing a general feeling of discomfort all over the body, even 
making the mind fretful and irritable. A woolen stocking will 
alone keep the feet warmer than the same stockings and a pair 
of tight boots besides. If a person has a good circulation, the 
feet will get warm of themselves if the tight boots are re- 
moved. No one can go to bed with cold feet without doing 
themselves a positive injury ; and it is always best in winter- 
time, even if the feet do not feel cold, at bed-tkne to draw oft* 
the stockings and hold the feet to the fire or stove, rubbing 
them meanwhile with the hand, until they are perfectly dry and 
comfortably warm in every part ; it is a pleasant operation of 
itself, and ought not to be dispensed with for a single night from 
October to May ; it is one of the best anodynes ; it allows a per- 
son to fall asleep in five minutes, who, with cold feet, would 
have remained awake for half an hour or more, and even then 
the sleep will be unrefreshing and dreamy. 


If the soles are dry and hot at bed time, rub patiently into 
each one of them, with the hand, half a teaspoonful of sweet oil 
night after night, until the difficulty is removed. 

28 8 HaWs Journal of Health, 

Some persons always have cold feet on getting into bed : a 
robust person may remedy this in time by dipping both feet at 
a time in cold water just deep enough to cover the toes ; let 
them remain in until thirty are counted, wipe dry, hold to the 
fire, and jump into bed. 

Feeble persons and invalids should pursue a different course. 
Put both feet in hot water half leg deep ; add hot water from 
time to time for fifteen minutes, so that the water shall be hot- 
ter when they are taken out then when they are put in, then 
dip them in cold water as before, while you count ten, wipe 
warm, and get into bed. 

As cold feet induces a number of diseases, aggravates others, 
and delays the cure of all, it is woith all the trouble one can 
take if thereby, even in the course of months, the delightful con- 
dition can be brought about wherein the feet are in such a nat- 
ural and healthful state, that the mind is never attracted towards 
them unpleasantly. 


Interfere with the pleasure of locomotion, cause corns, and 
even rheumatic gouj ; hence it is worth while to repeat what 
we have formerly recommended as an infallible and easy 
method of having a new foot-covering fit as easily as an old 
shoe — just put on two pairs of thick stockings before the meas- 
ure is taken or before fitting your feet with ready-made shoes ; 
then when you get home pull off both pair, put on one thin pair, 
wear them for a few days and then put on thicker. This sim- 
ple expedient will prevent an incalculable* amount of discom- 
fort, irritation and loss, in one year. 


To do this easily, harmlessly and well in winter, is worth 
knowing. Scrape off the mud or wet dirt with an old spoon 
handle, or which is better*, a wooden knife, then with a soft, 
damp rag or sponge remove what the knife failed to do, then 
set them back from the fire for five or six hours, or more • they 
will then take a polish as easily as before they wore wetted ; 
in this wa/ they can be cleaned without scarcely soiling the 
fingers at all, and a great deal of extra brushing will be saved. 

Boots and shoes for the winter should be large enough to ad- 
mit of cork soles which, if taken out every night and dried 
well, will keep the feet warm all the time, without which con- 
dition no person can possibly have ^ood health, while there 
are many whose only obstacle to good health is cold feet. 

v Cleaning Shoes. 289 

The feet are so far from the centre of the system that the cir- 
culation in them is easily checked and then disease begins ; 
hence it is of great importance that persons in going to their, 
place of business, with the expectation of remainin g in sever- 
al hours, should pull off their tight-fitting boots and put on a 
pair of easy fitting slippers or shoes ; and they will find that 
on putting on their boots again at night to go home, it is done 
with considerable difficulty. This is because the feet have swol- 
len during the day, a natural result from the blood and other 
fluids accumulating in them, partly from their being in a stand- 
ing position for a considerable portion of the time ; and partly 
from the unrestrained condition of the foot, the circulation is 
more free and healthful; but if a tight boot is kept on all day, 
it becomes more and more compressed every hour, and by night 
the circulation is almost arrested, the feet are cold and clammy 
and damp, and this soon becomes their constant condition, in- 
stead of a few hours towards the close of the day; but this 
very change to a loose slipper or old shoe, on arriving at the 
shop, or store, or office, will in a very short time be followed by 
lameness, or stiff joints, or a cold, impregnating the whole, sys- 
tem unless, the slippers or shoes are first made very warm. Com- 
mon-sense points out the fact that harm must result from chang- 
ing a loose, cold shoe for a warm one. 

A fruitful cause of colds is the wearing during the winter 
while out of doors, boots or shoes with thinner soles, even if the 
weather is milder. When a thick soled shoe is put on in the 
early part of the winter, it should be used until the first of May, 
or at least until the winter is broken up. In the effort to keep 
the feet warm the experience of one man is no safe guide to 
another. Some keep their feet warm during the coldest weather 
by wearing cotton stockings; others are more successful by 
wearing woolen hose. The only rational plan is for each one 
to experiment on himself and observe the result closely. Others 
again succeed best by wearing two pairs of hose at the same 
time, one of woolen, the other of cotton ; these differences 
arise from the fact that the circulation of some is more vigorous 
than that of others j some are on^their feet all the time ; others 
sit almost all day. 

390 BalVs Journal of Health. 


Subscriptions to [Hall's Journal of Health expire with the 
December Number, Those who do not wish to take it for another 
year, need give no notice, as it is never sent without an express 
order, accompanied with the subscription price. 

THE CHILDREN'S HOUR I A New Magazine for 

the Little Ones. Edited by T. S. Arthur. — Our new Magazine 
will come as a pleasant companion, friend and counsellor of the 
little ones ; and as a helper in the work of storing up things 
good, and true, and beautiful in their minds, through a healthy 
culture of the imagination and an attractive illustration of those 
precepts that lie at the foundation of all right living. It will 
aim to inspire children with reverence for God and a sense of 
His loving and fatherly care ; and to lead them to unselfish ac- 
tions — to be gentle, forbearing, merciful, just, pure, brave, and 
peaceable. ■ Some of the best writers for children in the country 
will contribute to its pages. 

The Children's Hour will be as elegant in appearance as the 
best artists and the best typography can make it. The first num- 
ber will be ready on the first of November, and will be mailed as 
a sample on receipt of ten cents. v 

Terms I — One year, in advance, $1.25. Five copies, $5.00. Ten 
copies, $10.00, and an extra copy to the person sending the club. 

For $3 we will send one copy of the Home Magazine and one 
qopy of the Children's Hour. 

Address T. S. Arthur, 323 Walnut St., Philadelphia. 

Mr. Godey, in his Lady's Book, thus speaks in advance of this 
new enterprise : 

T. S. Arthur's New Magazine For Children. — We take more 
than usual pleasure in referring our readers to the prospectus of 
The Children's Hour, a new magazine for the Little Ones. No 
one in the country is more widely or favorably known as a writer 
for children than Mr. Arthur, and thousands of mothers who en- 
joyed and profited by his beautiful story-lessons, when young, 
will gladly accept the opportunity of placing this new magazine 
in the hands of their children. 

We understand that Mr. Arthur has long contemplated issuing 
a magazine for the young, but other literary engagements drew 
so heavily upon his time and health that he could not at any 
earlier period commence its publication. Now, all things favor 
the undertaking, and he comes to it with a loving interest in the 

Notices, 291 

work, delayed for years, that must insure its excellence and suc- 

" The Children's Hour" will not be the rival of any other 
juvenile periodical, but have its own distinctive features, and ad- 
dress itself to the work of helping the little ones to take the first 
steps in life safely and pleasantly, in its own peculiar way. It 
will be the mother's assistant, as well as the child's companion, 
friend and counsellor. 

Don't fail to get a number. We hope that every mother who 
takes the Lady's Book will take Mr. Arthur's Child's Magazine 
also.'.' • •■'..#.., 

Hall's Journal of Health, which is published monthly at 
§1.50 a year, will be sent, with The Children's Hour, during 1867 
for |2.00, if sent previous to December 31st., 1868, to "Hall's 
Journal of Health, No. 2 West 43d St., New York." 

The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible 
House, New York, corner of 8th St. and 4th Avenue, have issued 
for the Sunday reading of families, " There's Time Enough ; or, 
The Story of Charles Scott." 153 pps. " Our Charley ; or, The 
Little Teacher." Pps. 125. " Winnie and Her Grandfather; or, 
the way to overcome evil with good." 144 pps. "Made Graves;" 
by the author of Jessie Lovell. u Grace's Visit ;" A Tale for the 
Young. 247 pp. All of these are safe and instructive reading 
for the young, which with a multitude of other books, as useful 
and as good. , • 

Messrs. Broughton and Wyman will be happy to sell at low 
prices to all who pay them a visit at 13 Bible House, New York. 


It is well known that the Watchman and Eeflector, published 
weekly at Boston, Mass., at $3 per year — if paid within thre e 
months— has now been published.forty-seven years, and has been 
edited with a steady ability and intelligence not surpassed by 
any paper in the Baptist Church. In one important respect it 
has been faithful above all others in guarding its readers against 
the patronage of what are considered respectable publications 
and periodicals, but which, every once in a while, were found 
covertly spitting out their venom and infidelity against the 
Christian Religion, thus being a watchman wide awake and in- 
dependent and fearless enough to attack in high placce. Too 
many religious publications praise indiscriminately all that comes 
from publishing houses which send them a great many books and 
give them a large advertising patronage.; this is their shame. 

The Boston Watchman and Reflector has not been with chis 

292 HaW s Journal of Health. 

crowd of sleepy watchmen, and we trust it never will. 

To give some idea of the value of the reading in a single num- 
ber, we take up the first at hand, for October 25, 1886. — A letter 
from London, from Peter Bayne. Inspiration of the Scriptures. 
The Savior's Invitation Accepted. Encouraging Inquirers. 
A Greeting with Paul. Letters from England and Ireland — and 
all this on the first page, the three others being filled with valua- 
ble practical matter. No family of any denomination could 
possibly read such a paper a year without being the better' for 
it. The reading is uniformly of such a character as to elevate 
and purify and instruct wherever it goes. We will send it and 
this Journal for 1867 for $3, the price of the Watchman and Re- 
flector alone, as above named. This offer will not be extended 
but withdrawn, not to be renewed, on the last day of 1886. 

We should have been glad to have offered Godey's Lady's Book 
of Philadelphia, with this Journal, at the price of Godey's alone, 
but they want to charge us as much as any other heathen man 
and publican, and we won't put up with it. It would have been 
different had Gode} r been at home, but he is abroad, and has left 
a representative behind him who has not a particle of common 
sense ; we believe his name is Smith or Snooks, but he only 
controls the dollar and cent department. The soul of Godey is 
in Sarah J. Hale, and consequently whoever has three dollars to 
spare for a family periodical always welcomed by the girls, and 
always full of good things, useful and true, especially those taken 
from Hall's Journal of Health, would do well to invest it in 
Godey stock, sent to Louis A. Godey, Philadelphia, Penn., enclo- 
sing a Post Office Order for Three Dollars: 

Gardener's Monthly, $2 a year, published by Brinceloe, 23 
North 6th Street, Philadelphia, Penn., and by the Messrs. Wood- 
ward, 37 Park Row, New York. 

This valuable and much prized Monthly is devoted to Horticul- 
ture, Arboriculture, Botany and the Rural Arts. January com- 
mences a new Vol., and from the variety of topics treated and 
the practical ability of the editor, Thomas Meehan, it will be 
valuable not only to families in the country, but to every house- 
hold w r hich owns a garden spot or cultivates a few flowers and 
plants for the window sill, or the conservatory in cities. 

The advertising pages are of special value to farmers, gard- 
eners and nurserymen, in giving information as to where agricul- 
tural instruments, manures, plants, &c, may be purchased. 

Notices. -293 

American Educational Series, and Almanac for 1867, by Ivi- 
son, Phinney, Blakeman & Co^, with Catalogue of books for sale 
by that House. 

Life asd Death Eternal; being a. refutation of the Doctrine 
of Annihilation, by Samuel 0. Bartlett, D. D., Professor in the 
Chicago Theological Seminary ; 390 pp., 12mo. 

To that happy company who, having been brought up in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord by conscientious, praying 
parents, have never a doubt or a fear of the great fundamental 
truths of Evangelical Religion, we give the advice not to read 
the book any more than the writings of Hume, or Voltaire, or 
Tom Paine ; they are happy and satisfied in their faith, there let 
them remain ; but to the unhappy doubters, who are without God 
and without hope in the world,- hence are restless, unfixed, 
and constantly looking forward uneasily into the future beyond 
the grave— to such we say, by ail means read the book and it will 
be pretty sure to convince you that man is immortal and rriay be- 
come an heir to a glorious and undying existance in the mansions 
of the Blessed, where God and Angels are. 
A Family Treasure 
is the monthly publication of the Rev. Dr. McKinney, of Pitts- 
burgh, Penn., sent for $1.50 a year. It is one of the few, the very 
few Monthlies which is always religious, and is always on the 
safe side. The articles. are for the family, and are always prac- 
tical, truthful and instructive ; its sentiments tend to purify, 
to elevate and instruct ; and yet are interesting to all. No fam- 
ily of any Christian denomination need have any fears of a ma- 
lign influence on young minds, following the reading of any page 
of this well edited monthly. It is published at too low a rate 
and merits a wide patronage. We will send it and Hall's Jour- 
nal of Health for 1867 to any present subscribers of either, for 
$2, which is very little over the subscription price of one of them 
provided the amount is sent to " Hall's Journal of Health, No. 2 
West 43d St., New York," previous to the 5th day of December, 
1866, when it will be withdrawn. This short offer is made in 
order to brea'c up that miserable habit of putting off from day 
to day subscribing for a publication, for an indefinite period. 
" Aikin Hotel" having been recently renovated and refurnish- 
ed, is now open for the reception of visitors. Guests can rely on 
every exertion being made to render them comfortable and make 
them feel at home. The elevated situation of Aikin, with its dry, 
equable and genial climate, is peculiarly adapted to invalids 
affected with pulmonary diseases, and is highly recommended 
by eminent physicians, North and South. 

Henry Smeyser, Proprietor. 
Aikin, South Carolina, Dec. 1, 1866. 

Your subscription ends with this number. 


- The American Agriculturist is published monthly for $1.50 a 
year ; it is the cheapest, best, and most ably edited agricultural 
monthly on the globe ; every issue has more than one hundred 
practical articles relative L to the cultivation of fruit, flowers, 
grains, cattle, &c. To any person sending us $2 before the first 
day of December, both publications will be sent for 1867, in- 
cluding the December issues of each ; this offer will expire on 
the last day of November, 1866, positively. 

The Scientific American.— The oldest, most successful, and ablest pa- 
per of its kind in the world ; as practically useful for every household as for 
scientific men and inventors, and all men of progress, is published weekly 
at $ 3 a year. We will send it and Hall's Journal of Health for 1867, 
for $ 3 a year, thus giving both publications for the price of one. 

The Phrenological Journal, now in its 43d volume, is published 
monthly at 389 Broadway, New York, at $2 a year, profusely illustrated 
with the portraits of eminent characters, and filled with a great variety 
of useful reading matter pertaining to the conduct of life, and mental 
moral, and social improvement. It will be famished for 1867, with Hall's 
Journal of Health, for $ 2.50, thus affording our Journal for 50 cents a 

The New York Independent is published weekly at $ 2.50 a year. It 
is written for by some of the ablest minds in the nation ; it has weekly 
letters from well informed correspondents abroad, and gives in every 
issue copious monetary and market reports, prepared with great accuracy 
and industry ; we offer it and the Journal of Health, for 1867, for $ 3 to 
every person who has not taken the Independent before. 

These offers will be all withdrawn on the last day of the year 1866. — 
Those who send the money to EalVs Journal of Health, No. 2 West 43d 
St., New York, previous to the 1st day of December, 1866, will have a 
December number of each publication subscribed for, without charge. 

Five copies of Hall's Journal of Health for 1867 will be sent to one ad- 
dress for $ 5 ; to Clergymen and Theological students of all denomina- 
tions, the Journal of Health will be sent for 1867 for $ 1. 

To any fifty Foreign Missionaries, who first apply, the Journal will be 
sent free, for 1867, free of postage. We wish we felt able to send it to 
all of them, for they are doing more to raise -the world from barbarism 
to civilization, refinement and religion, than a thousand times their num- 
ber of princes, potentates, statesmen and kings, while they work, an<3 
work hard, self-expatriated from their native land, for nothing more than 
their food and clothing, and these of a pretty plain kind, for the most part. 



Furnace Heat Dispensed WitL 

" A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor, warming the feet delightfully, with -an oval fire-place nearly three 
feet across, with no visible blower, very litjtle dust, and absolutely no gas; 
the ashes need removing but once a year, while by the extra heat, pure 
air direct from out-doors, is eonyeyed to an upper room, without the possi- 
bility of meeting with any red-hot metallic surface, or with any corrupting 
surface whatever — it is simply pure air warmed. A Philadelphia corre- 
spondent who has used one of these low-down grates in a room eighteen 
feet square, for six years, says : ' I have never known a day that a fire 
made in the morning was not equal to the day, no matter what the temper- 
ature was outsrde.' 

" To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least one 
room in the house where there are absolutely all the advantages of a wood 
fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from the cellar, 
and not from the room itself — this open, low down, air-tight, easily regu- 
lated grate, or rather fireplace, with its large broad bed of burning coals, 
or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, will be a great desideratum. No 
one who has a wise regard for the comfort, cheerfulness, and health of a 
family of children, should be without one for a single day. One can be 
put in at any season of the year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty 
to fifty dollars, according to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes 
about the same amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out, how- 
ever, as is supposed, near one third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of 
an old-fashioned wood-fire, (the oxygen being supplied from without.) It is 
equally adapted to burning soft coal, hard coal, or wood." — HalVs Journal 
of Health, for December, 1859. 


T. S. D IX O 1ST, 



References given, -when req.-u.ired. 

Address, T. S. DIXON, 

No. 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, jPte., 

(opposite the u. s. mint,) 

Op his Agents, Messrs. MEAD & WOODWARD, 37 Park Row, New-York. 


Containing 236 Health Tracts on the following subjects, with a 
engraving of the Editor, sent post-paid for $2.50. 


Aphorisms Physiolog'L 


Antidote to Poisons, 

Acre, One. 


Burying Alive, 

Baths and Bathing. 


Bites and Burnt. 


Beauty a Medicine. 

Best Day. 


Burning to Death. 

Bilious Diarrhea. 

Balm of Gilead. 


Cold Cured. 

" Neglected. 

** Avoided. 

" Nothing but a. 

" In the Head. 

" How Taken. 

" Catching! 

Checking Perspiration. 
Child -Bearing. 
Children's Eating. 

" Feet, 

Children Corrected. 

" Dirty. 
Cute Things. 
Coffee Poisons. 
Clothing, Flannel, 
" Woolen, 

■ Changing. 

Convenient Knowledge. 
Cooking Meats. 
Cheap Bread. 
Church Ventilation, 
Diet for the Sick. 
Debt, a Death ! 



Dying Easily. 





Death Rate. 


Digestibility of Food. 

Dirty Children. 

Drugs and Druggery. 

Eyes, Care of. 

" Weak. 

" Failing. 
Erect Position. 

" Wisely. 
Eat, How to. 

Ice, Uses of. 
Inverted Toe-Nail. 
In the Mind. 
Kindness Rewarded. 
Law of Love. 
Life Wasted. ' 
Loose Bowels. 
Leaving Home. 
Logic Run Mad. 
Medicine Taking. 
Music Healthful, 
Milk, its Uses. 
Morning Prayer. 
Month Malign. 

What and when to. Mental Ailments. 

Eating Habits. 

" Great. 

" ' Curiosities of. 

" Economical, 
Elements of Food. 
Fruits, Uses of. 
Flannel Wearing. 
Follies, Fifteen. 
Fifth Avenue Sights. 
Food and Health. 

Fetid Feet. 
Food,Natritiousnessof. Pain. 

" its Elements. Peaceless. 
Greed of Gold. 
Genius, Vices of. 
Great Eaters. 
Gruels and Soups. 
Hair Wash. 
Health a Duty. 

'* Observances. 

" Essentials. 

" Theories. 
Household Knowledge 

Home, Leaving. 
Happiest, Who are. 

Mind Lost. 
Medical Science. 
Nursing Hints. 
Nervous Debilities. 
Old Age Beautiful. 
One Acre, 
One by One, 
Obscure Diseases. 
Presence of Mind. 
Private Things. 
Poisons and Antidotes. 

Parental Trainings. 
Physiological Items. 
Posture in Worship. 
Physician, Faithless. 
Popular Fallacies. 
Read and Heed. 
Restless Nights. 
Recreation, Summer 
Sitting Erectly. 
Shoes Fitting. 
Sour Stomach. 

Address " Hall's Journal of Health," No. 2 West 43d St., New-York, 
($1.50 a Year.) 

Sick Headache, 



Suppers, Hearty. 

Soldiers Remembered. 

" Cared for. 
« Health. 

* Items. 

« AIL 

Sunday Dinner* 
Sleep and Death, 
Spot the Ono. 
Summer Drinks. 
Sickness not Causeless. 
Sayre, the Banker. 
'September Malign. 
Summer Mortality. 
Soups and Gruels, 
Sick School- Girl. 
Stomach's Appeal. 

Study, Where to. 
Salt Rheum. 

Traveling Hint* 
Three Ps. 

Toe Nail, Inverted, 
Thankful Ever. 

Valuable Kuowledge. 
Vermin Riddance. 
Winter Rules. 
Warning Youth. 
Woman's Beauty. 
Worth Remembering. 
Worship, Public. 

" Posture in. 

" Without Prica. 

Weather Signs. 
Weather and Wealth. 
Warmth and Strength. 
Worth Knowing. 



Corner of Fourteenth Street and Third Avenue, N. Y. 

These instruments are made in accordance with a principle recently developed and patented by 
Horatio Worcester, which consists in the use of a divided iron plate instead of the solid one 
heretofore in vogue. The detached piece is coupled with the inner plate by means of a link at 
the base end, and is sustained in its proper position by the tension of the strings, which are 
attached to it in the usual manner. This gives to the strings a greatly increased power of vibra- 
tion, and frees the sounding-board so as to allow it to reverberate throughout its whole extent. 
The increase obtained in volume and musical quality of tone is carefully estimated to be full one 
hundred per cent, as stated upon the authority of Louis M. Gottschalk, William Mason, William 
Berge, E. Muzio, Theodore Thomas, David R. Harrison, Charles Fradel, Christian Berge , and many 
■ether distinguished artists. Attention is respectfully invited to the following opinicas of the 
improvement from leading journals : 

From the JVew-York World. 

A discovery worthy the attention of every one interested in music has been made By an old-established piano- 
forte maker, Mr. Horatio Worcester, whose warerooms and factory have for years formed a landmark on the corner 
of Fourteenth street and Third avenue. Mr. Worcester has succeeded in doubling the volume of sound belonging 
to the piano, and at the same time improving in a great degree its quality. This has been effected by merely using 
a plate made in two pieces instead of the common solid one. A portion is firmly fixed in the case in the usual 
manner, and to this the second piece is attached by means of a coupling at the base end. This coupling on one side 
and the tension of the strings on the other, hold it in its proper position, and allow it to move freely with the 
strings while they are in operation, the effect of which is to give double their former vibratory power to both the 
strings and sounding-board. The plate thus made is termed a binged-plate. A few days since Mr. G-ottschalk 
examined this novel feature and found it a worthy subject of approval, as appears by the subjoined extract from an 
autograph note of his tathe inventor, under date of the 17th instant: "I estimate the volume of tone (in the 
improved pianos) to be increased about one hundred per cent. .... Their singing quality is excellent. The 
upper part of the key-board is exceedingly brilliant, while the base is of a rich and powerful sonorousness." Other 
esteemed artists have also cordially indorsed the use of a hinged-plate. Among them are the names of William and 
Christian Berge, Charles Fradel, David R. Harrison, and William Mason. Had the Worcester improvement been 
eent to the London Exhibition, American pianos would have stood even a better chance than they do of winning 
Valuable laurels as model instruments. 

From the New-York livening Post, 
Hinged-Platb Piano-Fortes.— A piano-forte manufacturer of this city has perfected a genuine improvement in 
the method of constructing and bracing the iron plate to which the strings are attached. The iron is divided and a 
portion of it left free to yield with the vibration of the strings and sounding-board. It is thought that pianos so 
fashioned will stand in tune better than others, from the fact that the strain of the strings centers at one point only 
(the hinge,) and also because they are less liable to injury resulting from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding- 
board. The substantial character of the improvement is vouched for by many leading musicians artists and. 
critics, by whom it has been well tested at the warerooms of the inventor, Mr. H. Worcester" corner of Third avenue 
and Fourteenth street. 

From the New-Yorh Musical Review and World. 
One of our oldest-established piano-forte makers, Mr. Horatio Worcester, has just received letters patent for an 
Improvement in the construction of that favorite instrument. The advantage consists in the use of a hinged plate 
which gives to the sounding-board a freedom similar to that found in the violin. Mr. Worcester uses a plate cast 
in two pieces, one of which is fixed in the case after the usual manner, and with which the second or inner portion 
is connected by a coupling or hinge. To this second piece the strings ar* attached in the ordinary way and by 
exerting a strain in opposition to that of the hinge, the piece is held in position. The effect of this is to give increased 
power of vibration throughout the whole extent of the sounding-board. This produces a singing quality of tone 
unusually powerful and agreeable, while for general volume, durability, and richness of tone, the instruments are 
decidedly superior. As the tension of the strings centers at the hinge, instead of being felt around the entire ed°-e 
of the plute, there is a greater chance of these pianos standing longer in tune than those having a solid plate The 
strings are also relieved of considerable pressure arising from the swelling or shrinking of the sounding-board It 
is the opinion of nearly all the skilled musicians and gTtists who have compared the Hinged-Plate Pianos' with others 
of the same scale and make, that the increase in volume and beauty of sound is quite equal to fifty per cent The 
principle is certainly a correct one, and having worked in a most satisfactory manner so far a^ter ample testing 
during nearly a year past, we see no reason to doubt its efficacy as claimed bv the inventor. Being simple and 
substantial, it needs only to be known thoroughly to create for itself favor with the musical communitv Mr Wor- 
cester has received autograph testimonials from many of our most esteemed and influential resident musicians and 
critics, m 'vhich they express their entire confidence in the genuine character of the improvement. 

Complimentary notices have also appeared in the New-York Evening Express, Commercial 
Advertiser, Scientific American, Brooklyn City News, Brooklyn Weekly Standard, New-York 
Leader, Saturday Evening Courier, Dwighfs Journal of Music, and other standard journals, all 
*>f which indorse the, Worcester modification in the strongest terms. 



Broiichitis & Kin- 
dred Diseases. 


Asthma, Common 
" Perpetual 
1 Causes & Nature 
" Symptoms & Treat. 

Bronchitis, what is 
" Nature & Cause 
" Symp. & Treat. 

Brandy & Throat disease 

Clerical Health 

" Cause of 

" How diseased 
" Many cases of 

Dangerous Delays 

" Exposures 

Disease Prevented 
Debilitating Indulgences 


Frail and Feeble 
Food, Tables of 

Heart, Contents 
" Disease of 

How remain Cured 
High Livers 

Inhalation, Medicated 
inflammation described 

Lawyers, Cases of 
Lungs described 
" Contents 
Lake Shore, situation 
Life, average duration 

Mistaken Patients 
Merchants' Cases 

Nitrate of Silver 

Over FeediDg 
Oxygen Breathing 
Overtasking Brain 


Prairie Situation 


Patent Medicines 



Smoking, Bainful elects 
Shortness of Breath 
Sea Shore 
Sea Voyages 
Spitting Blood 

Eiro&t All 

« What is it 
«* Syrap*~— » 
' Causes 
u PhilosopV, 
« History 

fbbacco, effects of 

fbosil Cutting 


Fotoo Organs described 



Apjii $e, Nature's 
Arkansas Hunter 
Air and Exercise 

Bad Colds 
Brandy Drinking 

Consumption Described 
" Delusive * 
** Not painless 
M Causes of 
" Symptoms 
" Localities 
" Liabilities 
" Nature of 
" Curable 
u Commencing 
" Seeds deposited 
" Is it catching f 

/Dough, Nature of 
" Causes of 
" Effects of 

Cluster Doctrine 

Cheesy Particles 


Earliest Symptoms 
Exercise essential 

" Various forms of 

" Sinking in water 

Great Mistake 



Horseback Exercise 

Impure Air 

" Effects of 
Lacing Tight 

Night Sweats 
Nitrate of Silver 

Occupation in 
Out Door Activities 
Over Exercise 


Porter Drinking 

Respirator, Beat 

Spitting Blood 
Shori Breath 
Sea Voyages 
Sea Shore 
Safe Treatment 
Southern Climate 

Throat Ail, distinguished 
from Consump. 
" From Bronchitis 
Tickling Cough 

Health & Disease 



Anal Itching 



Apples Curative 

Bowels Regulated 

Bad Breath 

Baths and Bathing 




Binding Food 

Constitutions Restored 



Children, Health of 


Chills at Meals 


Clothing Changes 




Cooling off Slowly 

Chest Developed 

Clerical Rules 

Choosing Physicians* 

Cracked Wheat 

Corn Bread 

Drinking at 








Feet Cold 

First Things 



Horseback Exercisa 

Inverted Too Nails 

Late Dinners 

Morbid Appetite 



Pleurisy and Pneumonia 

Public Speakers 



Summer Complaint 
Spring Diseases 




Air, Deadly 

Breathing Bad 
State of 
Of Crowded 

Sea Shore 
Close Rooms 
Of Chambers 
And Thought 

Black Bole of Calcnt&l 
Bodily Emanations 
Bad Habits 
Breath of Life 

Crowding, effects of 
Convulsions, Children's 
Capacity of Lungs 
Charcoal Fumes 
Chambers, Vitiated 
Chemical Affinities 

Deadly Emanations 


Electrical Influences 
Excessive Child-bearing 
as depriving of sleey,la 

Griscom's Ventilation 
Gas Burning 

Human Effluvia 
Houses and Cottages 
House Plans 
" Warming 
" " by steam 

" " by open fire piao. 

Indulgence, over 

u Measure of 

Invisible Impurities 
Marriage a safeguard 
Nocturnal Ems 
Nursing at Night 

Pure Chambers 
Physiology Books 

" " Their bad efifeet* 
Papered Rooms 
Pernicious Instruments 
Population Control 
Ruined Youth 

Second Naps 
Sleep of Children 
Sleeping with others 
" Old with young 
" Strong with feeble 
" with Consumptives 
" with Children 
" Well 
" How learned 

Youth's Habits 
" " How remedied 
fee. Jte. 

The above books are sold at the prices annexed, If 

ordered by mail, send 10 cts. for postage. Address simply, " Dr. W. W. Hall, New- York.'* 
Hall's Journal of Health, $1.50 a year • bound vols. $1 .50 each ; 

A Comprehensive Book. 

Advantage of Pueb Am during Sleep. 

^l Effects of the Young Sleeping with the Oli>« 

Do. Well with the Sick. 

Safe Ventilation of Sick-Eooms. 

Ventilation of Buildings by G-riscom, 

Hamilton's do. and Tenement-Houses. 

Baker's Plan of Warming and Yentilation. 

Andrews & Dixon by Open Fire-places do. 

Balefulness of Small and Crowded Chambers. 

Importance of Sound, Connected, Sufficient Sleep 

How to Secure it to Nursing Mothers. 

Do. to Infants at Night. 

Sleeplessness, its Prevention and Cure. 

Importance of full Sleep -to Growing Children. 

Do. , to those at School. 

Debilities, Nervousness, etc., from this and other causes- 

€ure and Prevention of. 

Amount of Sleep needed. 

Chambers should be Light, Airy,' High, and Dry. 

Single Beds, Crowded Chambers, etc., etc. 

jy See book on " Sleep," 336 pages, 12mo, $1.60 ; by mail. By Jh. 

W. W. Hall, New- York, Editor of " Hall's Journal of Health," 

$1.50 a year. Author of "Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," "Consumption," 
* Health and Disease," each $1.60 by mail. Also of " Soldier Health," 

25 cents. 





Are sent free by mail for One Dollar a paper. 

Is sent free by mail for Five Dollars a package. 

Is sent free for Five Dollars a bottle. 


Is sent free, for One Dollar a bottle. 


For Man and Animals, is sent free, by matt, for One Dollar 
a paper. 

For the purposes named these remedies are oelieved to be infallible ; 
and that no one may be imposed on, the proprietor binds himself to re- 
turn the price paid on demand, if made within twenty days, with the re- 
turn, in good condition, of three-fourths of the article purchased. These 
parcels last from one to three months; they are not wholesaled, hence can 
only be obtained of the proprietor P. C, Godfrey, §23 Broadway 
New York. The above remedies have been used by personal friends 
for nearly a quarter of a century, and their efficacy is such, that it is 
considered a public good to offer them for sale, now, for the first time. 

New-York, Sept. 15th, 1865,